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Marcus Botacin
Texas A&M University, USA
@MarcusBotacin
All You Always Wanted to Know
About AntiViruses
(and I had to hands-on to tell you!)
HITB 2023, HACK IN THE BOX SECURITY CONFERENCE
Apr 17-21, 2023, AMSTERDAM, NL
1
1
Publication
2
0x0. AV products are not the same as AV
engines
3
Engine Sharing
4
0x1. AVs have multiple components
5
AV Architecture
6
0x2. Whitelists are still widely used
7
Whitelisting
8
Whitelisting
9
Whitelisting
10
0x3. Companies make money selling
whitelisting data
11
Selling Whitelists
12
Selling Whitelists
13
0x4. Signatures are still widely used
14
15
Signatures in Practice
Signature Extraction Algorithm
16
The extracted signatures
17
Signature Extraction Algorithm in Practice
18
Signature Usage: Prevalence
19
Signature sizes
20
0x5. (Packed Malware) Detection is also a
cost-benefit trade-off
21
Packers
22
UPX support
23
0x6. AVs largely rely on userland hooking for
data collection
24
Injected Libraries and hooks
Try yourself!
25
Libs and Machine Learning: A Discussion
26
0x7. AVs largely rely on kernel driver for
self-protection
27
Kernel Filters and Callbacks
28
Access Control
29
0x8. AVs “spy” on your network traffic
30
Network Process: avp (Kaspersky)
31
Network Certificates
32
Snort Rules (VIPRE)
33
0x9. AVs store files in quarentines
34
Quarantine: Encoded File Information
35
Quarantine
36
Quarantine: Original File
37
Quarantine: Encoded File
38
0xA. AVs collect lots of data from you and
about you
39
Databases and Logs
40
AV Telemetry
41
File Cache
42
URL cache
43
0xB. Caches can also be exploited
44
Attacks due to caching
45
0xC. AVs updates definitions AND
components
46
AV update in a month
47
Downloads in plain HTTP
48
VPX structure
49
For Programmers
50
Extracting PE from VPX
51
0xD. AVs security depends on their integrity
52
Patching in secure boot mode
53
0xE. AV’s security depends on pristine
installations
54
Assume pristine installation
55
Pristine installation attempt
56
0xF. Browser extensions are AV clients
57
Javascript Injection
58
Content Modification
59
0x10. Android AVs are VERY weak
60
Android AVs: Static Filtering
61
Android AVs: Whitelisting
62
Android AVs: Exploiting accessibility services
63
Future Directions
64
What to do now?
● AV companies must be more transparent about their decisions.
● Researchers have many opportunities to be explored.
● AV evaluations should be multi-dimensional
65
What do we use this knowledge for?
66
Publications
Terminator: A Secure Coprocessor to Accelerate Real-Time AntiViruses
Using Inspection Breakpoints
67
HEAVEN: A Hardware-Enhanced AntiVirus ENgine to accelerate
real-time, signature-based malware detection
``VANILLA'' malware: vanishing antiviruses by interleaving layers and
layers of attacks
HITB 2023, HACK IN THE BOX SECURITY CONFERENCE
Apr 17-21, 2023, AMSTERDAM, NL
68
All You Always Wanted to Know About AntiViruses
(and I had to hands-on to tell you!)
Thank you!
Contact: botacin@tamu.edu or @MarcusBotacin
My Website: marcusbotacin.github.io
Marcus Botacin
Texas A&M University, USA
@MarcusBotacin

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