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colourful
world
and
human eye
Prepared By :- R.M
HUMAN EYE
->Sense organ that helps us to see.
- Located in eye sockets in skull.
- Diameter of Eye is 2.3 cm (Size of eye remains
same throughout our whole life)
It acts like a camera which has a lens.
Parts of Human Eye
1) Cornea –
It is the outermost, transparent part. It
provides most of therefraction of light.
2) Lens –
It is composed of a fibrous, jelly like material.
Provides the focused real and inverted image of
the object on the Retina. This is convex lens that
converges light at Retina.
3) Iris –
It is a dark muscular diaphragm that controlsthe
size of the pupil.
4) Pupil –
It is the window of the eye. It is the central
aperture in Iris. It regulates and controls the
amount of light entering the eye.
5) Ciliary Muscles –
They hold the lens in position and help in
modifying the curvature of lens.
6) Retina –
It is a delicate membrane having enormous
number of light sensitive cells
7) Optic Nerve –
It transmits visual information from retina to
Brain.
8) Blind Spot –
The point at which the optic nerve leaves th eye.
9) Aqueous Humour –
Between the cornea and eye lens, there is space
filled with transparent liquid is called the
aqueous humour which helps the refracted light
to be focused on retina. It also provides
nutrition to eye.
Far Point of Eye –
Maximum distance to which eye can see clearly, is
called far point of eye.
- For a normal eye, it’s value is Infinity
Near Point of Eye –
Minimum distance at which an object can be seen most
distinctly without any strain is called the least
distance of distinct vision.
- For a normal eye, it’s value is 25cm.
10) Vitreous Humour –
Space between eye lens and retina is filled with a
liquid called Vitreous Humour.
Range of Human Vision is from 25 cm to Infinity
Rod shaped cells Sensitive
to intensity of light
Cone shaped cells Sensitive
to colour of light
-It is the ability of eye-lens to adjust its focal length.
- किसी Object को clear देखने के लिए और उस पर focus
करने के लिए Focal Length change करनी होती है
- अगर Object पास मैं है तो Focal Length कम करनी होगी
- अगर Object दूर है तो Focal Length बढ़ानी होगी
- ये सब करने मैं Ciliary Muscles help करती है
Q.What is meant by power of accommodation of the eye ?
Case 1) To see far Objects
Ciliary Muscles
- Relaxed Eye Lens
– Thin Focal length
- Increase
Power of Accommodation
Case 2) To see near Objects
Ciliary Muscles
- Contract Eye Lens
– Thick Focal length
- Decrease
HOW OUR EYES FOCUS?
1) Myopia (Near Sightedness) दूर कi नज़र कमज़ोर होना
- A myopic person can see nearby objects clearly but
cannot see distant objects clearly.
- Image is formed in front of Retina.
Causes of Myopia
- Excessive curvature of eye lens
- Stretching of eye ball
Correction
It is done by using concave lens of appropriate power.
a) In a myopic eye, image of distant object is formed in
front of the retina (not on retina)
b) The far point (F) of a myopic eye is less than infinity.
c) The concave lens placed in front of eye forms a virtual
image of distant object at far point (F) of the myopic eye
It is done by using convex lens of appropriate power.
a) In a hypermetropic eye, image of distant object is
formed behind the retina (not on retina)
2) Hypermetropia (Far Sightedness)
पास कI नज़र कमज़ोर होना
- Affected person can see far objects clearly but can’t see
nearby objects clearly.
- The near point of eye moves away.
- Image is formed behind the retina.
Correction
Causes of Hypermetropia
- Focal length of eye lens becomes too long.
- Eye ball becomes too small
b) The near point (N) of a hypermetropic eye is more than
25cm.
c) Correction of hypermetropia. The convex lens placed in
front of eye forms a real image of near object on Retina.
3) Presbyopia (Old age Hypermetropia)
-The power of accommodation of the eye usually
decreases
with ageing. It is also known as old age hypermetropia.
-The near point of old person having presbyopia becomes
more that 25 cm.
Causes of Presbyopia
- Weakening of Ciliary Muscles.
- Decreasing flexibility of eye lens.
Correction
- It is done by using convex lens of appropriate power. -
Sometimes a person may suffer from both myopia and
hypermetropia. Such people require bifocal lens for
correction.
Advantage of eyes in front of the face
- It gives a wider field of view.
- It provides three-dimensional view.
Q.State one function of the crystalline lens in the human eye.
Q.Define the term power of accommodation. Write the
modification in the curvature of the eye lens which enables us to
see the nearby objects clearly?
Q.Write the function of each of the following parts of human
eye: (i) Cornea (ii) Iris (iii) Crystalline lens (iv) Ciliary muscles
Q.Write the function of retina in human eye?
Q. List two causes of hypermetropia.
(b) Draw ray diagrams showing (i) a hypermetropic eye and (ii)
its correction using suitable optical device.
Prism
It is a pyramidal piece of glass with two triangular bases
and three rectangular faces.
Dispersion of White Light by a Glass Prism –
- The phenomenon of splitting of white light into its 7
colors, when it passes through a prism is called Dispersion.
- This band of seven colors VIBGYOR (Violet, Indigo, Blue,
Green, Yellow, Orange, red) is called Spectrum .
Q) Why Dispersion Occurs?
- Light rays of different colors, travel with the same speed
in vacuum and air but in any other medium, they travel
with different speeds and bend through different angles,
which leads to dispersion of light.
- Reverse of dispersion is also possible
- Seven Colored lights of the spectrum can be recombined
to give back white light by placing two prisms, one upside
down.
Rainbow
A natural spectrum appearing in sky after rain.
- Some Water droplets remain in air after Rain. These
droplets act as small prisms.
- Water droplets refract and disperse the incident
sunlight, then reflect internally and finally, reflect it again
when it comes out of raindrop.
- Rainbow is always in opposite side of Sun.
Recombination of White Light
Q.Draw a ray diagram to show the refraction of .
light through a glass prism. Mark on it (a) the incident ray,
(b) the emergent ray and (c) the angle of deviation.
Q.Draw a labelled diagram to explain the formation of a
rainbow in the sky.
Q. Differentiate between a glass slab and a glass prism.
What happens when a narrow beam of
(i) a monochromatic light and (ii) white light passes through
(a) glass slab and (b) glass prism?
Q.What is ‘dispersion of white light’?
The refraction by different layers of atmosphere is called
Atmospheric Refraction.
- The sun appears about two minutes earlier than actual
sunrise and the sun remains visible for about two minutes
after actual sunset.
- When the sun is below horizon, the rays have to pass
from rarer to denser medium. So rays bend towards the
normal. As a result the sun appears higher than its actual
position.
Atmospheric Refraction
Effects of Atmospheric Refraction
1) Advanced Sunrise
- The refractive index of earth’s atmosphere in general
increases from top to bottom. So, the light coming from a
star near the horizon has to travel from rarer to denser
medium and it bends towards the normal. Due to which
stars appears higher.
2) Star seen higher than they actually are
3) Twinkling of Stars
- Stars are very far from us, so they behave as point
source of light. Since the physical conditions of the earth’s
atmosphere are not constant the light from stars appears
to come from different directions. This results in
fluctuation of apparent position of star.
- The amount of light coming from stars also vary due to
changing Refractive Index of atmosphere.
- The stars appears bright when more light from star
reaches our eyes and the same star appears dull when less
amount of light reaches our eyes. This causes twinkling of
Stars.
Q. Why do planets not twinkle?
- The planets are much closer to the earth and are considered a
collection of many point sized sources of light, the total amount of
light entering our eye from all the individual point sized sources will
average out to zero, thereby nullifying the twinkling effect
The reflection of light from an object in all directions is
called scattering of light.
- It depends on the size of particle (िजस Particle से
टकराकर Scatter हुई है Light)
i) Small size particles scatter blue color of light
(Shorter wavelength)
ii) Medium size particles scatter red color of light
(Longer wavelength)
iii) Large size particles scatter all the colors of light
that’s why it appears white
Scattering ∝ 1
wavelength
Scattering of Light
Effects of Scattering of Light
1) Tyndall Effect -
The earth’s atmosphere is a heterogeneous mixture of
minute particles of smoke, tiny water droplets, dust in air
which becomes visible due to scattering of light.
2) Color of Sky is Blue
- The upper layer of atmosphere contains very small
particles of water vapours and gases. These particles are
more effective in scattering of light of shorter wavelength
mainly blue color, So sky appears blue.
1. Explain why the planets do not twinkle.
2.what is dispersion of white light? What is the cause of
this dispersion? Draw a diagram to show the dispersion of
white light by a glass prism.
(b) a glass prism is able to produce a spectrum when
white light passes through it but a glass slab does not
produce any spectrum. Explain why?
3.Explain in brief the reason for each of the following:
(a) Advanced sun-rise
(b) Delayed sun-set
(c) Twinkling of stars
4.A star appears slightly higher (above) than its actual
position in the sky. Illustrate it with the help of a labelled
diagram.
5.Give an example of a phenomenon where Tyndall effect
can be observed
Questions

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HUMAN EYE By-R.M Class 10 phy best digital notes.pdf

  • 2. HUMAN EYE ->Sense organ that helps us to see. - Located in eye sockets in skull. - Diameter of Eye is 2.3 cm (Size of eye remains same throughout our whole life) It acts like a camera which has a lens.
  • 3. Parts of Human Eye 1) Cornea – It is the outermost, transparent part. It provides most of therefraction of light. 2) Lens – It is composed of a fibrous, jelly like material. Provides the focused real and inverted image of the object on the Retina. This is convex lens that converges light at Retina. 3) Iris – It is a dark muscular diaphragm that controlsthe size of the pupil. 4) Pupil – It is the window of the eye. It is the central aperture in Iris. It regulates and controls the amount of light entering the eye.
  • 4. 5) Ciliary Muscles – They hold the lens in position and help in modifying the curvature of lens. 6) Retina – It is a delicate membrane having enormous number of light sensitive cells 7) Optic Nerve – It transmits visual information from retina to Brain. 8) Blind Spot – The point at which the optic nerve leaves th eye. 9) Aqueous Humour – Between the cornea and eye lens, there is space filled with transparent liquid is called the aqueous humour which helps the refracted light to be focused on retina. It also provides nutrition to eye.
  • 5. Far Point of Eye – Maximum distance to which eye can see clearly, is called far point of eye. - For a normal eye, it’s value is Infinity Near Point of Eye – Minimum distance at which an object can be seen most distinctly without any strain is called the least distance of distinct vision. - For a normal eye, it’s value is 25cm. 10) Vitreous Humour – Space between eye lens and retina is filled with a liquid called Vitreous Humour. Range of Human Vision is from 25 cm to Infinity Rod shaped cells Sensitive to intensity of light Cone shaped cells Sensitive to colour of light
  • 6. -It is the ability of eye-lens to adjust its focal length. - किसी Object को clear देखने के लिए और उस पर focus करने के लिए Focal Length change करनी होती है - अगर Object पास मैं है तो Focal Length कम करनी होगी - अगर Object दूर है तो Focal Length बढ़ानी होगी - ये सब करने मैं Ciliary Muscles help करती है Q.What is meant by power of accommodation of the eye ? Case 1) To see far Objects Ciliary Muscles - Relaxed Eye Lens – Thin Focal length - Increase Power of Accommodation Case 2) To see near Objects Ciliary Muscles - Contract Eye Lens – Thick Focal length - Decrease
  • 7. HOW OUR EYES FOCUS? 1) Myopia (Near Sightedness) दूर कi नज़र कमज़ोर होना - A myopic person can see nearby objects clearly but cannot see distant objects clearly. - Image is formed in front of Retina. Causes of Myopia - Excessive curvature of eye lens - Stretching of eye ball
  • 8. Correction It is done by using concave lens of appropriate power. a) In a myopic eye, image of distant object is formed in front of the retina (not on retina) b) The far point (F) of a myopic eye is less than infinity. c) The concave lens placed in front of eye forms a virtual image of distant object at far point (F) of the myopic eye
  • 9. It is done by using convex lens of appropriate power. a) In a hypermetropic eye, image of distant object is formed behind the retina (not on retina) 2) Hypermetropia (Far Sightedness) पास कI नज़र कमज़ोर होना - Affected person can see far objects clearly but can’t see nearby objects clearly. - The near point of eye moves away. - Image is formed behind the retina. Correction Causes of Hypermetropia - Focal length of eye lens becomes too long. - Eye ball becomes too small b) The near point (N) of a hypermetropic eye is more than 25cm.
  • 10. c) Correction of hypermetropia. The convex lens placed in front of eye forms a real image of near object on Retina. 3) Presbyopia (Old age Hypermetropia) -The power of accommodation of the eye usually decreases with ageing. It is also known as old age hypermetropia. -The near point of old person having presbyopia becomes more that 25 cm.
  • 11. Causes of Presbyopia - Weakening of Ciliary Muscles. - Decreasing flexibility of eye lens. Correction - It is done by using convex lens of appropriate power. - Sometimes a person may suffer from both myopia and hypermetropia. Such people require bifocal lens for correction. Advantage of eyes in front of the face - It gives a wider field of view. - It provides three-dimensional view. Q.State one function of the crystalline lens in the human eye. Q.Define the term power of accommodation. Write the modification in the curvature of the eye lens which enables us to see the nearby objects clearly? Q.Write the function of each of the following parts of human eye: (i) Cornea (ii) Iris (iii) Crystalline lens (iv) Ciliary muscles Q.Write the function of retina in human eye? Q. List two causes of hypermetropia. (b) Draw ray diagrams showing (i) a hypermetropic eye and (ii) its correction using suitable optical device.
  • 12. Prism It is a pyramidal piece of glass with two triangular bases and three rectangular faces. Dispersion of White Light by a Glass Prism – - The phenomenon of splitting of white light into its 7 colors, when it passes through a prism is called Dispersion. - This band of seven colors VIBGYOR (Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, red) is called Spectrum . Q) Why Dispersion Occurs? - Light rays of different colors, travel with the same speed in vacuum and air but in any other medium, they travel with different speeds and bend through different angles, which leads to dispersion of light.
  • 13. - Reverse of dispersion is also possible - Seven Colored lights of the spectrum can be recombined to give back white light by placing two prisms, one upside down. Rainbow A natural spectrum appearing in sky after rain. - Some Water droplets remain in air after Rain. These droplets act as small prisms. - Water droplets refract and disperse the incident sunlight, then reflect internally and finally, reflect it again when it comes out of raindrop. - Rainbow is always in opposite side of Sun. Recombination of White Light
  • 14. Q.Draw a ray diagram to show the refraction of . light through a glass prism. Mark on it (a) the incident ray, (b) the emergent ray and (c) the angle of deviation. Q.Draw a labelled diagram to explain the formation of a rainbow in the sky. Q. Differentiate between a glass slab and a glass prism. What happens when a narrow beam of (i) a monochromatic light and (ii) white light passes through (a) glass slab and (b) glass prism? Q.What is ‘dispersion of white light’?
  • 15. The refraction by different layers of atmosphere is called Atmospheric Refraction. - The sun appears about two minutes earlier than actual sunrise and the sun remains visible for about two minutes after actual sunset. - When the sun is below horizon, the rays have to pass from rarer to denser medium. So rays bend towards the normal. As a result the sun appears higher than its actual position. Atmospheric Refraction Effects of Atmospheric Refraction 1) Advanced Sunrise
  • 16. - The refractive index of earth’s atmosphere in general increases from top to bottom. So, the light coming from a star near the horizon has to travel from rarer to denser medium and it bends towards the normal. Due to which stars appears higher. 2) Star seen higher than they actually are 3) Twinkling of Stars - Stars are very far from us, so they behave as point source of light. Since the physical conditions of the earth’s atmosphere are not constant the light from stars appears to come from different directions. This results in fluctuation of apparent position of star.
  • 17. - The amount of light coming from stars also vary due to changing Refractive Index of atmosphere. - The stars appears bright when more light from star reaches our eyes and the same star appears dull when less amount of light reaches our eyes. This causes twinkling of Stars. Q. Why do planets not twinkle? - The planets are much closer to the earth and are considered a collection of many point sized sources of light, the total amount of light entering our eye from all the individual point sized sources will average out to zero, thereby nullifying the twinkling effect
  • 18. The reflection of light from an object in all directions is called scattering of light. - It depends on the size of particle (िजस Particle से टकराकर Scatter हुई है Light) i) Small size particles scatter blue color of light (Shorter wavelength) ii) Medium size particles scatter red color of light (Longer wavelength) iii) Large size particles scatter all the colors of light that’s why it appears white Scattering ∝ 1 wavelength Scattering of Light
  • 19. Effects of Scattering of Light 1) Tyndall Effect - The earth’s atmosphere is a heterogeneous mixture of minute particles of smoke, tiny water droplets, dust in air which becomes visible due to scattering of light. 2) Color of Sky is Blue - The upper layer of atmosphere contains very small particles of water vapours and gases. These particles are more effective in scattering of light of shorter wavelength mainly blue color, So sky appears blue.
  • 20. 1. Explain why the planets do not twinkle. 2.what is dispersion of white light? What is the cause of this dispersion? Draw a diagram to show the dispersion of white light by a glass prism. (b) a glass prism is able to produce a spectrum when white light passes through it but a glass slab does not produce any spectrum. Explain why? 3.Explain in brief the reason for each of the following: (a) Advanced sun-rise (b) Delayed sun-set (c) Twinkling of stars 4.A star appears slightly higher (above) than its actual position in the sky. Illustrate it with the help of a labelled diagram. 5.Give an example of a phenomenon where Tyndall effect can be observed Questions