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TLP:WHITE
From FakeSpy to Guerilla
Understanding Android Malware Crime Gangs
Fyodor Yarochkin (with help of Paul Pajeres, Vladimir Kropotov, Ecular Xu,
Zhengyu Dong)
Trend Micro Research
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
2 TLP:WHITE
Introduction
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
3 TLP:WHITE
Why Mobile phones are targets?
• Mobile often phones ~= ATM cards with
Antennas
• Telecom carriers ~= Banking Institutions
• Less regulated, more connected, easier to break,
compromise and remotely control
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
4 TLP:WHITE
Reasons for Android Phones being targetd
1. Money theft
2. Cyber espionage
3. Data breaches
4. Ransomware (targeted)
5. Crypto currencies
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
5 TLP:WHITE
Geographical specifics
• Many online IDs are bound to a phone in
China
• Mobile Phones allow balance transfers in a
number of countries including china, india
• Verified phone numbers in some countries
allow caller impersonation
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
6 TLP:WHITE
Criminals interest in android platforms?
• Money (banking)
• Virtual currencies
• Access to other apps and accounts in bulk
• Access to phone numbers
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
7 TLP:WHITE
Numbers are valuable commodity
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
8 TLP:WHITE
Lets take a look at some examples
• Fakespy
• Anubis
• Guerilla
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
9 TLP:WHITE
A good illustration what hackers want from a
phone
• Mail
• Storage
• Finance
• Online accounts
• Crypto currencies
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
10 TLP:WHITE
Fakespy
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
11 TLP:WHITE
How It Works
SMS with malicious link
Poses as courier service,
Chrome update, others.
Prompt to install
malicious iOS profile
to configure Wifi, email
accounts, etc
Prompts to install
malicious Android
app
Display Apple phishing
or illegal Casino site
Monitor device activity
like SMS, device info,
router, mobile transactions
Connect to SNS account
Decrypt content and reveal
real C2 server
Send and receive information
Spread SMS to contacts
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
12 TLP:WHITE
Lifecycle of Fakespy Apps
Oct 2017
Dec 2017 Jun 2018
Korean banks
(NH Capital,
KB Kookmin,
Nonghyup Bank)
Apr 2019
Oct
2019
2,000+ fake apps
up to Nov
Label: 日本郵便
Aug
2019
5,400+
fake apps
up to Nov
Label: DHL
Paket 4 fake apps
Label: Die Post
Jul
2019
1,400+ fake apps
up to Nov
Label: 智能宅急
便
Started Feb 2016
around 800+ fake
apps until Aug 2019
1200+ fake apps
in Sep 2019 to Nov
Label: CJ 대한통운
Sep
2019
20,000+ fake apps
since 2015
Label: Chrome
600+ fake apps
since 2017
Label: Facebook
21,600+ fake apps
since 2017
Label: 佐川急便
Xloader started Jun 2018
Fakespy started Dec 2017
70+ fake apps
Oct & Nov 2019
Label: ヤマト運輸
50+ fake apps
Mar to Sep 2019
Label: SEX kr porn
2 fake app MyDocomo
800+ fake apps
Mar to Oct 2019
Label: Anshin Scan
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
13 TLP:WHITE
Use of social networks as covert channel
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
14 TLP:WHITE
Fakespy
• Fakespy does not target banks but
• collects contact information, intercepts SMS
• and propagates via SMS. Common lures are
• Japan Post, Sagawa Express and Chrome
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
15 TLP:WHITE
Fakespy derrivatives
• FakeOps: targets europe (appeared during Covid)
• Xloader: banks in Japan
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
16 TLP:WHITE
Fakespy vs Xloader
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
Jan-19
Feb-19
Mar-19
Apr-19
May-19
Jun-19
Jul-19
Aug-19
Sep-19
Oct-19
Nov-19
Dec-19
Jan-20
Feb-20
Mar-20
Apr-20
May-20
Jun-20
Jul-20
Aug-20
FakeSpy Xloader
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
17 TLP:WHITE
Victims and Infrastrcture
• Asia: Korea, Japan, Singapore
• Some countries in Europe
• Infrastructure: geographically diverse
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
18 TLP:WHITE
Anubis
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
19 TLP:WHITE
What is Anubis?!
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
20 TLP:WHITE
Anubis backend
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
21 TLP:WHITE
Anubis communications
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
22 TLP:WHITE
Objective of Anubis actions: $$$
MONEY!
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
23 TLP:WHITE
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
24 TLP:WHITE
Guerilla
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
25 TLP:WHITE
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
26 TLP:WHITE
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
27 TLP:WHITE
Guerilla app testing lifecycle
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
28 TLP:WHITE
Debugging statements in some modules
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
29 TLP:WHITE
Lots of other functionality
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
30 TLP:WHITE
functionality (2)
paramBundle = c.b("{n "birthday": {n "year":
1966,n "month": 6,n "day": 25n },n
"gender": "female",n "username":
"biukabiuka88" + new Random().nextInt(1000) + "",n
"passwd": "d0b22405db",n "key":
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
31 TLP:WHITE
Many victims, globally
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
32 TLP:WHITE
ConclusionJ
Trust your phone?
Verify your phone?
Protect phone?
Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc.
33 TLP:WHITE
Protect your phone :p
my phone – my
bastion J
Questions? ;-)
Iphone J
Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc.
34 TLP:WHITE
Thank You!
QUESTIONS => FYODOR_YAROCHKIN@TRENDMICRO.COM

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【HITCON FreeTalk 2021 - From fakespy to Guerilla: Understanding Android malware crime gangs】

  • 1. TLP:WHITE From FakeSpy to Guerilla Understanding Android Malware Crime Gangs Fyodor Yarochkin (with help of Paul Pajeres, Vladimir Kropotov, Ecular Xu, Zhengyu Dong) Trend Micro Research
  • 2. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 2 TLP:WHITE Introduction
  • 3. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 3 TLP:WHITE Why Mobile phones are targets? • Mobile often phones ~= ATM cards with Antennas • Telecom carriers ~= Banking Institutions • Less regulated, more connected, easier to break, compromise and remotely control
  • 4. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 4 TLP:WHITE Reasons for Android Phones being targetd 1. Money theft 2. Cyber espionage 3. Data breaches 4. Ransomware (targeted) 5. Crypto currencies
  • 5. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 5 TLP:WHITE Geographical specifics • Many online IDs are bound to a phone in China • Mobile Phones allow balance transfers in a number of countries including china, india • Verified phone numbers in some countries allow caller impersonation
  • 6. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 6 TLP:WHITE Criminals interest in android platforms? • Money (banking) • Virtual currencies • Access to other apps and accounts in bulk • Access to phone numbers
  • 7. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 7 TLP:WHITE Numbers are valuable commodity
  • 8. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 8 TLP:WHITE Lets take a look at some examples • Fakespy • Anubis • Guerilla
  • 9. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 9 TLP:WHITE A good illustration what hackers want from a phone • Mail • Storage • Finance • Online accounts • Crypto currencies
  • 10. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 10 TLP:WHITE Fakespy
  • 11. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 11 TLP:WHITE How It Works SMS with malicious link Poses as courier service, Chrome update, others. Prompt to install malicious iOS profile to configure Wifi, email accounts, etc Prompts to install malicious Android app Display Apple phishing or illegal Casino site Monitor device activity like SMS, device info, router, mobile transactions Connect to SNS account Decrypt content and reveal real C2 server Send and receive information Spread SMS to contacts
  • 12. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 12 TLP:WHITE Lifecycle of Fakespy Apps Oct 2017 Dec 2017 Jun 2018 Korean banks (NH Capital, KB Kookmin, Nonghyup Bank) Apr 2019 Oct 2019 2,000+ fake apps up to Nov Label: 日本郵便 Aug 2019 5,400+ fake apps up to Nov Label: DHL Paket 4 fake apps Label: Die Post Jul 2019 1,400+ fake apps up to Nov Label: 智能宅急 便 Started Feb 2016 around 800+ fake apps until Aug 2019 1200+ fake apps in Sep 2019 to Nov Label: CJ 대한통운 Sep 2019 20,000+ fake apps since 2015 Label: Chrome 600+ fake apps since 2017 Label: Facebook 21,600+ fake apps since 2017 Label: 佐川急便 Xloader started Jun 2018 Fakespy started Dec 2017 70+ fake apps Oct & Nov 2019 Label: ヤマト運輸 50+ fake apps Mar to Sep 2019 Label: SEX kr porn 2 fake app MyDocomo 800+ fake apps Mar to Oct 2019 Label: Anshin Scan
  • 13. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 13 TLP:WHITE Use of social networks as covert channel
  • 14. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 14 TLP:WHITE Fakespy • Fakespy does not target banks but • collects contact information, intercepts SMS • and propagates via SMS. Common lures are • Japan Post, Sagawa Express and Chrome
  • 15. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 15 TLP:WHITE Fakespy derrivatives • FakeOps: targets europe (appeared during Covid) • Xloader: banks in Japan
  • 16. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 16 TLP:WHITE Fakespy vs Xloader 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 Jan-19 Feb-19 Mar-19 Apr-19 May-19 Jun-19 Jul-19 Aug-19 Sep-19 Oct-19 Nov-19 Dec-19 Jan-20 Feb-20 Mar-20 Apr-20 May-20 Jun-20 Jul-20 Aug-20 FakeSpy Xloader
  • 17. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 17 TLP:WHITE Victims and Infrastrcture • Asia: Korea, Japan, Singapore • Some countries in Europe • Infrastructure: geographically diverse
  • 18. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 18 TLP:WHITE Anubis
  • 19. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 19 TLP:WHITE What is Anubis?!
  • 20. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 20 TLP:WHITE Anubis backend
  • 21. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 21 TLP:WHITE Anubis communications
  • 22. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 22 TLP:WHITE Objective of Anubis actions: $$$ MONEY!
  • 23. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 23 TLP:WHITE
  • 24. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 24 TLP:WHITE Guerilla
  • 25. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 25 TLP:WHITE
  • 26. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 26 TLP:WHITE
  • 27. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 27 TLP:WHITE Guerilla app testing lifecycle
  • 28. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 28 TLP:WHITE Debugging statements in some modules
  • 29. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 29 TLP:WHITE Lots of other functionality
  • 30. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 30 TLP:WHITE functionality (2) paramBundle = c.b("{n "birthday": {n "year": 1966,n "month": 6,n "day": 25n },n "gender": "female",n "username": "biukabiuka88" + new Random().nextInt(1000) + "",n "passwd": "d0b22405db",n "key":
  • 31. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 31 TLP:WHITE Many victims, globally
  • 32. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 32 TLP:WHITE ConclusionJ Trust your phone? Verify your phone? Protect phone?
  • 33. Copyright 2019 Trend Micro Inc. 33 TLP:WHITE Protect your phone :p my phone – my bastion J Questions? ;-) Iphone J
  • 34. Copyright 2021 Trend Micro Inc. 34 TLP:WHITE Thank You! QUESTIONS => FYODOR_YAROCHKIN@TRENDMICRO.COM