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HUMAN
RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
A QUICK REVISION FOR
NET/GSET EXAMINATIONS


Anuj Bhatia [BBA, M.Com, Ph.d (pur), UGC NET, GSET]
Shah Tuition Classes
Contact: avbhatia_anuj@yahoo.com, 9898251471
CONCEPT OF HRM
•   Human Resource- “the total knowledge, skills,
    creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an
    organization's workforce, as well as the value,
    attitude and beliefs of the individual involved”

•   Human Resource Management- “ HRM means
    employing people, developing their resources,
    utilizing, maintaining and compensating their
    services in tune with the job and organizational
    requirements with a view to contribute to the
    goals of the organisation, individual and society.”
                                                          2
FUNCTIONS OF HRM

1.   Managerial Functions
      i. Planning

      ii. Organizing

      iii. Directing

      iv. Controlling


                            3
2. Operative Functions
 1.   Employment
      1.    Job Analysis
      2.    Human Resource Planning
      3.    Recruitment
      4.    Selection
      5.    Placement
      6.    Induction and Orientation


 2.   Human Resource Development
      1.    Performance Appraisal
      2.    Training
      3.    Management Development
      4.    Career Planning and Development
      5.    Internal Mobility
      6.    Transfer
      7.    Promotion
      8.    Demotion
      9.    Retention and Retrenchment
      10.   Change and Organisational Development
                                                    4
3. Compensation
  1.   Job Evaluation
  2.   Wage and salary administration
  3.   Incentives
  4.   Bonus
  5.   Fringe benefits
  6.   Social security Measures


4. Human Relations
5. Industrial Relations




                                        5
ROLE OF HRM
 HR in the nations well-being
 Man vis-à-vis Machine

 HRM and General Management

 HR system is a central Sub-system
     Social Significance
     Professional Significance

     Significance for Individual enterprise




                                               6
7
8
ANSWER:
   (D) All Employees




                        9
10
ANS:
   (A) Development Function




                               11
12
ANS:
   (C) Procurement




                      13
14
ANSWER:
   (A) Development




                      15
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
•   HRP means deciding the number and types of
    HR required for each job, unit and the total
    company for a particular future date in order to
    carry out organizational activities.
•   Coleman defines HRP as “ the process of
    determining manpower requirements and the
    means for meeting those requirements in order to
    carry out the integrated plan of the
    organisation.”


                                                       16
BENEFITS OF HRP
•   Checks the corporate plan of the organization
•   Offsets uncertainty and change
•   Provides scope for advancement through training and
    development
•   Anticipate the cost of HR and formulation of Budgets
•   To plan for physical facilities, working conditions etc
•   Development of HR to meet organizational needs
•   To meet the HR requirements in case of high turnover
•   Needed to identify the areas of surplus personnel


                                                         17
FACTORS AFFECTING HRP
External Factors           Internal Factors
 Government policies
                            Company’s strategies
                            HR policy of the
 Economic development
                             company
  and supply of HRs
                            Formal and Informal
 Business Environment
                             Groups
 Information Technology    Job Analysis
 Levels of Technology      Time Horizons
 Natural Factors           Type and Quality of

 International Factors      Information
                            Companies production
                             and operation policy
                            Trade Unions
                                                  18
PROCESS OF HRP
1.   Deciding the objectives
2.   Estimating future organizational structure and
     manpower requirements
3.   Auditing HR
4.   Planning job requirements and job descriptions
5.   Developing a HRP




                                                      19
JOB ANALYSIS
•   JA is a procedure by which pertinent information is
    obtained about a job, i.e., it is a detailed and
    systematic study of information relating to the
    operations and responsibilities of a specific job.
•   Contents of JA:
       •   Job identification
       •   Significant characteristics of a job
       •   What the typical worker does
       •   Which equipment and materials a worker uses
       •   How a job is performed
       •   Required personnel attributes



                                                          20
JOB DESCRIPTION
•   JD describes ‘jobs’ and not ‘job holders.’
•   JD is a descriptive document
•   It contains statement of JA
•   Provides organizational and functional information.
•   It defines the scope of job activities, major
    responsibilities, and positioning of the job in the
    organisation.
•   It must provide worker and supervisor with a clear
    idea of what the work must do to meet the demands
    of the job.

                                                          21
   Contents of a JD:
     1.   Job identification or organizational position
     2.   Job summary
     3.   Job duties and responsibilities
     4.   Relation to other
     5.   Supervision
     6.   Machine, tools and equipment
     7.   Working conditions
     8.   Hazards




                                                          22
JOB SPECIFICATION
•   “what traits and experiences are required to the job
    well?”
•   JS tells what kind of person to recruit and for what
    qualities that person should be tested.
•   JS translates the JD in terms of the human
    qualifications which are required for a successful
    performance of a job.
•   These Specifications are related to:
    –   Physical characteristics
    –   Psychological characteristics
    –   Personal characterizes or traits
    –   Responsibilities
    –   Other features of Demographic nature
                                                           23
24
25
ANSWER- (A) ORGANISATIONAL
CHART




                             26
RECRUITMENT
•   Flippo – “ Recruitment is the process of searching for
    prospective employees and stimulating them to apply
    for jobs in the organisation.”
•   Objectives:
    –   To attract people with multidimensional skills and
        experiences
    –   To infuse fresh blood in the organisation
    –   To attract competent people
    –   To search for talent globally
    –   To anticipate and find people for positions that do not exists



                                                                   27
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
TRADITIONAL SOURCES
        Internal                       External
 Present employees         •   Campus recruitment
 Retrenched or Retired     •   Private Employment
  employees                     Agencies/ Consultants
 Dependents of Deceased,
                            •   Public employment
                                exchange
  Disabled, Retired and
  present employees
                            •   Professional associations
                            •   Data Banks
                            •   Casual Applicants
                            •   Similar Org./Competitors
                            •   Trade Unions
                                                       28
MODERN SOURCES
        Internal               External
   Employee Referrals    Walk-in
                          Consult in

                          Head Hunting

                          Body Shopping

                         M & A

                          Tele- Recruitment

                          Outsourcing


                                               29
FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT
    Internal Factors                External Factors
•   Companies pay packages    •   Socio-economic Factors
•   Quality of work life      •   Supply and Demand
•   Organization culture          Factors
•   Career planning and       •   Employment rate
    Growth
•   Company’s size
                              •   Labour Market Conditions
•   Companies Products/       •   Political, Legal and Govt.
    Services                      Factors
•   Location                  •   Information System like
•   Companies Growth Rate         Employment Exchanges/
•   Role of Trade Union           Tele-Recruitment like
•   Cost of Recruitment           internet
•   Companies name and fame                                    30
SELECTION

 The function of selecting the right employees at
  right time
 To choose the individual who can most
  successfully perform the job from the pool of
  qualified candidates.
 JA, HRP and Recruitment are necessary
  prerequisites of selection.




                                                     31
PROCESS OF SELECTION
1.    Job Analysis
2.    Recruitment
3.    Application Blank
4.    Written Examination
5.    Preliminary Interview
6.    Business Games
7.    Tests
8.    Final Interview
9.    Medical Examination
10.   Reference Checks
11.   Line Managers Decisions
12.   Job offer
13.   Employment                32
TYPES OF TESTS
•   Aptitude Test
    –   Intelligence test
    –   Emotional Quotient
    –   Skill Tests
    –   Mechanical aptitude
    –   Psychomotor test
    –   Clerical Aptitude Test
•   Achievement Test
    – Job Knowledge Test
    – Work Sample Test




                                 33
•   Situational Tests
    – Group Discussion
    – In Basket
•   Interest Test
•   Personality Test
    – Objective test
    – Projective test
•   Other Tests
    –   Cognitive Ability Test
    –   Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
    –   Wonderlic Personal Tests
    –   Polygraph Tests
    –   Honesty Tests
                                            34
INDUCTION
•   Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming
    the employee when he firsts joins the company and
    giving him basic information he needs to settle down
    quickly and happily and start work.
•   Lecture, Handbook, film , group seminar, are used to
    impart information to the new employees about the
    environment of the job and the organisation in order to
    make the new employee acquaint himself with the
    following heads:
    – About the Company
    – About the Department
    – About the superiors and subordinates
                                                         35
36
37
   Answer – (c) Reduction of workforce




                                          38
39
ANSWER- (A) - (IV), (II),(I),(III)




                                     40
41
ANSWER- (A) ELIMINATION




                          42
43
ANSWER- (B) APPLICATION BLANK




                                44
45
ANSWER- (B) EMPLOYEE
ORIENTATION




                       46
47
ANSWER- (D) INTRODUCTION




                           48
49
ANSWER – (B) ORIENTATION




                           50
TRAINING
•   After Selection and Induction, training must be
    provided to adjust to the job
•   It is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an
    employee for doing a particular job.
•   It is an organised procedure by which people learn
    knowledge and/ or skill for a definite purpose.
•   Training refers to teaching and learning activities
    carried o the primary purpose of helping members of
    an organisation to acquire and apply the knowledge,
    skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular
    job or organisation.

                                                           51
TRAINING METHODS
On-the-job Methods   Off-the-job Methods

 Job rotation        Vestibule Training
 Coaching            Role Playing

 Job instruction     Lecture Methods

 Training through    Conference or
  step-by-step         Discussion
 Committee           Programmed
  assignments          instruction
 Internships

                                            52
ADVANTAGES OF TRAINING
 Increased Productivity
 Heightened Morale

 Reduced Supervision

 Reduced Accidents

 Increased Organisational Stability




                                       53
MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
 Systematic process of growth and development
  by which the managers develop their abilities to
  manage.
 Concerned with improving the performance of
  managers by giving them opportunities of growth
  and development, which in turn depends on
  organisation structure of the company.




                                                     54
METHODS OF MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
                                     Off-the-job
On-the job techniques                techniques
   Coaching                 The Case study
   Job Rotation             Incident Method
   Under Study
                             Role Playing
   Multiple Management
                             In Basket method
                             Business game
                             Sensitivity training
                             Simulation
                             Grid training
                             Conferences
                             Lectures
                             Behaviour Modeling     55
56
57
ANSWER (C) I CORRECT, II
INCORRECT




                           58
59
ANSWER (A) 1,2,3




                   60
61
ANSWER (C) VESTIBULE




                       62
SUCCESSION PLANNING
  SP is to identify, develop and make the people
   ready to occupy higher level jobs as and when
   they fall vacant.
  Succession mat be from internal or external
   employees.
  Organizations appraise employee potentialities,
   identify training gaps for future vacancies,
   develop them for higher and varied jobs.
  The Scope of succession plan would be more
   when the organizations grow steadily and
   employees have potentialities to take up higher
   responsibilities.                              63
64
65
ANSWER (A) SUCCESSION
PLANNING




                        66
WAGE AND SALARY
ADMINISTRATION
 Wage-  the remuneration paid by the employer
  for the services of hourly, daily, weekly and
  fortnightly employees.
 Salary- The term salary is defined as the
  remuneration paid to the clerical and
  managerial personnel employed on the
  monthly or annual basis.
 Incentive wage- the amount of remuneration
  paid to a worker over and above the normal
  wage as an incentive for employees
  contribution to the increased production or
  savings in time or material.
                                             67
OBJECTIVES OF WAGES AND SALARY
ADMINISTRATION
 To acquire qualified competent personnel
 To retain the present employees

 To secure internal and external equity

 To ensure desired behaviour

 To keep labour and administration cost at
  minimum
 To facilitate pay roll

 To simplify collective bargaining

 To promote organisation
                                              68
FACTORS AFFECTING
WAGES/SALARY LEVEL
 Remuneration in comparable industries
 Firms ability to pay

 Cost of Living

 Productivity

 Union Pressure and Strategies

 Government Legislations




                                          69
TYPE OF WAGES
   Time Wage- workers are paid according to the
    work done during a certain period of time, at the
    rate of so much per hour, per day, per week, per
    month or any fixed period of time.

   Piece Wage- Workers are paid according to the
    amount of work done or the numbers of units
    completed, the rate of each unit being settled in
    advance, irrespective of the time taken to do the
    task.

   Balanced or Debt Method- Combination of time
    and piece method.                                   70
INCENTIVES
 Incentive scheme is a plan or programe to motivate
  individual and group performance.
 It can be monetary as well as non-monetary

 Factors Affecting Incentives are:
     The individual and the incentives
     The work situation
   It Increacses the motivation in a person




                                                       71
FRINGE BENEFITS
   Also known as:
        Welfare Expenses
        Wage Supplements

        Subwages

        Social Charges

        Perquisites other than wages

        Transparency Incentives

        Extra Wages

        Hidden Pay roll

        Non-Wage Labour Costs




                                        72
   Meaning-
     Supplements   to wages received by workers at a cost to
      employers.
     The term encompasses a number of benefits- paid
      vacations, pension, health and insurance plans etc.
   Cockman – “those benefits which are supplied by an
    employer to or for the benefits of an employee, and
    which are not in the form of wages, salaries and time-
    rated payments.”




                                                                73
   Features
     In  addition to wage and salary
     To stimulate their work and increase productivity
     Fringe benefits represents a labour cost for employer, it is
      an expenditure which he incurs on supplementing the
      average money rates due to his employees.
     It is never a direct reward geared to the output, effort or
      merit of an employee.
     It should be intended by an employer as a benefit desired
      by his staff.




                                                                     74
75
76
ANSWER
(C) I CORRECT, II INCORRECT




                              77
MORALE
 A state of mind of a willingness to work which in
  turn affects individuals and organizational
  objectives.
 Importance:
     Sound  superior-subordinate relations
     High employee satisfaction
     Reduce employee grievances
     Avoidance of Industrial Disputes
     Build teams and maximize contribution



                                                      78
   Morale results in:
     High commitment
     Low turnover
     Increase in disciplene
     Reduction in conflicts
     Increase in employee pride
     Team building
     Employee empowerment
     Easy implementation of ERP




                                   79
MEASUREMENT OF MORALE
 Observations
 Attitude surveys
       Interview method
       Questionnaire method


   Company records and Reports




                                  80
IMPROVING MORALE
 It is essential to change the policy or to correct it
  immediately.
 Misconceptions should be removed, and the
  correct position should be explained to the
  employees.
 A reasonable attempt should be made to educate
  and convince the employees.




                                                          81
82
83
ANSWER (A) PRODUCTIVITY




                          84
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
 PA   is the process of evaluating the
 performance of a job in terms of its
 requirements.

 Process  of judging the value, excellence,
 qualities or status of some object, person or a
 thing.

 Process of evaluating the performance of an
 employee ad communicating the results of the
 evaluation to him for the purpose of rewarding
 or developing the employee.
                                              85
OBJECTIVES OF PA
 Setting targets and goals as performance
  standards.
 Evaluating employee performance.

 Identifying training and development needs.

 Rewarding performance.

 Improving performance.




                                                86
PROCESS OF PA
 Establish performance standards
 Communicate performance expectations to
  employees
 Measure actual performance

 Compare actual performance with standards

 Discuss the appraisal with the employee

 If necessary, initiate corrective action




                                              87
METHODS OF PA
Traditional Methods           Modern Methods
 Ranking Method           Assessment Centre
 Paired Comparison        MBO
 Grading
                           BARS
 Graphic rating Method
                           Human Resource
 Forced choice Method
                            Accounting Method
 Forced Distribution
                           360 Degree Appraisal
  Method
 Check lists
 Essay Method
 Critical Incidents
 Field Review Method
                                                   88
 Group Appraisal
89
90
ANSWER (A) 360 DEGREE
APPRAISAL




                        91
92
ANSWER (D) PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS




                         93
94
ANSWER (C) MANAGEMENT BY
OBJECTIVES




                           95
96
ANSWER (A) 360 DEGREE
APPRAISAL




                        97
98
ANSWER (C) MBO




                 99
100
ANSWER (A) PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL




                         101
102
ANSWER (D) I, II, III, IV




                            103
JOB EVALUATION
 JE  is an attempt to determine and compare
  demands which the normal performance of a
  particular job makes on normal workers
  without taking into account the individual
  abilities or performance of the workers
  concerned.
 It is   a process of determining the relative
  worth of jobs, ranking and grading them by
  compounding the duties, responsibilities,
  requirements like skill, knowledge of a job
  with other jobs with a view to fix compensation
  payable to the concerned job holder
                                               104
OBJECTIVES OF JE
 To gather data and information relating to JD and
  JS.
 To compare the duties, responsibilities and demands
  of a job with that of other jobs.
 To determine hierarchy and place of various jobs in a
  organisation
 To determine ranks or grades of various jobs

 To ensure Fair and Equitable wages

 To minimize discrimination


                                                     105
PROCESS OF JE

1.   Analyze and Prepare JD
2.   Select and prepare a JE plan
3.   Classify jobs
4.   Install the Programme
5.   Maintain the Programme




                                    106
107
108
   Answer – (B) which are most important for
    survival of organisation




                                                109
110
ANSWER (C) WAGE FIXATION




                           111
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
 IR is used to denote the collective relationship between
  management, employees and Government in any form
  of industrial or non-industrial organisation.
 IR deals with either the relationship between the state
  and employers and workers of organization or the
  relationship between the occupational organizations
  themselves.




                                                       112
SIGNIFICANCE OF IR
 To help in economic progress of a country
 Establising and maintaining true industrial
  democracy
 Formulation of informed laboyr relations policies

 Encourage collective bargaining

 Help govt. in making laws

 Boost Discipline and Morale of workers




                                                      113
CONDITIONS FOR GOOD IR
1.    History of IR
2.    Economic satisfaction of workers
3.    Social and Psychological satisfaction of workers
4.    Off-the-job conditions of workers
5.    Role of Labour Unions
6.    Negotiating skills and attitude of mgt. and workers
7.    Public policy and legislation
8.    Eduaction of workers
9.    Natue of industry and business cycles
10.   Systematic data base
                                                        114
CAUSES OF POOR IR
 Uninteresting nature of Work
 Political nature of Unions

 Poor Wages

 Occupational instability

 Poor behaviour climate




                                 115
EFFECTS OF POOR IR
 Multiplier Effect (losses)
 Fall in normal tempo

 Resistance to Change

 Frustration and Social Cost




                                116
SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE IR
 Both  mgt. and unions should develop
  constructive attitudes towards each other
 All basic policies and procedures relating to IR
  should be clear to everybody in the org. and
  union leaders.
 The HR manager should remove distrust by
  convicing the unions
 The HR manager should not vie with the union
  to gain workers loyalty.
 Mgt. should encourage the right kind of Union
  leadership
 Agreement should be properly Administered.
                                                 117
INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES
   According to Sec. 2(k) of the Industrial Dispute
    Act, an ID means any dispute or difference
    between employers and employers, or between
    employers and workman, or between workman
    and workman, which is connected with the
    employment or non-employment of the terms of
    employment or with the conditions of labour, of
    any person.




                                                       118
FORMS OF DISPUTES
   Strike
     Stay-in strike, sit-down strike, pen-down strike or tool
      down strike
     Go slow
     Hunger Strike
     Lightening/Wild Cat Strike
     Work-to-rule
 Lock out
 Gherao




                                                                 119
METHOD FOR PREVENTION OF ID
 Collective Bargaining
 Code of Discipline

 Arbitration

 Permanent Negotiating Machinery and Joint
  Consultative Machinery
 Tripartite Bodies




                                              120
TRADE UNIONS
 A TU means an association of workers in in one or
  more occupations- an association carried on mainly for
  the purpose of protecting and advancing the members
  economic interest in connection with daily work.
 TU is an association of employees designed primarily
  to maintain or improve the condition of employment of
  its members.




                                                     121
NEED FOR TU
 To oppose mgt.
 To participate in union activities

 To excersise leadership

 To fall in line with others

 To get employment




                                       122
OBJECTIVES OF TU
 To defend or improve the wages or working conditions
  of workers and to bring a change in economic order
 To overthrow capitalism and to bring about a
  revolutionary and fundamental change in political
  order.
 To   replace managerial dictatorship by workers
  democracy and to bring about a change in the social
  order.




                                                   123
124
ANSWER – ELTON MAYO




                      125
EMPLOYEES HEALTH AND SAFETY
   Industrial Accidents
     An Occurrence which interrupts or interferes with the
      orderly progress of work in an industrial establishment
     Factories Act, 1948 defines it as “an occurrence in an
      industrial establishment causing bodily injury to a person
      which makes him unfit to resume his duties in the next 48
      hours.”




                                                               126
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
1.   Unsafe Conditions/ Work Related Causes
      1.    Improperly guarded equipment
      2.    Defective equipment
      3.    Hazardous arrangement or procedure in and or around,
            machines or equipment.
      4.    Unsafe storage, congestion, overloading.
      5.    Inadequate safety devices
      6.    Faulty lay-out, bad location
      7.    Insufficient light
      8.    Improper ventilation
      9.    Other work related Causes:
           1.   The Job Itself
           2.   Work schedules, accidents increase late in the day
           3.   Psychological climate of work place
                                                                     127
   Unsafe Acts
     Operating  without authority
     No warning of possible danger
     No safe attire or protective equipment
     Throwing materials on floor carelessly
     Operating or working at unsafe levels of speed
     Making safety devices inoperative
     Using unsafe equipments
     Using equipments unsafely
     Lifting improperly
     Taking unsafe positions




                                                       128
   Other Causes
       Unsafe situation
       Unsafe climatic conditionsbad working conditions

       Rough and slippery floors

       Excessive glares

       Heat

       Humidity

       Dust and Fume laden environment

       Long working hours

       Unsatisfactory behaviour of supervisors




                                                            129
EMPLOYEE SAFETY
 Every org. should have a safety policy
 Safety policy depends upon:
     Size of the company
     The number of plants it operates
     Nature of industry
     Production technology
     Attitude of top management

   After formulating policy, a company should establish a
    safety programme, to reduce the number of hazardous
    factors which are likely to cause accidents, and to
    develop safe working habits among its employees.

                                                        130
SAFETY COMMITTEE
 Appraisal of employee attitude to safety programmes.
 Safety engineering
           The adoption of proper engineering procedures to minimize
           and, if possible, eliminate work hazards is fundamental to any
           organised safety programme.
   Safety education and training




                                                                      131
SAFETY OF WORKERS
PROVISIONS OF FACTORIES ACT
 Fencing of Machinery
 Work on or near machinery in motion

 Employment of young near danger machines

 Device for cutting off power

 Hoists and lifts

 Proper construction and maintenance of floors
  and stairs
 No excessive weights

 Suitable precautions against excessive light

 Safety of building and Machinery
                                                  132
 Appointment of Safety officers
INDUSTRIAL HEALTH
   Health- a state of complete physical, mental, and social
    well-being and not merely the absence of disease or
    infirmity.
   Industrial Health- a system of public health and preventive
    medicine which is applicable to industrial concerns.
   According to ILO/WHO: Industrial Health means:
        1.   The prevention and maintenance of physical, mental and
             social well-being of workers in all occupations.
        2.   Prevention among workers of ill health caused by the
             working conditions
        3.   Protection of workers in their employment from risks
             resulting from factors adverse to health
        4.   Placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational
             environment adapted to his physical and psychological
             equipment.
                                                                      133
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
 According to Ronald Blake, the normal occupational
  health hazards may be classified into chemical,
  biological, environmental and psychological hazards.
 Chemical substances cause injury when they are
  absorbed by the skin or when they are ingested and
  inhaled.
 Gases, fumes and dust inhaled by workers causes
  serious injury or death.




                                                         134
 Among the biological hazards are included diseases
  which are caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, insects,
  dietary deficiencies, imbalances, allergies, brain fever,
  emotional stress and psychological concomitants of
  fear, rage, worry and anxiety.
 Environmental hazards may be included radiation,
  noise, vibration, shocks and improper atmospheric
  conditions.
 Other Hazards caused due to-
     Noise,   Vibration, Shocks, Atmospheric Conditions etc.




                                                                135
HEALTH OF WORKERS
PROVISIONS OF FACTORIES ACT,
1948
1.    Cleanliness
2.    Disposal of wastes and effluents
3.    Ventilation and temperature
4.    Dust and Fume
5.    Artificial Humidification
6.    Overcrowding
7.    Lighting
8.    Drinking water
9.    Latrines and Urinals
10.   Spittoons                          136
137
138
ANSWER (B)




             139
LABOUR WELFARE
 Oxford  Dictionary- “efforts to make life worth
  living for women.”
 Objectives-
     To give expression to philanthropic and paternalistic
      feelings.
     Win employees loyalty and increase morale.

     To combat trade unionism and socialist ideas.

     Reduce turnover and absenteeism

     Increase efficiency and productivity

     Earn goodwill and enhance public image

     Reduce govt. intervention

     Make recruitment more effective.
                                                              140
PRINCIPLES OF LABOUR
WELFARE SERVICES
 The Service should satisfy the real need of workers
 The Services should be such as can be handled best by
  group approach
 The employer should not assume a benevolent posture

 The cost of services should be calculable

 Periodic evaluation of services, timely improvement
  and feedback




                                                     141
SAFETY SERVICES
   Components of Safety Service:
        Appointment of Safety officer
        Support by line mgt.

        Elimination of Hazards

           Job safety analysis, Placement

           Personal protective equipment

           Safeguarding machinery

           Materials handling, Hand tools

           Maintenance, Layout and Design

           Housekeeping

        Safety training, education and publicity

        Safety inspections

        Periodic Safety audits




                                                    142
SOCIAL SECURITY
   According to the Social Security Conventions adopted
    by ILO in 1952 following are the Nine Components of
    Social Security
     1.   Medical Care
     2.   Sickness Benefit
     3.   Unemployment Benefit
     4.   Old-age Benefit
     5.   Employment injury Benefit
     6.   Family Benefit
     7.   Maternity Benefit
     8.   Invalidity Benefit
     9.   Survivor’s Benefit

                                                       143
SOCIAL SECURITY IN INDIA
 The Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923
 The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948

 The Employees Provident Fund and
  Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952
 The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

 The Payment og Gratuity Act, 1972

 The Industrial Dispute Act, 1947




                                            144
WORKERS’ PARTICIPATION IN
MANAGEMENT
 WPM is a mental and emotional involvement of a
  person in a group situation which encourages
  him to contribute to goals and share
  responsibilities in them.
 It is Institutional and formal arrangements
  resulting into creation of various participative
  forums to associate worker representative with
  mgt.



                                                     145
OBJECTIVES OF WPM
 Increased productivity and efficiency
 Better understanding to employees about their
  role
 Satisfy workers social and esteem needs

 Maintain industrial peace and harmony

 Tapping latent resources

 Develop self management in industry

 Build most dynamic HRs

 Build nation through Entrepreneurship and
  Economic Development                       146
FACTORS INFLUENCING WPM
 The subject matter of participation
 The level of participation

 The personal characteristics of the individuals
  who are asked to participate in the Decision-
  making
 The extent of participation




                                                    147
FORMS OF WPM
 Works Committee
 Joint Management Council

 Joint Councils

 Shop Councils




                             148
OBSTACLES IN WPM
 Conflict between employees and Management
 Belief that workers are inferior to mgt.

 Fact that system is management dominated

 Managers are averse to share responsibility




                                                149
150
151
ANSWER (B) MOTIVATION BY
PARTICIPATION




                           152
153
154
ANSWER (D) III, IV, II, I




                            155
156
ANSWER (A) II, IV, I , III




                             157
158
ANSWER (C)
TERMINATION/RESIGNATION




                          159
160
ANSWER (D) ATTITUDE




                      161
162
ANSWER (A) OUTPUT IS GREATER
THAN INPUT




                               163
164

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Human resource management

  • 1. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT A QUICK REVISION FOR NET/GSET EXAMINATIONS Anuj Bhatia [BBA, M.Com, Ph.d (pur), UGC NET, GSET] Shah Tuition Classes Contact: avbhatia_anuj@yahoo.com, 9898251471
  • 2. CONCEPT OF HRM • Human Resource- “the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization's workforce, as well as the value, attitude and beliefs of the individual involved” • Human Resource Management- “ HRM means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements with a view to contribute to the goals of the organisation, individual and society.” 2
  • 3. FUNCTIONS OF HRM 1. Managerial Functions i. Planning ii. Organizing iii. Directing iv. Controlling 3
  • 4. 2. Operative Functions 1. Employment 1. Job Analysis 2. Human Resource Planning 3. Recruitment 4. Selection 5. Placement 6. Induction and Orientation 2. Human Resource Development 1. Performance Appraisal 2. Training 3. Management Development 4. Career Planning and Development 5. Internal Mobility 6. Transfer 7. Promotion 8. Demotion 9. Retention and Retrenchment 10. Change and Organisational Development 4
  • 5. 3. Compensation 1. Job Evaluation 2. Wage and salary administration 3. Incentives 4. Bonus 5. Fringe benefits 6. Social security Measures 4. Human Relations 5. Industrial Relations 5
  • 6. ROLE OF HRM  HR in the nations well-being  Man vis-à-vis Machine  HRM and General Management  HR system is a central Sub-system  Social Significance  Professional Significance  Significance for Individual enterprise 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. ANSWER:  (D) All Employees 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. ANS:  (A) Development Function 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. ANS:  (C) Procurement 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. ANSWER:  (A) Development 15
  • 16. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING • HRP means deciding the number and types of HR required for each job, unit and the total company for a particular future date in order to carry out organizational activities. • Coleman defines HRP as “ the process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organisation.” 16
  • 17. BENEFITS OF HRP • Checks the corporate plan of the organization • Offsets uncertainty and change • Provides scope for advancement through training and development • Anticipate the cost of HR and formulation of Budgets • To plan for physical facilities, working conditions etc • Development of HR to meet organizational needs • To meet the HR requirements in case of high turnover • Needed to identify the areas of surplus personnel 17
  • 18. FACTORS AFFECTING HRP External Factors Internal Factors  Government policies  Company’s strategies  HR policy of the  Economic development company and supply of HRs  Formal and Informal  Business Environment Groups  Information Technology  Job Analysis  Levels of Technology  Time Horizons  Natural Factors  Type and Quality of  International Factors Information  Companies production and operation policy  Trade Unions 18
  • 19. PROCESS OF HRP 1. Deciding the objectives 2. Estimating future organizational structure and manpower requirements 3. Auditing HR 4. Planning job requirements and job descriptions 5. Developing a HRP 19
  • 20. JOB ANALYSIS • JA is a procedure by which pertinent information is obtained about a job, i.e., it is a detailed and systematic study of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. • Contents of JA: • Job identification • Significant characteristics of a job • What the typical worker does • Which equipment and materials a worker uses • How a job is performed • Required personnel attributes 20
  • 21. JOB DESCRIPTION • JD describes ‘jobs’ and not ‘job holders.’ • JD is a descriptive document • It contains statement of JA • Provides organizational and functional information. • It defines the scope of job activities, major responsibilities, and positioning of the job in the organisation. • It must provide worker and supervisor with a clear idea of what the work must do to meet the demands of the job. 21
  • 22. Contents of a JD: 1. Job identification or organizational position 2. Job summary 3. Job duties and responsibilities 4. Relation to other 5. Supervision 6. Machine, tools and equipment 7. Working conditions 8. Hazards 22
  • 23. JOB SPECIFICATION • “what traits and experiences are required to the job well?” • JS tells what kind of person to recruit and for what qualities that person should be tested. • JS translates the JD in terms of the human qualifications which are required for a successful performance of a job. • These Specifications are related to: – Physical characteristics – Psychological characteristics – Personal characterizes or traits – Responsibilities – Other features of Demographic nature 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 27. RECRUITMENT • Flippo – “ Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation.” • Objectives: – To attract people with multidimensional skills and experiences – To infuse fresh blood in the organisation – To attract competent people – To search for talent globally – To anticipate and find people for positions that do not exists 27
  • 28. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT TRADITIONAL SOURCES Internal External  Present employees • Campus recruitment  Retrenched or Retired • Private Employment employees Agencies/ Consultants  Dependents of Deceased, • Public employment exchange Disabled, Retired and present employees • Professional associations • Data Banks • Casual Applicants • Similar Org./Competitors • Trade Unions 28
  • 29. MODERN SOURCES Internal External  Employee Referrals  Walk-in  Consult in  Head Hunting  Body Shopping M & A  Tele- Recruitment  Outsourcing 29
  • 30. FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT Internal Factors External Factors • Companies pay packages • Socio-economic Factors • Quality of work life • Supply and Demand • Organization culture Factors • Career planning and • Employment rate Growth • Company’s size • Labour Market Conditions • Companies Products/ • Political, Legal and Govt. Services Factors • Location • Information System like • Companies Growth Rate Employment Exchanges/ • Role of Trade Union Tele-Recruitment like • Cost of Recruitment internet • Companies name and fame 30
  • 31. SELECTION  The function of selecting the right employees at right time  To choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates.  JA, HRP and Recruitment are necessary prerequisites of selection. 31
  • 32. PROCESS OF SELECTION 1. Job Analysis 2. Recruitment 3. Application Blank 4. Written Examination 5. Preliminary Interview 6. Business Games 7. Tests 8. Final Interview 9. Medical Examination 10. Reference Checks 11. Line Managers Decisions 12. Job offer 13. Employment 32
  • 33. TYPES OF TESTS • Aptitude Test – Intelligence test – Emotional Quotient – Skill Tests – Mechanical aptitude – Psychomotor test – Clerical Aptitude Test • Achievement Test – Job Knowledge Test – Work Sample Test 33
  • 34. Situational Tests – Group Discussion – In Basket • Interest Test • Personality Test – Objective test – Projective test • Other Tests – Cognitive Ability Test – Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Wonderlic Personal Tests – Polygraph Tests – Honesty Tests 34
  • 35. INDUCTION • Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming the employee when he firsts joins the company and giving him basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work. • Lecture, Handbook, film , group seminar, are used to impart information to the new employees about the environment of the job and the organisation in order to make the new employee acquaint himself with the following heads: – About the Company – About the Department – About the superiors and subordinates 35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. 37
  • 38. Answer – (c) Reduction of workforce 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. ANSWER- (A) - (IV), (II),(I),(III) 40
  • 41. 41
  • 43. 43
  • 45. 45
  • 47. 47
  • 49. 49
  • 50. ANSWER – (B) ORIENTATION 50
  • 51. TRAINING • After Selection and Induction, training must be provided to adjust to the job • It is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. • It is an organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and/ or skill for a definite purpose. • Training refers to teaching and learning activities carried o the primary purpose of helping members of an organisation to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job or organisation. 51
  • 52. TRAINING METHODS On-the-job Methods Off-the-job Methods  Job rotation  Vestibule Training  Coaching  Role Playing  Job instruction  Lecture Methods  Training through  Conference or step-by-step Discussion  Committee  Programmed assignments instruction  Internships 52
  • 53. ADVANTAGES OF TRAINING  Increased Productivity  Heightened Morale  Reduced Supervision  Reduced Accidents  Increased Organisational Stability 53
  • 54. MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT  Systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage.  Concerned with improving the performance of managers by giving them opportunities of growth and development, which in turn depends on organisation structure of the company. 54
  • 55. METHODS OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT Off-the-job On-the job techniques techniques  Coaching  The Case study  Job Rotation  Incident Method  Under Study  Role Playing  Multiple Management  In Basket method  Business game  Sensitivity training  Simulation  Grid training  Conferences  Lectures  Behaviour Modeling 55
  • 56. 56
  • 57. 57
  • 58. ANSWER (C) I CORRECT, II INCORRECT 58
  • 59. 59
  • 61. 61
  • 63. SUCCESSION PLANNING  SP is to identify, develop and make the people ready to occupy higher level jobs as and when they fall vacant.  Succession mat be from internal or external employees.  Organizations appraise employee potentialities, identify training gaps for future vacancies, develop them for higher and varied jobs.  The Scope of succession plan would be more when the organizations grow steadily and employees have potentialities to take up higher responsibilities. 63
  • 64. 64
  • 65. 65
  • 67. WAGE AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION  Wage- the remuneration paid by the employer for the services of hourly, daily, weekly and fortnightly employees.  Salary- The term salary is defined as the remuneration paid to the clerical and managerial personnel employed on the monthly or annual basis.  Incentive wage- the amount of remuneration paid to a worker over and above the normal wage as an incentive for employees contribution to the increased production or savings in time or material. 67
  • 68. OBJECTIVES OF WAGES AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION  To acquire qualified competent personnel  To retain the present employees  To secure internal and external equity  To ensure desired behaviour  To keep labour and administration cost at minimum  To facilitate pay roll  To simplify collective bargaining  To promote organisation 68
  • 69. FACTORS AFFECTING WAGES/SALARY LEVEL  Remuneration in comparable industries  Firms ability to pay  Cost of Living  Productivity  Union Pressure and Strategies  Government Legislations 69
  • 70. TYPE OF WAGES  Time Wage- workers are paid according to the work done during a certain period of time, at the rate of so much per hour, per day, per week, per month or any fixed period of time.  Piece Wage- Workers are paid according to the amount of work done or the numbers of units completed, the rate of each unit being settled in advance, irrespective of the time taken to do the task.  Balanced or Debt Method- Combination of time and piece method. 70
  • 71. INCENTIVES  Incentive scheme is a plan or programe to motivate individual and group performance.  It can be monetary as well as non-monetary  Factors Affecting Incentives are:  The individual and the incentives  The work situation  It Increacses the motivation in a person 71
  • 72. FRINGE BENEFITS  Also known as:  Welfare Expenses  Wage Supplements  Subwages  Social Charges  Perquisites other than wages  Transparency Incentives  Extra Wages  Hidden Pay roll  Non-Wage Labour Costs 72
  • 73. Meaning-  Supplements to wages received by workers at a cost to employers.  The term encompasses a number of benefits- paid vacations, pension, health and insurance plans etc.  Cockman – “those benefits which are supplied by an employer to or for the benefits of an employee, and which are not in the form of wages, salaries and time- rated payments.” 73
  • 74. Features  In addition to wage and salary  To stimulate their work and increase productivity  Fringe benefits represents a labour cost for employer, it is an expenditure which he incurs on supplementing the average money rates due to his employees.  It is never a direct reward geared to the output, effort or merit of an employee.  It should be intended by an employer as a benefit desired by his staff. 74
  • 75. 75
  • 76. 76
  • 77. ANSWER (C) I CORRECT, II INCORRECT 77
  • 78. MORALE  A state of mind of a willingness to work which in turn affects individuals and organizational objectives.  Importance:  Sound superior-subordinate relations  High employee satisfaction  Reduce employee grievances  Avoidance of Industrial Disputes  Build teams and maximize contribution 78
  • 79. Morale results in:  High commitment  Low turnover  Increase in disciplene  Reduction in conflicts  Increase in employee pride  Team building  Employee empowerment  Easy implementation of ERP 79
  • 80. MEASUREMENT OF MORALE  Observations  Attitude surveys  Interview method  Questionnaire method  Company records and Reports 80
  • 81. IMPROVING MORALE  It is essential to change the policy or to correct it immediately.  Misconceptions should be removed, and the correct position should be explained to the employees.  A reasonable attempt should be made to educate and convince the employees. 81
  • 82. 82
  • 83. 83
  • 85. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL  PA is the process of evaluating the performance of a job in terms of its requirements.  Process of judging the value, excellence, qualities or status of some object, person or a thing.  Process of evaluating the performance of an employee ad communicating the results of the evaluation to him for the purpose of rewarding or developing the employee. 85
  • 86. OBJECTIVES OF PA  Setting targets and goals as performance standards.  Evaluating employee performance.  Identifying training and development needs.  Rewarding performance.  Improving performance. 86
  • 87. PROCESS OF PA  Establish performance standards  Communicate performance expectations to employees  Measure actual performance  Compare actual performance with standards  Discuss the appraisal with the employee  If necessary, initiate corrective action 87
  • 88. METHODS OF PA Traditional Methods Modern Methods  Ranking Method  Assessment Centre  Paired Comparison  MBO  Grading  BARS  Graphic rating Method  Human Resource  Forced choice Method Accounting Method  Forced Distribution  360 Degree Appraisal Method  Check lists  Essay Method  Critical Incidents  Field Review Method 88  Group Appraisal
  • 89. 89
  • 90. 90
  • 91. ANSWER (A) 360 DEGREE APPRAISAL 91
  • 92. 92
  • 94. 94
  • 95. ANSWER (C) MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES 95
  • 96. 96
  • 97. ANSWER (A) 360 DEGREE APPRAISAL 97
  • 98. 98
  • 100. 100
  • 102. 102
  • 103. ANSWER (D) I, II, III, IV 103
  • 104. JOB EVALUATION  JE is an attempt to determine and compare demands which the normal performance of a particular job makes on normal workers without taking into account the individual abilities or performance of the workers concerned.  It is a process of determining the relative worth of jobs, ranking and grading them by compounding the duties, responsibilities, requirements like skill, knowledge of a job with other jobs with a view to fix compensation payable to the concerned job holder 104
  • 105. OBJECTIVES OF JE  To gather data and information relating to JD and JS.  To compare the duties, responsibilities and demands of a job with that of other jobs.  To determine hierarchy and place of various jobs in a organisation  To determine ranks or grades of various jobs  To ensure Fair and Equitable wages  To minimize discrimination 105
  • 106. PROCESS OF JE 1. Analyze and Prepare JD 2. Select and prepare a JE plan 3. Classify jobs 4. Install the Programme 5. Maintain the Programme 106
  • 107. 107
  • 108. 108
  • 109. Answer – (B) which are most important for survival of organisation 109
  • 110. 110
  • 111. ANSWER (C) WAGE FIXATION 111
  • 112. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS  IR is used to denote the collective relationship between management, employees and Government in any form of industrial or non-industrial organisation.  IR deals with either the relationship between the state and employers and workers of organization or the relationship between the occupational organizations themselves. 112
  • 113. SIGNIFICANCE OF IR  To help in economic progress of a country  Establising and maintaining true industrial democracy  Formulation of informed laboyr relations policies  Encourage collective bargaining  Help govt. in making laws  Boost Discipline and Morale of workers 113
  • 114. CONDITIONS FOR GOOD IR 1. History of IR 2. Economic satisfaction of workers 3. Social and Psychological satisfaction of workers 4. Off-the-job conditions of workers 5. Role of Labour Unions 6. Negotiating skills and attitude of mgt. and workers 7. Public policy and legislation 8. Eduaction of workers 9. Natue of industry and business cycles 10. Systematic data base 114
  • 115. CAUSES OF POOR IR  Uninteresting nature of Work  Political nature of Unions  Poor Wages  Occupational instability  Poor behaviour climate 115
  • 116. EFFECTS OF POOR IR  Multiplier Effect (losses)  Fall in normal tempo  Resistance to Change  Frustration and Social Cost 116
  • 117. SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE IR  Both mgt. and unions should develop constructive attitudes towards each other  All basic policies and procedures relating to IR should be clear to everybody in the org. and union leaders.  The HR manager should remove distrust by convicing the unions  The HR manager should not vie with the union to gain workers loyalty.  Mgt. should encourage the right kind of Union leadership  Agreement should be properly Administered. 117
  • 118. INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES  According to Sec. 2(k) of the Industrial Dispute Act, an ID means any dispute or difference between employers and employers, or between employers and workman, or between workman and workman, which is connected with the employment or non-employment of the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour, of any person. 118
  • 119. FORMS OF DISPUTES  Strike  Stay-in strike, sit-down strike, pen-down strike or tool down strike  Go slow  Hunger Strike  Lightening/Wild Cat Strike  Work-to-rule  Lock out  Gherao 119
  • 120. METHOD FOR PREVENTION OF ID  Collective Bargaining  Code of Discipline  Arbitration  Permanent Negotiating Machinery and Joint Consultative Machinery  Tripartite Bodies 120
  • 121. TRADE UNIONS  A TU means an association of workers in in one or more occupations- an association carried on mainly for the purpose of protecting and advancing the members economic interest in connection with daily work.  TU is an association of employees designed primarily to maintain or improve the condition of employment of its members. 121
  • 122. NEED FOR TU  To oppose mgt.  To participate in union activities  To excersise leadership  To fall in line with others  To get employment 122
  • 123. OBJECTIVES OF TU  To defend or improve the wages or working conditions of workers and to bring a change in economic order  To overthrow capitalism and to bring about a revolutionary and fundamental change in political order.  To replace managerial dictatorship by workers democracy and to bring about a change in the social order. 123
  • 124. 124
  • 125. ANSWER – ELTON MAYO 125
  • 126. EMPLOYEES HEALTH AND SAFETY  Industrial Accidents  An Occurrence which interrupts or interferes with the orderly progress of work in an industrial establishment  Factories Act, 1948 defines it as “an occurrence in an industrial establishment causing bodily injury to a person which makes him unfit to resume his duties in the next 48 hours.” 126
  • 127. CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS 1. Unsafe Conditions/ Work Related Causes 1. Improperly guarded equipment 2. Defective equipment 3. Hazardous arrangement or procedure in and or around, machines or equipment. 4. Unsafe storage, congestion, overloading. 5. Inadequate safety devices 6. Faulty lay-out, bad location 7. Insufficient light 8. Improper ventilation 9. Other work related Causes: 1. The Job Itself 2. Work schedules, accidents increase late in the day 3. Psychological climate of work place 127
  • 128. Unsafe Acts  Operating without authority  No warning of possible danger  No safe attire or protective equipment  Throwing materials on floor carelessly  Operating or working at unsafe levels of speed  Making safety devices inoperative  Using unsafe equipments  Using equipments unsafely  Lifting improperly  Taking unsafe positions 128
  • 129. Other Causes  Unsafe situation  Unsafe climatic conditionsbad working conditions  Rough and slippery floors  Excessive glares  Heat  Humidity  Dust and Fume laden environment  Long working hours  Unsatisfactory behaviour of supervisors 129
  • 130. EMPLOYEE SAFETY  Every org. should have a safety policy  Safety policy depends upon:  Size of the company  The number of plants it operates  Nature of industry  Production technology  Attitude of top management  After formulating policy, a company should establish a safety programme, to reduce the number of hazardous factors which are likely to cause accidents, and to develop safe working habits among its employees. 130
  • 131. SAFETY COMMITTEE  Appraisal of employee attitude to safety programmes.  Safety engineering The adoption of proper engineering procedures to minimize and, if possible, eliminate work hazards is fundamental to any organised safety programme.  Safety education and training 131
  • 132. SAFETY OF WORKERS PROVISIONS OF FACTORIES ACT  Fencing of Machinery  Work on or near machinery in motion  Employment of young near danger machines  Device for cutting off power  Hoists and lifts  Proper construction and maintenance of floors and stairs  No excessive weights  Suitable precautions against excessive light  Safety of building and Machinery 132  Appointment of Safety officers
  • 133. INDUSTRIAL HEALTH  Health- a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.  Industrial Health- a system of public health and preventive medicine which is applicable to industrial concerns.  According to ILO/WHO: Industrial Health means: 1. The prevention and maintenance of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations. 2. Prevention among workers of ill health caused by the working conditions 3. Protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health 4. Placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to his physical and psychological equipment. 133
  • 134. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS  According to Ronald Blake, the normal occupational health hazards may be classified into chemical, biological, environmental and psychological hazards.  Chemical substances cause injury when they are absorbed by the skin or when they are ingested and inhaled.  Gases, fumes and dust inhaled by workers causes serious injury or death. 134
  • 135.  Among the biological hazards are included diseases which are caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, insects, dietary deficiencies, imbalances, allergies, brain fever, emotional stress and psychological concomitants of fear, rage, worry and anxiety.  Environmental hazards may be included radiation, noise, vibration, shocks and improper atmospheric conditions.  Other Hazards caused due to-  Noise, Vibration, Shocks, Atmospheric Conditions etc. 135
  • 136. HEALTH OF WORKERS PROVISIONS OF FACTORIES ACT, 1948 1. Cleanliness 2. Disposal of wastes and effluents 3. Ventilation and temperature 4. Dust and Fume 5. Artificial Humidification 6. Overcrowding 7. Lighting 8. Drinking water 9. Latrines and Urinals 10. Spittoons 136
  • 137. 137
  • 138. 138
  • 139. ANSWER (B) 139
  • 140. LABOUR WELFARE  Oxford Dictionary- “efforts to make life worth living for women.”  Objectives-  To give expression to philanthropic and paternalistic feelings.  Win employees loyalty and increase morale.  To combat trade unionism and socialist ideas.  Reduce turnover and absenteeism  Increase efficiency and productivity  Earn goodwill and enhance public image  Reduce govt. intervention  Make recruitment more effective. 140
  • 141. PRINCIPLES OF LABOUR WELFARE SERVICES  The Service should satisfy the real need of workers  The Services should be such as can be handled best by group approach  The employer should not assume a benevolent posture  The cost of services should be calculable  Periodic evaluation of services, timely improvement and feedback 141
  • 142. SAFETY SERVICES  Components of Safety Service:  Appointment of Safety officer  Support by line mgt.  Elimination of Hazards  Job safety analysis, Placement  Personal protective equipment  Safeguarding machinery  Materials handling, Hand tools  Maintenance, Layout and Design  Housekeeping  Safety training, education and publicity  Safety inspections  Periodic Safety audits 142
  • 143. SOCIAL SECURITY  According to the Social Security Conventions adopted by ILO in 1952 following are the Nine Components of Social Security 1. Medical Care 2. Sickness Benefit 3. Unemployment Benefit 4. Old-age Benefit 5. Employment injury Benefit 6. Family Benefit 7. Maternity Benefit 8. Invalidity Benefit 9. Survivor’s Benefit 143
  • 144. SOCIAL SECURITY IN INDIA  The Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923  The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948  The Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952  The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961  The Payment og Gratuity Act, 1972  The Industrial Dispute Act, 1947 144
  • 145. WORKERS’ PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT  WPM is a mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to goals and share responsibilities in them.  It is Institutional and formal arrangements resulting into creation of various participative forums to associate worker representative with mgt. 145
  • 146. OBJECTIVES OF WPM  Increased productivity and efficiency  Better understanding to employees about their role  Satisfy workers social and esteem needs  Maintain industrial peace and harmony  Tapping latent resources  Develop self management in industry  Build most dynamic HRs  Build nation through Entrepreneurship and Economic Development 146
  • 147. FACTORS INFLUENCING WPM  The subject matter of participation  The level of participation  The personal characteristics of the individuals who are asked to participate in the Decision- making  The extent of participation 147
  • 148. FORMS OF WPM  Works Committee  Joint Management Council  Joint Councils  Shop Councils 148
  • 149. OBSTACLES IN WPM  Conflict between employees and Management  Belief that workers are inferior to mgt.  Fact that system is management dominated  Managers are averse to share responsibility 149
  • 150. 150
  • 151. 151
  • 152. ANSWER (B) MOTIVATION BY PARTICIPATION 152
  • 153. 153
  • 154. 154
  • 155. ANSWER (D) III, IV, II, I 155
  • 156. 156
  • 157. ANSWER (A) II, IV, I , III 157
  • 158. 158
  • 160. 160
  • 162. 162
  • 163. ANSWER (A) OUTPUT IS GREATER THAN INPUT 163
  • 164. 164

Editor's Notes

  1. Dr. Y M Dalvadi
  2. Dr. Y M Dalvadi