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Hacking TESLA Model 3 -- NFC Relay Revisited
让 安 全 更 简 单
Who We Are
. INGEEK is a Vehicle CyberSecurity company based in Shanghai, China
. Members: @Kevin2600; Yuchao Zhang; Ming Wu; Yan Bo; Tony Zhou ..
. Focus on research, evaluation, and defense for Smart Car Cyber Security
. Notable Achievements
. 2020 Tesla Model 3 NFC Keyfob system research
. 2018 After-Market Digital Keyfob system (DEFCON 26)
. 2017 CarSRC (China First Car Security Response Center Focused on Vehicles)
Hacking TESLA Model3 - NFC Relay Revisited
NFC (Near Field Communication)
Operation Mode: Passive
Operation Range: 5-10 cm
Operation Freqs: 13.56MHz
Data Format: NDEF (NFC Data Exchange Format)
NFC Applications
NFC technology is widely developed
E-wallets; Loyalty cards; Libraries; Payments; Passports
Access control; Car-keys; Bus; Train; Ski-pass; Museum tickets ...
BYD-DiLink
NFC for Automotive
NIO ES8
BYD-DiLink
NFC for Automotive
Tesla -- Computer on Wheels
Tesla -- Pwned by Hackers
Tesla -- Pwned by Hackers
https://keenlab.tencent.com/en/2020/01/02/exploiting-wifi-stack-on-tesla-model-s/
https://keenlab.tencent.com/en/2019/03/29/Tencent-Keen-Security-Lab-Experimental-Security-
Research-of-Tesla-Autopilot/
Tesla -- Pwned by Hackers
https://www.zerodayinitiative.com/blog/2019/3/22/pwn2own-vancouver-2019-wrapping-up-and-
rolling-out
https://www.esat.kuleuven.be/cosic/fast-furious-and-insecure-passive-keyless-entry-and-start-in-
modern-supercars/
Tesla -- Pwned by Thieves
Hacking TESLA Model3 - NFC Relay Revisited
Research Procedures
1. Reconnaissance
a. The potential attack scenarios (BrainStorming)
b. The architecture of target (RTFM: Internal Mechanism)
2. Design attack plans to achieve the goal
a. Get the gears ready & hands dirty
b. Implementing the actual attack plans
3. Trophy or Nothing
a. Testing with the target (if Success --> Trophy )
b. Testing with the target (If Failed --> TryHarder --> Repeat)
Keyfobs Architecture
Tesla Logic of PEPS (Passive Entry & Passive Start)
Remote Control the Vehicle through NFC; Bluetooth and 4G Network
Keyfob Internal
Keyfob Internal
NFC Tag Internal
Support ISO14443 Type-A and ISO 7816-4 (APDU)
Global Platform ISD --> A000000151000000 (Java Smart Card)
NFC Tag Internal
NFC Tag Internal
NFC Tag Internal
: Unique Identifier (UID 7 Bytes)
: Mifare DESFire EV1 (Java Card)
: Authentication ECDH secp256r1 (Challenge-Response)
Hacking TESLA Model3 - NFC Relay Revisited
NFC-Gate Attack (MitM)
NFCGate is an Android application meant to capture, analyze, or modify NFC traffic
It can be used to reverse engineer protocols
NFC Relay Demo (NFCGate)
Tesla Relay Attempt (1st )
Hacking TESLA Model3 - NFC Relay Revisited
NFC Snoop (Proxmark3)
NFC APDU Analysis
NFC APDU Analysis
NFC APDU Analysis
Relay Attack Timing Issue
. Payment terminal POS is not required to stop transactions if it takes longer
. TESLA has more restrictions on timing. it will be timeout, if it didn't respond the
correct answer to AID on time
Tesla Relay Attempt (2nd)
Tesla Relay Attempt (3rd)
NFC Relay Demo (USB: www.youtube.com/watch?v=_6m-htNlz80)
All Your data are Belong to us ..
TeslaLogic Selection (AIDs)
Time is on Our Side ..
NFC Relay Demo (WIFI: www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQWg-Ywv3S4)
I Want To See Further ..
NFC Relay Demo (Long-Range: www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYKsfgox-bs)
Response From Tesla ..
. The goods can be stolen or put in (SPYCam or GPS-Tracker)
. PIN2Drive for protecting from relay attack is a debatable solution
. We are able to open the door, the risk is still there (CVE-2020-15912)
What We Thought ..
What Is Pin2Drive?
What Could Possibly Go Wrong
Pin2Crack (M5Stack)
There Is a Catch..
Finger2Crack Demo (www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIZcfwrr21I)
. Security by Obscurity is not going to work
. 100% Security Does Not exist, even in Vehicles
. Products need to be fully tested before going on the market
Summary
. NFCGate (https://github.com/nfcgate)
. @slawekja (A Practical guide to hacking NFC/RFID)
. @herrmann1001 (https://github.com/RfidResearchGroup/proxmark3)
. Lennert Wouters (https://tches.iacr.org/index.php/TCHES/article/view/8289)
. Robert Quattlebaum (https://gist.github.com/darconeous/tesla-key-card-protocol)
. Salvador Mendoza (https://salmg.net/2018/12/01/intro-to-nfc-payment-relay-attacks/)
References
THANK YOU

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