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SUBJECT: Advanced Pharmacology -II
TOPIC :Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of
Hormones such as Growth Hormone, Prolactin,
Insulin
GUIDED BY
Dr. DEEPARANI UROLAGIN
RR COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
RR LAYOOUT ,
CHIKKABANAVARA,BANGALORE
560090
Department of Pharmacology
PRESENTED BY
ANSARI AASHIF RAZA
(IInd semester , M.PHARM)
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY
HGH (human growth hormone)
• It’s a protein based poly-pepitide
• Produced by the pituitary gland in the brain.
• Used to stimulate growth, and cell reproduction and
regeneration in humans and other animals.
DEFINITION
•Growth hormone also known as somatotropin or
as human growth hormone [HGH] in its human form), is
a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction,
and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
•It is thus important in human development. It is a type
of mitogen which is specific only to certain kinds of cells.
• Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single-
chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored and secreted
by somatotropin cells within the lateral wings of the anterior
pituitary gland.
MECHANISM
Functions
•Effects of growth hormone on the tissues of the body can
generally be described as anabolic (building up). Like
most other protein hormones, GH acts by interacting with
a specific receptor on the surface of cells.
Increased height during childhood is the most widely known
effect of GH.
Apart From Height, Other Responses Are;
• Increases calcium retention, strengthens and increases
the mineralization of Bone.
• Increases muscle mass.
• Promotes lipolysis.
• Increases protein synthesis.
• Stimulates the growth of all internal organs excluding the brain.
• Plays a role in Homeostasis
Continue…..
Medical uses
• REPLACEMENT THERAPY
• Treatment with exogenous GH is indicated only in limited
circumstances , and needs regular monitoring due to the frequency
and severity of side-effects.
• GH is used as replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency of
either childhood-onset or adult-onset (usually as a result of an
acquired pituitary tumor).
• In these patients, benefits have variably included reduced fat mass,
increased lean mass, increased bone density, improved lipid profile,
reduced cardiovascular risk factors.
Intended use
• Children with growth disorders
• Adults with hormone deficiency
• Short bowel syndrome
Side effects
1. Increased risk of diabetes
2. High blood pressure
3. Arthritis [Joint Inflamation]
4. Joint swelling
5. Joint pain
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome
7. Headache
8. Nausea, vomititing
HOW HGH METHODS WORK
 Injection: a synthetic substance injected into the body. They tend to
be very expensive a single injections costs as much as $29.
[INR ₹2,399.75]
 Oral Spray: not scientifically proven to have an effect. Some say
they see results faster then the other methods.
 Natural releasers: they increase the HGH levels in our bodies. They
are like vitamins taken in a tablet form. Usually taken just before bed
seeing how the pituitary gland is most active during sleep.
HGH prescriptions
 It is legal to take human growth hormones if prescribed by a
physician.
PROLACTIN
A hormone released from
the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates milk production
after childbirth.
Prolactin is synthesized and secreted from specialized cells of the
Anterior pituitary gland, the lactotroph cells.
• The pituitary gland (also called the master gland) is an endocrine
gland about the size of a pea (weighing 0.5 g) and located at the
base of the brain (just below the hypothalamus).
• The pituitary gland has two parts – The anterior lobe and
posterior lobe – that have two separate functions.
• The pituitary gland secrets hormones regulating homeostasis,
including tropic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.
MECHANISM
• Prolactin receptors are present in the
mammillary glands, ovaries, pituitary glands,
heart, lung, thymus, spleen, liver, pancreas,
kidney, adrenal gland, uterus, skeletal muscle,
skin and areas of the central nervous system.
• When prolactin binds to the receptor, it causes
it to dimerize with another prolactin receptor.
• This results in the activation of Janus kinase
2, a tyrosine kinase that initiates the JAK-
STAT pathway. Activation also results in the
activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases
Leads to the transcription and produces function
proteins .
REGULATION OF SECRETION
• Breast feeding is the major stimulus of prolactin production.
• Triggered by the prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
• Inhibited by prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH), dopamine,
acting on the D2 receptors present on the lactotroph cells
 In males, the influence of PIH predominates.
 In females, PRL levels increase and decrease in accordance with
estrogen blood levels;
1. -Low estrogen levels stimulate PIH release.
2. -High estrogen levels promote release of PRH and thus PRL.
3. Blood levels increase towards the end of the pregnancy.
4. When the mother no longer needs to produce milk, dopamine
inhibits prolactin by signaling the hypothalamus to stop.
FACTORS AFFECTING SECRETION
Factors increasing PRL secretion:
• Prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
• Estrogen (during pregnancy stimulates lactotropes to secrete PRL)
• Oxytocin (causes muscle contractions to expel milk)
• Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
• Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
• Breast feeding
• Stress
• Sleep
• Dopamine antagonists (e.g. antipsychotic drugs)
INSULIN
INSULIN
• Is a polypeptide hormone produce by B-cells of langerhans of pancreas.
• It has profound influence on metabolism of Carbohydrates, fat & proteins.
• It is considered as the anabolic hormone
• The human insulin is comprised of 51 amino acid.
• It is produced by beta cells of the pancreas and plays a key role in
regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.
• Insulin is synthesized as a single polypeptide known as
preproinsulin in pancreatic beta cells.
Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)
DEGRADATION OF INSULIN
• Half life is 4-5mins.
• A protease enzyme, namely Insulinase degrades Insulin (mainly found
in liver and kidney)
DISORDERS
ADVERSE EFFECTS
• Hypoglycemia .
• Allergic Reactions
Local redness, itching-self limiting, disappears with
continuation of therapy.
• Systemic allergy- angioedema(Angioedema is where a part of the
body suddenly becomes swollen) , anaphylaxis.
REFERENCE
1. PHARMACOLOGY FOR MEDICAL GRADUATES 4TH EDITION BY TARA V
SHANBHAG/SMITA SHENOY
2. SLIDE SHARES
3. http://www.slideshare.net/AbhishekJoshi312/molecular-and-cellular-
mechanism-of-action-of-hormones?from_m_app=android
4. http://www.slideshare.net/diksha301/1-st-yr-physio?from_m_app=android
5. http://www.slideshare.net/SreyaRathnaj/molecular-and-cellular-action-of-
prolactin?from_m_app=android
6. http://www.slideshare.net/drdhriti/thyroid-hormones-and-thyroid-
inhibitors-drdhriti?from_m_app=android
7. http://www.slideshare.net/anurag_yadav/insulin-
71225847?from_m_app=android
8. http://www.slideshare.net/RajeshYadav405/sex-hormones-
240561845?from_m_app=android
Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone, Prolactin,Insulin.pptx

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Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone, Prolactin,Insulin.pptx

  • 1. SUBJECT: Advanced Pharmacology -II TOPIC :Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone, Prolactin, Insulin GUIDED BY Dr. DEEPARANI UROLAGIN RR COLLEGE OF PHARMACY RR LAYOOUT , CHIKKABANAVARA,BANGALORE 560090 Department of Pharmacology PRESENTED BY ANSARI AASHIF RAZA (IInd semester , M.PHARM) DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. HGH (human growth hormone) • It’s a protein based poly-pepitide • Produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. • Used to stimulate growth, and cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals.
  • 6. DEFINITION •Growth hormone also known as somatotropin or as human growth hormone [HGH] in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals. •It is thus important in human development. It is a type of mitogen which is specific only to certain kinds of cells. • Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single- chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored and secreted by somatotropin cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland.
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  • 10. Functions •Effects of growth hormone on the tissues of the body can generally be described as anabolic (building up). Like most other protein hormones, GH acts by interacting with a specific receptor on the surface of cells. Increased height during childhood is the most widely known effect of GH.
  • 11. Apart From Height, Other Responses Are; • Increases calcium retention, strengthens and increases the mineralization of Bone. • Increases muscle mass. • Promotes lipolysis. • Increases protein synthesis. • Stimulates the growth of all internal organs excluding the brain. • Plays a role in Homeostasis Continue…..
  • 12. Medical uses • REPLACEMENT THERAPY • Treatment with exogenous GH is indicated only in limited circumstances , and needs regular monitoring due to the frequency and severity of side-effects. • GH is used as replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency of either childhood-onset or adult-onset (usually as a result of an acquired pituitary tumor). • In these patients, benefits have variably included reduced fat mass, increased lean mass, increased bone density, improved lipid profile, reduced cardiovascular risk factors.
  • 13. Intended use • Children with growth disorders • Adults with hormone deficiency • Short bowel syndrome
  • 14. Side effects 1. Increased risk of diabetes 2. High blood pressure 3. Arthritis [Joint Inflamation] 4. Joint swelling 5. Joint pain 6. Carpal tunnel syndrome 7. Headache 8. Nausea, vomititing
  • 15. HOW HGH METHODS WORK  Injection: a synthetic substance injected into the body. They tend to be very expensive a single injections costs as much as $29. [INR ₹2,399.75]  Oral Spray: not scientifically proven to have an effect. Some say they see results faster then the other methods.  Natural releasers: they increase the HGH levels in our bodies. They are like vitamins taken in a tablet form. Usually taken just before bed seeing how the pituitary gland is most active during sleep.
  • 16. HGH prescriptions  It is legal to take human growth hormones if prescribed by a physician.
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  • 18. PROLACTIN A hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates milk production after childbirth. Prolactin is synthesized and secreted from specialized cells of the Anterior pituitary gland, the lactotroph cells. • The pituitary gland (also called the master gland) is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea (weighing 0.5 g) and located at the base of the brain (just below the hypothalamus). • The pituitary gland has two parts – The anterior lobe and posterior lobe – that have two separate functions. • The pituitary gland secrets hormones regulating homeostasis, including tropic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.
  • 19. MECHANISM • Prolactin receptors are present in the mammillary glands, ovaries, pituitary glands, heart, lung, thymus, spleen, liver, pancreas, kidney, adrenal gland, uterus, skeletal muscle, skin and areas of the central nervous system. • When prolactin binds to the receptor, it causes it to dimerize with another prolactin receptor. • This results in the activation of Janus kinase 2, a tyrosine kinase that initiates the JAK- STAT pathway. Activation also results in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases Leads to the transcription and produces function proteins .
  • 20. REGULATION OF SECRETION • Breast feeding is the major stimulus of prolactin production. • Triggered by the prolactin releasing hormone (PRH) • Inhibited by prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH), dopamine, acting on the D2 receptors present on the lactotroph cells  In males, the influence of PIH predominates.  In females, PRL levels increase and decrease in accordance with estrogen blood levels; 1. -Low estrogen levels stimulate PIH release. 2. -High estrogen levels promote release of PRH and thus PRL. 3. Blood levels increase towards the end of the pregnancy. 4. When the mother no longer needs to produce milk, dopamine inhibits prolactin by signaling the hypothalamus to stop.
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  • 22. FACTORS AFFECTING SECRETION Factors increasing PRL secretion: • Prolactin releasing hormone (PRH) • Estrogen (during pregnancy stimulates lactotropes to secrete PRL) • Oxytocin (causes muscle contractions to expel milk) • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) • Breast feeding • Stress • Sleep • Dopamine antagonists (e.g. antipsychotic drugs)
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  • 25. INSULIN • Is a polypeptide hormone produce by B-cells of langerhans of pancreas. • It has profound influence on metabolism of Carbohydrates, fat & proteins. • It is considered as the anabolic hormone
  • 26. • The human insulin is comprised of 51 amino acid. • It is produced by beta cells of the pancreas and plays a key role in regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. • Insulin is synthesized as a single polypeptide known as preproinsulin in pancreatic beta cells.
  • 28. DEGRADATION OF INSULIN • Half life is 4-5mins. • A protease enzyme, namely Insulinase degrades Insulin (mainly found in liver and kidney)
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  • 31. ADVERSE EFFECTS • Hypoglycemia . • Allergic Reactions Local redness, itching-self limiting, disappears with continuation of therapy. • Systemic allergy- angioedema(Angioedema is where a part of the body suddenly becomes swollen) , anaphylaxis.
  • 32. REFERENCE 1. PHARMACOLOGY FOR MEDICAL GRADUATES 4TH EDITION BY TARA V SHANBHAG/SMITA SHENOY 2. SLIDE SHARES 3. http://www.slideshare.net/AbhishekJoshi312/molecular-and-cellular- mechanism-of-action-of-hormones?from_m_app=android 4. http://www.slideshare.net/diksha301/1-st-yr-physio?from_m_app=android 5. http://www.slideshare.net/SreyaRathnaj/molecular-and-cellular-action-of- prolactin?from_m_app=android 6. http://www.slideshare.net/drdhriti/thyroid-hormones-and-thyroid- inhibitors-drdhriti?from_m_app=android 7. http://www.slideshare.net/anurag_yadav/insulin- 71225847?from_m_app=android 8. http://www.slideshare.net/RajeshYadav405/sex-hormones- 240561845?from_m_app=android