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HIGH AVAILABLITYOPTIONS FOR SE2
StandardEditionHighAvailability& RefreshablePDB
2
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3
BUSINESS
ANALYTICS
BUSINESS
AUTOMATION
MODERNE DATEN-
PLATTFORMEN
MODERNE CLOUD-
INFRASTRUKTUR
OUR RANGE OF SERVICE
HI!
MARKUS FLECHTNER
PRINCIPAL CONSULTANT
 Trivadis Germany GmbH
 Studied Mathematics a long time ago
 Focus
o Oracle High Availability
o Database Upgrade + Migration
 Teacher: RAC, New Features, Multitenant, PostgreSQL
 Twitter @markusdba
 Blog: markusdba.net
 Co-author of the book The Oracle DBA (2016)
5 AGENDA
 Introduction
 Standard Edition High-Availability (SEHA)
 High-Availability by using Refreshable PDBs
 "SEMAA"
 Summary & Further information
6
INTRODUCTION
7 HIGH AVAILABILITY FOR THE ORACLE DATABASE = ?
 Enterprise Edition
 Real Application Cluster
 DataGuard
8 HIGH AVAILABILITY FOR THE DATABASE STANDARD EDITION 2
 Real Application Cluster (until Oracle Database 18c)
o Max. 2 nodes, 1 socket each
o Max. 8 threads per instance
 Failover Cluster
o Own scripts
 "DataGuard—like" third-Party-Tools
o DBVisit Standby
o Trivadis db*Standby
o ... And more
9 FROM THE 19C LICENSING INFORMATION
10 ABOUT 11 MONTHS LATER …
11
What are the current
"out-of-the-box"
High Availability Solutions
for the
Oracle Database 19c Standard Edition 2?
12
STANDARD EDITION
HIGHAVAILABILITY
"SEHA"
13 STANDARD EDITION HIGH AVAILABILITY
 SEHA was introduced with the Release Update in April 2020 (RU 19.7)
o Due to some issues in RU 19.7, using RU 19.8 or higher is recommended
o OCW RU must have the same version in GI home and RDBMS home
 SEHA is a failover cluster database configuration for SE2 databases, based on Oracle
Grid Infrastructure
o 2 node cluster
o must use ASM or ACFS as database storage
o Currently supported on Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-bit) and Microsoft
Windows
 On Windows it may serve as a replacement for Oracle Fail Safe
o Oracle Fail Safe is deprecated as of Oracle Database 19c (desupported as of Oracle
Database 21c)
14 SEHA - LICENSING
 2 sockets per server
 16 threads per server
 10-days-rule applies
(10 x 24 h)
 Source: http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/pricing/data-recovery-licensing-
070587.pdf
 More information on the "10 days rule / 10 x 24 h rule") (in German)
https://mpaege.wordpress.com/2020/08/24/failover-und-die-10-tage-regel-aeh-10x24-
stunden-regel/
15 SEHA - OVERVIEW
Grid Infrastructure
Shared Storage - ASM / ACFS
SEHA
Instance
SEHA
Instance
Failover
Failure
16 SEHA – SETUP (1)
1. Create the SE2 database on one node
o there's nothing special in this step, e.g. you cannot specify "SEHA" in DBCA
o SEHA works for both Non-CDB and CDB
2. Move Spfile and password file to shared storage and modify the OCR accordingly
$ asmcmd pwcopy /u00/app/oracle/dbs/orapwSEHADB +DATA/SEHADB/orapwSEHADB
$ srvctl modify database -db SEHADB -pwfile +DATA/SEHADB/orapwSEHADB
17 SEHA – SETUP (2)
3. specify the list of available nodes for your database
$ srvctl modify database -db SEHADB -node node1,node2
 The required directories on the second node (ADR etc. ) are created when the database
is started for the first time
 Of course, the Oracle software has to be installed on the second node beforehand
18 SEHA – DATABASE RELOCATE
 Database is closed on node1 (SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE) and opened on node2
 Duration depends on the number and size of open transactions (Rollback due to
SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE)
 The parameter "-timeout" and "-drain_timeout" do not have any effect on a SEHA
relocate
$ srvctl status database -db SEHADB
Instance SEHADB is running on node node2
$ srvctl relocate database -db SEHADB -node node1
$ srvctl status database -db SEHADB
Instance SEHADB is running on node node1
19 SEHA – DATABASE FAILOVER
 Very simple:
In case of a node failure of the node on which the SEHA database instance is running,
the Oracle Clusterware detects the failure and starts the SEHA database instance on the
other node automatically
20 SEHA – CLIENT CONNECT
 There's nothing special
o Use an application service for client connects (do not use the default service of the
PDB resp. DB)
o Use the cluster name (SCAN name) for client connects
 Fast-Application-Notification (FAN) und Fast-Connection-Failover (FCF) work fine with
SEHA
SEHA_APP.MARKUSDBA.LOCAL =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = sehacluster)(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = SEHA_APP_SVC.markusdba.local)
)
)
21 SEHA - MISCELLANEOUS
 When starting a SEHA database manually, you can specify the node
 SEHA is not "RAC One Node"! There is always only one instance running!
 SEHA does not work with the Enterprise Edition of the database ("PRCD-2088 : failed to
configure the single instance database EEHACDB with multiple nodes because it is not a
Standard Edition database")
 Application Continuity is not available with SEHA
o AC requires Enterprise Edition + Oracle Active Data Guard option or RAC One Node
or RAC option
$ srvctl start database -db SEHADB -node node2
22 PATCHING A SEHA DATABASE
 As there is always only one instance running, you will always have a downtime for the
applications (when running datapatch)
 You can
1. Patch the software on the "passive node" ("node2")
2. Relocate the database to the "passive node" (node2) which then becomes the
active node
3. Run datapatch on node2 ( downtime for the applications)
4. Start the database in normal mode on node2 ( downtime ends)
5. Patch the software on node1
 So you can the reduce the downtime a little bit (no downtime for installing the software)
23
HIGH-AVAILABILITYBYUSINGREFRESHABLEPDBS
24 REFRESHABLE PDBS - BASICS
 Idea: refresh a remote PDB in regular intervals
 Use cases:
o Use cloned PDB as source for further PDB
cloning
o Use cloned PDB as read-only-PDB for reporting
o "High-Availability" for SE2-PDBs
 Cloned PDB can be opened in read-only mode only
 Refresh can be done manually or automatically
 Source and target PDB must be in different CDBs
 Target PDB must be closed for refresh
 Refreshable PDB can be based on a Non-CDB
 Available since Oracle Database 12c Release 2
CRM01
[RW]
Initial
clone
CRM02
[RO]
CRM01
[RW]
Propagate
changes
CRM02
[Closed]
25 REFRESHABLE PDB – "NORMAL USE CASES"
CRM01
[RW]
Refreshable PDB
CRM02
[RO]
CRM03
[RW]
CRM04
[RW]
CRM05
[RW]
Production-DB
Master Clone
Snapshot
Clone
Reporting
26 REFRESHABLE PDB – SETUP (1)
 Source CDB must use local Undo
1. Create a common user in the source CDB
2. Create a public database link from the target CDB to the source CDB
o Instead of using a database to the source CDB you can use a database link which
points to the source PDB
SQL> CREATE USER C##REFRESH identified by <password>;
SQL> GRANT CREATE SESSION,RESTRICTED SESSION,SYSOPER to C##REFRESH
2 CONTAINER=ALL;
SQL> GRANT CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE TO C##REFRESH;
SQL> CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK <SOURCE_CDB>
2 CONNECT TO C##REFRESH IDENTIFIED BY '<PASSWORD>' USING '<TNS>';
27 REFRESHABLE PDB – SETUP (2)
3. Create a refreshable PDB and specify the refresh mode
CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE <PDB> FROM <PDB>@<SOURCE_CDB>
file_name_convert= … REFRESH MODE EVERY 240 MINUTES;
28 REFRESHABLE PDB – REFRESH MODE
 Possible refresh Modes
o REFRESH MODE EVERY <n> MINUTES
o REFRESH MODE MANUAL
o REFRESH NONE
 If the PDB is not closed for a scheduled refresh, the refresh will be skipped
 You cannot open a refreshable PDB "read-write":
"ORA-65341: cannot open pluggable database in read/write mode"
SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <PDB> CLOSE IMMEDIATE;
SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <PDB> REFRESH;
29 REFRESHABLE PDB – DATA DICTIONARY
SQL> select PDB_NAME,REFRESH_MODE,REFRESH_INTERVAL,LAST_REFRESH_SCN
2 from cdb_pdbs;
PDB_NAME REFRES REFRESH_INTERVAL LAST_REFRESH_SCN
---------- ------ ---------------- ----------------
PDB$SEED NONE
SE2PDB AUTO 1 1672347
SQL> select scn_to_timestamp(1672347) from dual@<source_db>;
SCN_TO_TIMESTAMP(1672347)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
16-AUG-20 01.07.16.000000000 PM
From Source DB
30 REFRESHABLE PDB – ALERT.LOG
SE2PDB(4):alter pluggable database refresh
2020-08-16T11:58:12.076936+02:00
Applying media recovery for pdb-4099 from SCN 1672311 to SCN 1672347
Remote log information: count-1
thr-1,seq-20,logfile-
/u02/fast_recovery_area/SE2CDBA/foreign_archivelog/SE2PDB/2020_08_16/o1_mf_1_20_hml0smw3_
.arc,los-1592646,nxs-18446744073709551615,maxblks-366859
SE2PDB(4):Media Recovery Start
2020-08-16T11:58:12.077338+02:00
SE2PDB(4):Serial Media Recovery started
SE2PDB(4):max_pdb is 5
2020-08-16T11:58:12.154566+02:00
SE2PDB(4):Media Recovery Log
/u02/fast_recovery_area/SE2CDBA/foreign_archivelog/SE2PDB/2020_08_16/o1_mf_1_20_hml0smw3_
.arc
2020-08-16T11:58:12.665203+02:00
SE2PDB(4):Incomplete Recovery applied until change 1672347 time 08/16/2020 11:58:10
2020-08-16T11:58:12.668710+02:00
SE2PDB(4):Media Recovery Complete (SE2CDBB)
SE2PDB(4):Completed: alter pluggable database refresh
31 REFRESH MECHANISM
 For a refresh, the redolog information is used
o Redo information is accessed via the database link
 If you are using longer refresh intervals, the archivelog files must be available on the
source CDB
o Usually not an issue for "HA-configurations" with 1-minute-interval 
o Keep this in mind if you open a refreshable PDB temporarily read only so that it
cannot be refreshed
 You can specify "REMOTE_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST" in the refreshable PDB as a location
from where the target CDB can read the redolog files
 If the archivelogs are not available, the refresh will fail
o  think about your archivelog deletion policy (RMAN)
 RMAN does not backup a refreshable PDB
32 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HA
 Create a refreshable "Standby PDB" in another
CDB
 "Standby PDB" is refreshed at a high frequency
(minimum refresh interval is 1 minute)
 You can open the "Standby-PDB" read-only
e.g. for reporting
o !! This will cause a gap
 Disable the refresh and open the "Standby-
PDB" in case of a failover
 Idea: mutual protection of 2 CDBs resp. 2 PDBs
 Unfortunately, there is no "observer"
CDB1
CDB2
PDB1A [open]
PDB2A
[mount]
PDB1A
[mount]
PDB2A [open]
Refresh
33 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY - PREPARATION
1. Create a "Standby-CDB"
2. Create a refreshable PDB on the "Standby-CDB" – refresh interval 1 minute
3. Keep this PDB closed (mounted) for automatic refresh
SQL> CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE PDB04
2 FROM PDB04@CDB1.markusdba.local
3 file_name_convert=
4 ('/u01/oradata/CDB1/PDB04','/u01/oradata/CDB2/PDB04')
5 REFRESH MODE EVERY 1 MINUTES;
34 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY – FAILOVER (1)
 (in case of a failover) you cannot use the refreshable PDB as a regular PDB directly
o There's a still a "connection" to the source PDB, but the source PDB is not available
anymore 
o The refreshable PDB cannot be opened in read/write-mode
 Instead you have to clone the refreshable PDB first
o Be aware, this takes some time
o Regular "full" clone (takes longer, needs more diskspace)
o Snapshot clone (almost immediately available, later on it can be merged to a regular
PDB)
(!! Does not work with ASM)
35 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY – FAILOVER (2)
 "Reinstantiation":
o As soon as the other CDB (= original source CDB) is up and running again, you have
to drop the PDB there and create a refreshable PDB in the other direction
o !! When the "original source PDB" comes up again, the application service will start
there, too. => be aware of a possible "split brain" – situation
 There is no "Switchover" for SE2 ("Refreshable PDB Switchover" is available for Exadata
and Oracle Cloud only)
36 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY – FAILOVER (3)
 Cloning a PDB
 Create a "snapshot clone"
SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <pdb_name> OPEN READ ONLY;
SQL> CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE <work_pdb> from <pdb_name>
2 FILE_NAME_CONVERT=(…);
SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <pdb_name> OPEN READ ONLY;
SQL> CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE <work_pdb> from <pdb_name>
2 FILE_NAME_CONVERT=(…) SNAPSHOT COPY;
37 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY – FAILOVER (4)
 Later on you can make the snapshot clone a “regular PDB”
SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <work_pdb> MATERIALIZE
2 FILE_NAME_CONVERT=(…);
38 CLIENT CONNECT
 Use an application service for client connects (do not use the default service of the PDB)
 Place both hosts in the client connect
PDB_APP.MARKUSDBA.LOCAL =
(DESCRIPTION =
(RETRY_COUNT=20)(RETRY_DELAY=3)
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(LOAD_BALANCE = OFF )
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = node1)(PORT=1521))
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = node2)(PORT=1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = PDB_APP_SVC.markusdba.local)
)
)
39
"SEMAA"
40 MAXIMUM AVAILABILITY ARCHITECTURE (MAA)
 Combination of RAC and DataGuard
 Provides service high availability (RAC) and data high availability (DataGuard)
$ $ $ $ $ $
€ € € € € €
MAA_SITE2
Standby
Database
Primary
Database
blue
yellow
MAA_SITE1
red
white
Network
41 "SEMAA"
 Combination of SEHA and Refreshable PDB
$ $ € €
CDB2
SEHA
CDB1
SEHA
blue
yellow
red
white
Network
PDB PDB
Refreshable PDB
42 "SEMAA" - SETUP
 The same rules apply as with SEHA and Refreshable PDB
 Procedure
1. Create "Primary CDB"
2. Make "Primary CDB" a "SEHA-CDB"
3. Create "Standby CDB"
4. Make "Standby CDB" a "SEHA-CDB"
5. Create "Primary PDB"
6. Create the "Standby-PDB" as a refreshable clone of the "Primary-PDB"
 Client Connect
o Use an application service for client connects (not the default service of the PDB)
o Use both cluster names (SCAN names) in TNS-Connect
43
SUMMARY &FURTHER INFORMATION
44
45 SUMMARY
 "SEHA" and "Refreshable PDBs" offer High Availability solutions for the Oracle Database
19c SE2 without additional costs
 SEHA
o Failover Cluster "out of the box"
o Easy setup
 "Refreshable PDBs"
o Max. one minute Data Loss (in theory)
o No Switchover 
o No immediate use of the refreshable PDB in case of a failover (cloning required) 
 It's not Enterprise Edition like High Availability, but it's sufficient for a lot of customers
46 SUMMARY: LICENSING
 Standard Edition High Availability (SEHA) does not require an additional license
o You can run your server with 2 sockets
o If you keep the 10-days-rule you do not need a license for the second server (unless
you use it for other database purposes)
 Grid Infrastructure does not require a license
 Refreshable PDB does not require an additional license
o But both CDBs (source + target) must be licensed
o Maximum number of PDBs in SE2 (19c) is 3
 As always with Oracle Licensing topics:
o Check the current documents
o Ask your Oracle Sales representative for an official statement
47 FURTHER INFORMATION (1)
 Oracle Documentation
o Documentation - Oracle Database 19c - Database Installation Guide - Chapter 10
"Installing Standard Edition High Availability"
o Documentation – Oracle Database 19c "SEHA – Known issues"
https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/19/rnrdm/linux-
platform-issues.html#GUID-E462F73F-E37B-4543-B55F-F5CD9543D417
o Documentation – Oracle Database 19c – Multitenant Administrators Guide – Section
7.5 "About Refreshable Clone PDBs
 MOS-Notes
o Some Data File Missing From DBA_DATA_FILES or CDB_DATA_FILES in Refreshable
PDB (Doc ID 2610743.1)
o How to create refreshable PDB (Doc ID 2441949.1)
o RMAN Skipping Backup of Refreshable PDB (Doc ID 2567138.1)
48 FURTHER INFORMATION (2)
 Other Oracle Sources
o Standard Edition 2 – We Heard You! Announcing: Standard Edition High Availability -
https://blogs.oracle.com/maa/standard-edition-2-announcing-standard-edition-
high-availability
o Licensing Data Recovery Environments:
http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/pricing/data-recovery-licensing-070587.pdf
49 FURTHER INFORMATION (3)
 Blog Posts (english)
o https://www.markusdba.net/2020/05/11/standard-edition-high-availability-first-
impressions/
o https://gotodba.com/2020/09/02/seha-standard-edition-high-availability-in-oracle-
db/
 Blog Posts (german)
o https://www.carajandb.com/blog/2020/standard-edition-high-availability/ (in
German)
o https://blog.ordix.de/neue-hochverfuegbarkeitsloesung-standard-edition-high-
availability-seha-fuer-die-standard-edition-2-se2 (in German)
o https://www.markusdba.de/2022/02/13/von-18c-se2-rac-nach-19c-seha/ (in German,
"From 18c-SE2-RAC to 19c-SEHA)
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
MARKUS FLECHTNER
 Markus.flechtner@trivadis.com
 Twitter @markusdba
 Blog: markusdba.net
TOGETHERWEARE
#1 PARTNER FOR BUSINESSES TOHARNESSTHE
POWEROFDATA
FOR A SMARTER LIFE
High Availability for Oracle SE2

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  • 1. HIGH AVAILABLITYOPTIONS FOR SE2 StandardEditionHighAvailability& RefreshablePDB
  • 2. 2  Together we are 1500 specialists at 34 locations in Switzerland, Germany and Austria with a focus on Data & Applied Intelligence.  Together we support you in the intelligent end-to-end use of your data.  We cover the entire spectrum: from the development and operation of data platforms and solutions, to the refinement of data as well as consulting and training.  We achieve this through the unique combination of Trivadis' technological expertise and Accenture's strategic know- how in the field of data. TRIVADIS & ACCENTURE: #1 FOR DATA & AI
  • 4. HI! MARKUS FLECHTNER PRINCIPAL CONSULTANT  Trivadis Germany GmbH  Studied Mathematics a long time ago  Focus o Oracle High Availability o Database Upgrade + Migration  Teacher: RAC, New Features, Multitenant, PostgreSQL  Twitter @markusdba  Blog: markusdba.net  Co-author of the book The Oracle DBA (2016)
  • 5. 5 AGENDA  Introduction  Standard Edition High-Availability (SEHA)  High-Availability by using Refreshable PDBs  "SEMAA"  Summary & Further information
  • 7. 7 HIGH AVAILABILITY FOR THE ORACLE DATABASE = ?  Enterprise Edition  Real Application Cluster  DataGuard
  • 8. 8 HIGH AVAILABILITY FOR THE DATABASE STANDARD EDITION 2  Real Application Cluster (until Oracle Database 18c) o Max. 2 nodes, 1 socket each o Max. 8 threads per instance  Failover Cluster o Own scripts  "DataGuard—like" third-Party-Tools o DBVisit Standby o Trivadis db*Standby o ... And more
  • 9. 9 FROM THE 19C LICENSING INFORMATION
  • 10. 10 ABOUT 11 MONTHS LATER …
  • 11. 11 What are the current "out-of-the-box" High Availability Solutions for the Oracle Database 19c Standard Edition 2?
  • 13. 13 STANDARD EDITION HIGH AVAILABILITY  SEHA was introduced with the Release Update in April 2020 (RU 19.7) o Due to some issues in RU 19.7, using RU 19.8 or higher is recommended o OCW RU must have the same version in GI home and RDBMS home  SEHA is a failover cluster database configuration for SE2 databases, based on Oracle Grid Infrastructure o 2 node cluster o must use ASM or ACFS as database storage o Currently supported on Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris on SPARC (64-bit) and Microsoft Windows  On Windows it may serve as a replacement for Oracle Fail Safe o Oracle Fail Safe is deprecated as of Oracle Database 19c (desupported as of Oracle Database 21c)
  • 14. 14 SEHA - LICENSING  2 sockets per server  16 threads per server  10-days-rule applies (10 x 24 h)  Source: http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/pricing/data-recovery-licensing- 070587.pdf  More information on the "10 days rule / 10 x 24 h rule") (in German) https://mpaege.wordpress.com/2020/08/24/failover-und-die-10-tage-regel-aeh-10x24- stunden-regel/
  • 15. 15 SEHA - OVERVIEW Grid Infrastructure Shared Storage - ASM / ACFS SEHA Instance SEHA Instance Failover Failure
  • 16. 16 SEHA – SETUP (1) 1. Create the SE2 database on one node o there's nothing special in this step, e.g. you cannot specify "SEHA" in DBCA o SEHA works for both Non-CDB and CDB 2. Move Spfile and password file to shared storage and modify the OCR accordingly $ asmcmd pwcopy /u00/app/oracle/dbs/orapwSEHADB +DATA/SEHADB/orapwSEHADB $ srvctl modify database -db SEHADB -pwfile +DATA/SEHADB/orapwSEHADB
  • 17. 17 SEHA – SETUP (2) 3. specify the list of available nodes for your database $ srvctl modify database -db SEHADB -node node1,node2  The required directories on the second node (ADR etc. ) are created when the database is started for the first time  Of course, the Oracle software has to be installed on the second node beforehand
  • 18. 18 SEHA – DATABASE RELOCATE  Database is closed on node1 (SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE) and opened on node2  Duration depends on the number and size of open transactions (Rollback due to SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE)  The parameter "-timeout" and "-drain_timeout" do not have any effect on a SEHA relocate $ srvctl status database -db SEHADB Instance SEHADB is running on node node2 $ srvctl relocate database -db SEHADB -node node1 $ srvctl status database -db SEHADB Instance SEHADB is running on node node1
  • 19. 19 SEHA – DATABASE FAILOVER  Very simple: In case of a node failure of the node on which the SEHA database instance is running, the Oracle Clusterware detects the failure and starts the SEHA database instance on the other node automatically
  • 20. 20 SEHA – CLIENT CONNECT  There's nothing special o Use an application service for client connects (do not use the default service of the PDB resp. DB) o Use the cluster name (SCAN name) for client connects  Fast-Application-Notification (FAN) und Fast-Connection-Failover (FCF) work fine with SEHA SEHA_APP.MARKUSDBA.LOCAL = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = sehacluster)(PORT=1521)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = SEHA_APP_SVC.markusdba.local) ) )
  • 21. 21 SEHA - MISCELLANEOUS  When starting a SEHA database manually, you can specify the node  SEHA is not "RAC One Node"! There is always only one instance running!  SEHA does not work with the Enterprise Edition of the database ("PRCD-2088 : failed to configure the single instance database EEHACDB with multiple nodes because it is not a Standard Edition database")  Application Continuity is not available with SEHA o AC requires Enterprise Edition + Oracle Active Data Guard option or RAC One Node or RAC option $ srvctl start database -db SEHADB -node node2
  • 22. 22 PATCHING A SEHA DATABASE  As there is always only one instance running, you will always have a downtime for the applications (when running datapatch)  You can 1. Patch the software on the "passive node" ("node2") 2. Relocate the database to the "passive node" (node2) which then becomes the active node 3. Run datapatch on node2 ( downtime for the applications) 4. Start the database in normal mode on node2 ( downtime ends) 5. Patch the software on node1  So you can the reduce the downtime a little bit (no downtime for installing the software)
  • 24. 24 REFRESHABLE PDBS - BASICS  Idea: refresh a remote PDB in regular intervals  Use cases: o Use cloned PDB as source for further PDB cloning o Use cloned PDB as read-only-PDB for reporting o "High-Availability" for SE2-PDBs  Cloned PDB can be opened in read-only mode only  Refresh can be done manually or automatically  Source and target PDB must be in different CDBs  Target PDB must be closed for refresh  Refreshable PDB can be based on a Non-CDB  Available since Oracle Database 12c Release 2 CRM01 [RW] Initial clone CRM02 [RO] CRM01 [RW] Propagate changes CRM02 [Closed]
  • 25. 25 REFRESHABLE PDB – "NORMAL USE CASES" CRM01 [RW] Refreshable PDB CRM02 [RO] CRM03 [RW] CRM04 [RW] CRM05 [RW] Production-DB Master Clone Snapshot Clone Reporting
  • 26. 26 REFRESHABLE PDB – SETUP (1)  Source CDB must use local Undo 1. Create a common user in the source CDB 2. Create a public database link from the target CDB to the source CDB o Instead of using a database to the source CDB you can use a database link which points to the source PDB SQL> CREATE USER C##REFRESH identified by <password>; SQL> GRANT CREATE SESSION,RESTRICTED SESSION,SYSOPER to C##REFRESH 2 CONTAINER=ALL; SQL> GRANT CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE TO C##REFRESH; SQL> CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK <SOURCE_CDB> 2 CONNECT TO C##REFRESH IDENTIFIED BY '<PASSWORD>' USING '<TNS>';
  • 27. 27 REFRESHABLE PDB – SETUP (2) 3. Create a refreshable PDB and specify the refresh mode CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE <PDB> FROM <PDB>@<SOURCE_CDB> file_name_convert= … REFRESH MODE EVERY 240 MINUTES;
  • 28. 28 REFRESHABLE PDB – REFRESH MODE  Possible refresh Modes o REFRESH MODE EVERY <n> MINUTES o REFRESH MODE MANUAL o REFRESH NONE  If the PDB is not closed for a scheduled refresh, the refresh will be skipped  You cannot open a refreshable PDB "read-write": "ORA-65341: cannot open pluggable database in read/write mode" SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <PDB> CLOSE IMMEDIATE; SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <PDB> REFRESH;
  • 29. 29 REFRESHABLE PDB – DATA DICTIONARY SQL> select PDB_NAME,REFRESH_MODE,REFRESH_INTERVAL,LAST_REFRESH_SCN 2 from cdb_pdbs; PDB_NAME REFRES REFRESH_INTERVAL LAST_REFRESH_SCN ---------- ------ ---------------- ---------------- PDB$SEED NONE SE2PDB AUTO 1 1672347 SQL> select scn_to_timestamp(1672347) from dual@<source_db>; SCN_TO_TIMESTAMP(1672347) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16-AUG-20 01.07.16.000000000 PM From Source DB
  • 30. 30 REFRESHABLE PDB – ALERT.LOG SE2PDB(4):alter pluggable database refresh 2020-08-16T11:58:12.076936+02:00 Applying media recovery for pdb-4099 from SCN 1672311 to SCN 1672347 Remote log information: count-1 thr-1,seq-20,logfile- /u02/fast_recovery_area/SE2CDBA/foreign_archivelog/SE2PDB/2020_08_16/o1_mf_1_20_hml0smw3_ .arc,los-1592646,nxs-18446744073709551615,maxblks-366859 SE2PDB(4):Media Recovery Start 2020-08-16T11:58:12.077338+02:00 SE2PDB(4):Serial Media Recovery started SE2PDB(4):max_pdb is 5 2020-08-16T11:58:12.154566+02:00 SE2PDB(4):Media Recovery Log /u02/fast_recovery_area/SE2CDBA/foreign_archivelog/SE2PDB/2020_08_16/o1_mf_1_20_hml0smw3_ .arc 2020-08-16T11:58:12.665203+02:00 SE2PDB(4):Incomplete Recovery applied until change 1672347 time 08/16/2020 11:58:10 2020-08-16T11:58:12.668710+02:00 SE2PDB(4):Media Recovery Complete (SE2CDBB) SE2PDB(4):Completed: alter pluggable database refresh
  • 31. 31 REFRESH MECHANISM  For a refresh, the redolog information is used o Redo information is accessed via the database link  If you are using longer refresh intervals, the archivelog files must be available on the source CDB o Usually not an issue for "HA-configurations" with 1-minute-interval  o Keep this in mind if you open a refreshable PDB temporarily read only so that it cannot be refreshed  You can specify "REMOTE_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST" in the refreshable PDB as a location from where the target CDB can read the redolog files  If the archivelogs are not available, the refresh will fail o  think about your archivelog deletion policy (RMAN)  RMAN does not backup a refreshable PDB
  • 32. 32 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HA  Create a refreshable "Standby PDB" in another CDB  "Standby PDB" is refreshed at a high frequency (minimum refresh interval is 1 minute)  You can open the "Standby-PDB" read-only e.g. for reporting o !! This will cause a gap  Disable the refresh and open the "Standby- PDB" in case of a failover  Idea: mutual protection of 2 CDBs resp. 2 PDBs  Unfortunately, there is no "observer" CDB1 CDB2 PDB1A [open] PDB2A [mount] PDB1A [mount] PDB2A [open] Refresh
  • 33. 33 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY - PREPARATION 1. Create a "Standby-CDB" 2. Create a refreshable PDB on the "Standby-CDB" – refresh interval 1 minute 3. Keep this PDB closed (mounted) for automatic refresh SQL> CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE PDB04 2 FROM PDB04@CDB1.markusdba.local 3 file_name_convert= 4 ('/u01/oradata/CDB1/PDB04','/u01/oradata/CDB2/PDB04') 5 REFRESH MODE EVERY 1 MINUTES;
  • 34. 34 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY – FAILOVER (1)  (in case of a failover) you cannot use the refreshable PDB as a regular PDB directly o There's a still a "connection" to the source PDB, but the source PDB is not available anymore  o The refreshable PDB cannot be opened in read/write-mode  Instead you have to clone the refreshable PDB first o Be aware, this takes some time o Regular "full" clone (takes longer, needs more diskspace) o Snapshot clone (almost immediately available, later on it can be merged to a regular PDB) (!! Does not work with ASM)
  • 35. 35 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY – FAILOVER (2)  "Reinstantiation": o As soon as the other CDB (= original source CDB) is up and running again, you have to drop the PDB there and create a refreshable PDB in the other direction o !! When the "original source PDB" comes up again, the application service will start there, too. => be aware of a possible "split brain" – situation  There is no "Switchover" for SE2 ("Refreshable PDB Switchover" is available for Exadata and Oracle Cloud only)
  • 36. 36 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY – FAILOVER (3)  Cloning a PDB  Create a "snapshot clone" SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <pdb_name> OPEN READ ONLY; SQL> CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE <work_pdb> from <pdb_name> 2 FILE_NAME_CONVERT=(…); SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <pdb_name> OPEN READ ONLY; SQL> CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE <work_pdb> from <pdb_name> 2 FILE_NAME_CONVERT=(…) SNAPSHOT COPY;
  • 37. 37 REFRESHABLE PDB FOR HIGH AVAILABILITY – FAILOVER (4)  Later on you can make the snapshot clone a “regular PDB” SQL> ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE <work_pdb> MATERIALIZE 2 FILE_NAME_CONVERT=(…);
  • 38. 38 CLIENT CONNECT  Use an application service for client connects (do not use the default service of the PDB)  Place both hosts in the client connect PDB_APP.MARKUSDBA.LOCAL = (DESCRIPTION = (RETRY_COUNT=20)(RETRY_DELAY=3) (ADDRESS_LIST= (LOAD_BALANCE = OFF ) (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = node1)(PORT=1521)) (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = node2)(PORT=1521)) ) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = PDB_APP_SVC.markusdba.local) ) )
  • 40. 40 MAXIMUM AVAILABILITY ARCHITECTURE (MAA)  Combination of RAC and DataGuard  Provides service high availability (RAC) and data high availability (DataGuard) $ $ $ $ $ $ € € € € € € MAA_SITE2 Standby Database Primary Database blue yellow MAA_SITE1 red white Network
  • 41. 41 "SEMAA"  Combination of SEHA and Refreshable PDB $ $ € € CDB2 SEHA CDB1 SEHA blue yellow red white Network PDB PDB Refreshable PDB
  • 42. 42 "SEMAA" - SETUP  The same rules apply as with SEHA and Refreshable PDB  Procedure 1. Create "Primary CDB" 2. Make "Primary CDB" a "SEHA-CDB" 3. Create "Standby CDB" 4. Make "Standby CDB" a "SEHA-CDB" 5. Create "Primary PDB" 6. Create the "Standby-PDB" as a refreshable clone of the "Primary-PDB"  Client Connect o Use an application service for client connects (not the default service of the PDB) o Use both cluster names (SCAN names) in TNS-Connect
  • 44. 44
  • 45. 45 SUMMARY  "SEHA" and "Refreshable PDBs" offer High Availability solutions for the Oracle Database 19c SE2 without additional costs  SEHA o Failover Cluster "out of the box" o Easy setup  "Refreshable PDBs" o Max. one minute Data Loss (in theory) o No Switchover  o No immediate use of the refreshable PDB in case of a failover (cloning required)   It's not Enterprise Edition like High Availability, but it's sufficient for a lot of customers
  • 46. 46 SUMMARY: LICENSING  Standard Edition High Availability (SEHA) does not require an additional license o You can run your server with 2 sockets o If you keep the 10-days-rule you do not need a license for the second server (unless you use it for other database purposes)  Grid Infrastructure does not require a license  Refreshable PDB does not require an additional license o But both CDBs (source + target) must be licensed o Maximum number of PDBs in SE2 (19c) is 3  As always with Oracle Licensing topics: o Check the current documents o Ask your Oracle Sales representative for an official statement
  • 47. 47 FURTHER INFORMATION (1)  Oracle Documentation o Documentation - Oracle Database 19c - Database Installation Guide - Chapter 10 "Installing Standard Edition High Availability" o Documentation – Oracle Database 19c "SEHA – Known issues" https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/19/rnrdm/linux- platform-issues.html#GUID-E462F73F-E37B-4543-B55F-F5CD9543D417 o Documentation – Oracle Database 19c – Multitenant Administrators Guide – Section 7.5 "About Refreshable Clone PDBs  MOS-Notes o Some Data File Missing From DBA_DATA_FILES or CDB_DATA_FILES in Refreshable PDB (Doc ID 2610743.1) o How to create refreshable PDB (Doc ID 2441949.1) o RMAN Skipping Backup of Refreshable PDB (Doc ID 2567138.1)
  • 48. 48 FURTHER INFORMATION (2)  Other Oracle Sources o Standard Edition 2 – We Heard You! Announcing: Standard Edition High Availability - https://blogs.oracle.com/maa/standard-edition-2-announcing-standard-edition- high-availability o Licensing Data Recovery Environments: http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/pricing/data-recovery-licensing-070587.pdf
  • 49. 49 FURTHER INFORMATION (3)  Blog Posts (english) o https://www.markusdba.net/2020/05/11/standard-edition-high-availability-first- impressions/ o https://gotodba.com/2020/09/02/seha-standard-edition-high-availability-in-oracle- db/  Blog Posts (german) o https://www.carajandb.com/blog/2020/standard-edition-high-availability/ (in German) o https://blog.ordix.de/neue-hochverfuegbarkeitsloesung-standard-edition-high- availability-seha-fuer-die-standard-edition-2-se2 (in German) o https://www.markusdba.de/2022/02/13/von-18c-se2-rac-nach-19c-seha/ (in German, "From 18c-SE2-RAC to 19c-SEHA)
  • 50. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS MARKUS FLECHTNER  Markus.flechtner@trivadis.com  Twitter @markusdba  Blog: markusdba.net
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Editor's Notes

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