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Potential Nanoparticles for the
Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
INTRODUCTION
 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative
disorder that causes a progressive decline in cognitive function,
including memory loss, language disorders, and judgment and
comprehension impairments . (Masters et al., 2015)
 The German neurologist and psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer
initially described the condition in 1907.
 According to the World Alzheimer’s Disease Report 2021, there
are currently around 50 million patients with AD worldwide. This
number is expected to increase to 78 million by 2030. (Nandi et
al., 2022)
Hypothesis
There are three accepted hypotheses for the pathological cause of
Alzheimer’s disease
the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque hypothesis,
the Tau hyperphosphorylation hypothesis,
 neuroinflammation (Busche and Hyman, 2020).
Continue…
 The exact cause of AD has not yet been identified, the disease is still
incurable, and most of the above therapeutic drugs can only delay its
progression.
 The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical barrier that regulates how
drugs enter and exits the central nervous system (CNS).
 It is another significant factor hindering the development of AD drugs
(Pardridge, 2019;).
 As nanotechnology advances quickly, several nanomaterials can assist
through the BBB and successfully delivering them to brain, which is
important for developing new drugs and treating CNS diseases (Zeng
et al., 2021
Properties of Nanomedicine
The ideal AD nanomedicine typically possesses the following characteristics: particle
size 10–100 nm
BBB penetration
 high drug loading
 long action time
 good drug stability
 nontoxicity, biodegradability
 simple fabrication process
 noninvasive administration
 low cost and stable storage (Jagaran and Singh, 2021).
Types of Nanomedicine
FIGURE Schematic
representation of the
structures of the most
commonly used
nanomedicine types for
Alzheimer’s disease: lipid
(liposomes and solid lipid),
organic (dendritic and
polymer), inorganic (metal
and non-metal inorganic) and
biomimetic (albumin).
Types of Nanomedicine
Metal nanoparticles
 The size of metal NPs is usually between 1 and 100 nm, and they typically have a
function.nal organic molecules shell around a metal core.
 pure metals, including gold, silver, copper, zinc, etc., or their oxides make up metal
oxide NPs (Jamkhande et al., 2019)
Silvar nanoparticles
Selenium nanoparticles
Gold nanoparticles
Zinc and iron nanoparticles
Challenges and future
perspectives
Reference
 Masters, C. L., Bateman, R., Blennow, K., Rowe, C. C., Sperling, R. A., and
Cummings, J. L. (2015). Alzheimer's disease. Nat. Rev. Dis. Prim.
 Nandi, A., Counts, N., Chen, S., Seligman, B.,Tortorice, D.,Vigo, D., et al. (2022).
Global and regional projections of the economic burden of Alzheimer's disease
and related dementias from 2019 to 2050: A value of statistical life approach.
 Busche, M. A., and Hyman, B.T. (2020). Synergy between amyloid-β and tau in
Alzheimer's disease. Nat. Neurosci.
 Pardridge, W. M. (2019). Blood-brain barrier and delivery of protein and gene
therapeutics to brain. Front. Aging Neurosci
 Jagaran, K., and Singh, M. (2021). Nanomedicine for neurodegenerative disorders:
Focus on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22

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Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease_102718.pptx

  • 1. Potential Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that causes a progressive decline in cognitive function, including memory loss, language disorders, and judgment and comprehension impairments . (Masters et al., 2015)  The German neurologist and psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer initially described the condition in 1907.  According to the World Alzheimer’s Disease Report 2021, there are currently around 50 million patients with AD worldwide. This number is expected to increase to 78 million by 2030. (Nandi et al., 2022)
  • 3. Hypothesis There are three accepted hypotheses for the pathological cause of Alzheimer’s disease the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque hypothesis, the Tau hyperphosphorylation hypothesis,  neuroinflammation (Busche and Hyman, 2020).
  • 4. Continue…  The exact cause of AD has not yet been identified, the disease is still incurable, and most of the above therapeutic drugs can only delay its progression.  The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical barrier that regulates how drugs enter and exits the central nervous system (CNS).  It is another significant factor hindering the development of AD drugs (Pardridge, 2019;).  As nanotechnology advances quickly, several nanomaterials can assist through the BBB and successfully delivering them to brain, which is important for developing new drugs and treating CNS diseases (Zeng et al., 2021
  • 5. Properties of Nanomedicine The ideal AD nanomedicine typically possesses the following characteristics: particle size 10–100 nm BBB penetration  high drug loading  long action time  good drug stability  nontoxicity, biodegradability  simple fabrication process  noninvasive administration  low cost and stable storage (Jagaran and Singh, 2021).
  • 6. Types of Nanomedicine FIGURE Schematic representation of the structures of the most commonly used nanomedicine types for Alzheimer’s disease: lipid (liposomes and solid lipid), organic (dendritic and polymer), inorganic (metal and non-metal inorganic) and biomimetic (albumin). Types of Nanomedicine
  • 7. Metal nanoparticles  The size of metal NPs is usually between 1 and 100 nm, and they typically have a function.nal organic molecules shell around a metal core.  pure metals, including gold, silver, copper, zinc, etc., or their oxides make up metal oxide NPs (Jamkhande et al., 2019)
  • 11. Zinc and iron nanoparticles
  • 13. Reference  Masters, C. L., Bateman, R., Blennow, K., Rowe, C. C., Sperling, R. A., and Cummings, J. L. (2015). Alzheimer's disease. Nat. Rev. Dis. Prim.  Nandi, A., Counts, N., Chen, S., Seligman, B.,Tortorice, D.,Vigo, D., et al. (2022). Global and regional projections of the economic burden of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias from 2019 to 2050: A value of statistical life approach.  Busche, M. A., and Hyman, B.T. (2020). Synergy between amyloid-β and tau in Alzheimer's disease. Nat. Neurosci.  Pardridge, W. M. (2019). Blood-brain barrier and delivery of protein and gene therapeutics to brain. Front. Aging Neurosci  Jagaran, K., and Singh, M. (2021). Nanomedicine for neurodegenerative disorders: Focus on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22