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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 1
Geoparsing and Real-time Social Media Analytics
11th October 2016
Stuart E. Middleton
University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre
sem@it-innovation.soton.ac.uk @stuart_e_middle
Technical and Social Challenges
ESRC Seminar: Microenterprise, technology and big data
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 2
Overview
• Introduction
• Problem Statement
• Social Science Challenges
• Technical State of the Art
• Future Trends
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 3
Introduction
• IT Innovation Centre
• World-class application-driven R&D
– Applied research and development with and for
industry, commerce and the public sector
– Collaborative research (supported by EC and UK
programmes)
– Client-funded research, development and consulting
• Research themes
– Data science, big data and decision support
– Human-centric computing and information sciences
– Information security and risk management
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 4
Introduction
• Team of over 30 people
• Over the last five years
– 42 major projects
– 25 in the EC Framework Programme
– over £2.25M of UK funding
– over €10M of EC funding
– working directly with tens of Universities
– over 100 companies as partners and clients
web: www.it-innovation.soton.ac.uk
twitter: @IT_Innov
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 5
Problem Statement
• Social media analytics for crisis management
– Real-time mixture of sensors and social media
– Tide gauge sensors
– Tsunami wave propagation simulations
– You Tube videos of flooding
– Extracting eyewitness reports from social media
– Flooding damage, earthquake shakes ...
– Spatial analysis of eyewitness media
– Damage assessments, confirmation of events, cries for help
– Decision support for civil protection agencies
• TRIDEC project www.tridec-online.eu
– Tsunami Early Warning
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 6
Problem Statement
Cite: Middleton, S.E. Sabeur, Z.A., Löwe, P., Hammitzsch, M., Tavakoli, S., Poslad, S. "Multi-disciplinary Approaches To Intelligently Sharing Large-volumes Of Real-
time Sensor Data During Natural Disasters", Data Science Journal, Volume 12, pages 109-113 (2013)
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 7
Problem Statement
• Social media analytics for journalistic verification
– Breaking news decision timeframes
– 10 minute window to find eyewitness media and verify it
– After 20+ minutes its been broadcast and is not new anymore
– Real-time eyewitness media
– Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, You Tube, Periscope
– User generated content (UGC) often at the scene of an event
– Eyewitness images & videos, incidents & damage reports ...
– Supporting a manual verification process
– Journalist best practice
• REVEAL project www.revealproject.eu
– User generated content verification
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 8
Problem Statement
(a) Digitally tampered original - photograph of IAF F-16 deploying a single flare over Southern Lebanon. The flare was digitally
duplicated to make it appear that several missiles were being fired.
(b) Historical image recycled - picture of a storm descending in New York, purported to be captured during Hurricane Sandy,
while it was featured in Wall Street Journal one year earlier.
(c) Completely fake - Image claiming to depict the solar eclipse in 2012, while it was in fact digital artwork originally published
on DevianArt.
Cite: C. Boididou et al., “Challenges of computational verification in social multimedia”
In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web (2014)
(a) (b) (c)
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 9
Social Science Challenges
• The rise of the general public as live reporters
– Smartphone + social media = UGC
– User Generated Content (UGC) is fast and free
– Transforming the way journalists work
– Journalists are telling stories with UGC
– Why send a journalist to the scene? Is UGC enough?
– Faster (breaking news) and more local (niche content)
– Editorial verification costs are rising though
– Unverified content = more checking = more staff time
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 10
Social Science Challenges
• The rise of the general public as live reporters
– Micro-enterprise context
– Low cost business feedback easy via social media
– Content costly (effort) to verify but automation helps
– Risks
– Verification costs to avoid propagating rumours
– Analysis staff (over) exposure to unfiltered UGC
– Graphic content (sexual, violent, disturbing)
– Worker mental health
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 11
Social Science Challenges
• Collaborative news desk remotely distributed
– Modern news desks telework via smartphones
– Verification of UGC is a collaborative effort
– Contact the source
– Do background checks
– Look at contextual material
– Bring in domain expertise
– Collaboration is key to decision making
– Colleagues each provide a different viewpoint
– Local knowledge (places, people, organisations)
– Cultural norms, writing styles, common vocabulary
– Each viewpoint contributes evidence for the overall
verification decision
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 12
Social Science Challenges
• Collaborative news desk remotely distributed
– Micro-enterprise context
– Social media and smartphones can facilitate distributed
networks of contacts / workers
– Reduced travel costs
– Homeworking
– Allows collaborations previously too expensive to facilitate
– Risks
– 24/7 culture
– Worker stress
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 13
Social Science Challenges
• Evidence-based approach to decision support
– Journalists need evidence to make decisions
– Black boxes are not trusted
– Each journalist's reputation is on the line
– Automate the mundane stuff
– Empower staff to focus on the difficult stuff
– Algorithms aggregate, cluster and summarize easily
– People add value on the hard subjective decisions
– Show evidence behind each algorithms decision
– For example show the journalist the social media posts in
clusters that map to a final evidential conclusion
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 14
Social Science Challenges
• Evidence-based approach to decision support
– Micro-enterprise context
– Social media analytics can inform & focus advertising / user
education / marketplace strategy
– App and web-site click through data, user rating feedback
– Social media sentiment analysis during a product launch
– Risks
– Algorithmic results get manipulated
– Bot farms (e.g. US Politics) and governments (e.g.
Russian/Ukraine) are spamming biased content
– Fake social media posts (e.g. likes, comments) and ratings
(e.g. user reviews)
– Easy for humans to spot fakes but algorithms will blindly
aggregate this data
– A few trusted reports > millions of 'echo chamber' posts
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 15
Social Science Challenges
• Protecting users right to privacy
– Our lives are shared online
– Evidence available from status/timeline, friends,
location, interests/groups
– Opt out?
– Your friends activity can still be used to find you ...
– Right to be forgotten?
– Impossible to forget if your data has already been
aggregated ...
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 16
Social Science Challenges
• Protecting users right to privacy
– Micro-enterprise context
– Being seen to respect user privacy is customer friendly
– Risks
– Losing user confidence on privacy issues
– Customers deleting accounts or simply stopping using them
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 17
Technical State of the Art
• Geoparsing
Clustered flood reportsKey Expert post-event assessment
storm surge inundation area
Street flooded tweet(s)
Place flooded tweet(s)
Ground Zero
Wall StreetBattery Place
Holland TunnelGround Zero
Wall StreetBattery Place
Holland Tunnel
Cite: Middleton, S.E. Middleton, L. Modafferi, S. "Real-time Crisis Mapping of Natural Disasters using Social Media",
Intelligent Systems, IEEE , vol.29, no.2, pp.9,17, Mar.-Apr. 2014
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 18
Technical State of the Art
• Fact extraction
Cite: Middleton, S.E. "Extracting Attributed Verification and Debunking Reports from Social Media: MediaEval-2015 Trust and Credibility Analysis of Image and Video",
MediaEval-2015, Wurzen, Germany (2015)
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 19
Technical State of the Art
• Eyewitness & Trust analysis
Cite: Middleton, Middleton, S.E. Krivcovs, V. "Geoparsing and Geosemantics for Social Media: Spatio-Temporal Grounding of Content Propagating Rumours to support
Trust and Veracity Analysis during Breaking News", ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), 34, 3, Article 16 (2016)
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 20
Future Trends
• Social media
– Big datasets controlled by a few companies
– Unregulated big data mining
– Disambiguation & de-anonymoization of our profiles
across social media sites will become routine
• Internet of Things
– Mobile phones, smart buildings, smart environments
– Sensors, cameras, GPS, audio, CCTV
– Data fingerprinting all our daily lives
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© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 21
Future Trends
• Human / bot collectives
– Crowd-sourcing contribution, editing and verification
behaviours
– Bots and humans working together
• Cyber-crime
– Massive data breaches
– Passwords/logins and personal activity/behaviour traces
– Big datasets are a target for cybercriminals
– Dark web marketplaces
– Identify theft & ransomware at an industrial scale
PUBLIC
© University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 22
Thanks you for your attention!
Any questions?
Try our Journalist Decision Support System (JDSS) for free!
https://reveal-jdss.it-innovation.soton.ac.uk/reveal_journalists_dss
Dr Stuart E. Middleton
University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre
email: sem@it-innovation.soton.ac.uk
web: www.it-innovation.soton.ac.uk
twitter:@stuart_e_middle @IT_Innov

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Geoparsing and Real-time Social Media Analytics - technical and social challenges

  • 1. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 1 Geoparsing and Real-time Social Media Analytics 11th October 2016 Stuart E. Middleton University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre sem@it-innovation.soton.ac.uk @stuart_e_middle Technical and Social Challenges ESRC Seminar: Microenterprise, technology and big data
  • 2. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 2 Overview • Introduction • Problem Statement • Social Science Challenges • Technical State of the Art • Future Trends
  • 3. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 3 Introduction • IT Innovation Centre • World-class application-driven R&D – Applied research and development with and for industry, commerce and the public sector – Collaborative research (supported by EC and UK programmes) – Client-funded research, development and consulting • Research themes – Data science, big data and decision support – Human-centric computing and information sciences – Information security and risk management
  • 4. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 4 Introduction • Team of over 30 people • Over the last five years – 42 major projects – 25 in the EC Framework Programme – over £2.25M of UK funding – over €10M of EC funding – working directly with tens of Universities – over 100 companies as partners and clients web: www.it-innovation.soton.ac.uk twitter: @IT_Innov
  • 5. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 5 Problem Statement • Social media analytics for crisis management – Real-time mixture of sensors and social media – Tide gauge sensors – Tsunami wave propagation simulations – You Tube videos of flooding – Extracting eyewitness reports from social media – Flooding damage, earthquake shakes ... – Spatial analysis of eyewitness media – Damage assessments, confirmation of events, cries for help – Decision support for civil protection agencies • TRIDEC project www.tridec-online.eu – Tsunami Early Warning
  • 6. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 6 Problem Statement Cite: Middleton, S.E. Sabeur, Z.A., Löwe, P., Hammitzsch, M., Tavakoli, S., Poslad, S. "Multi-disciplinary Approaches To Intelligently Sharing Large-volumes Of Real- time Sensor Data During Natural Disasters", Data Science Journal, Volume 12, pages 109-113 (2013)
  • 7. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 7 Problem Statement • Social media analytics for journalistic verification – Breaking news decision timeframes – 10 minute window to find eyewitness media and verify it – After 20+ minutes its been broadcast and is not new anymore – Real-time eyewitness media – Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, You Tube, Periscope – User generated content (UGC) often at the scene of an event – Eyewitness images & videos, incidents & damage reports ... – Supporting a manual verification process – Journalist best practice • REVEAL project www.revealproject.eu – User generated content verification
  • 8. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 8 Problem Statement (a) Digitally tampered original - photograph of IAF F-16 deploying a single flare over Southern Lebanon. The flare was digitally duplicated to make it appear that several missiles were being fired. (b) Historical image recycled - picture of a storm descending in New York, purported to be captured during Hurricane Sandy, while it was featured in Wall Street Journal one year earlier. (c) Completely fake - Image claiming to depict the solar eclipse in 2012, while it was in fact digital artwork originally published on DevianArt. Cite: C. Boididou et al., “Challenges of computational verification in social multimedia” In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web (2014) (a) (b) (c)
  • 9. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 9 Social Science Challenges • The rise of the general public as live reporters – Smartphone + social media = UGC – User Generated Content (UGC) is fast and free – Transforming the way journalists work – Journalists are telling stories with UGC – Why send a journalist to the scene? Is UGC enough? – Faster (breaking news) and more local (niche content) – Editorial verification costs are rising though – Unverified content = more checking = more staff time
  • 10. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 10 Social Science Challenges • The rise of the general public as live reporters – Micro-enterprise context – Low cost business feedback easy via social media – Content costly (effort) to verify but automation helps – Risks – Verification costs to avoid propagating rumours – Analysis staff (over) exposure to unfiltered UGC – Graphic content (sexual, violent, disturbing) – Worker mental health
  • 11. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 11 Social Science Challenges • Collaborative news desk remotely distributed – Modern news desks telework via smartphones – Verification of UGC is a collaborative effort – Contact the source – Do background checks – Look at contextual material – Bring in domain expertise – Collaboration is key to decision making – Colleagues each provide a different viewpoint – Local knowledge (places, people, organisations) – Cultural norms, writing styles, common vocabulary – Each viewpoint contributes evidence for the overall verification decision
  • 12. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 12 Social Science Challenges • Collaborative news desk remotely distributed – Micro-enterprise context – Social media and smartphones can facilitate distributed networks of contacts / workers – Reduced travel costs – Homeworking – Allows collaborations previously too expensive to facilitate – Risks – 24/7 culture – Worker stress
  • 13. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 13 Social Science Challenges • Evidence-based approach to decision support – Journalists need evidence to make decisions – Black boxes are not trusted – Each journalist's reputation is on the line – Automate the mundane stuff – Empower staff to focus on the difficult stuff – Algorithms aggregate, cluster and summarize easily – People add value on the hard subjective decisions – Show evidence behind each algorithms decision – For example show the journalist the social media posts in clusters that map to a final evidential conclusion
  • 14. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 14 Social Science Challenges • Evidence-based approach to decision support – Micro-enterprise context – Social media analytics can inform & focus advertising / user education / marketplace strategy – App and web-site click through data, user rating feedback – Social media sentiment analysis during a product launch – Risks – Algorithmic results get manipulated – Bot farms (e.g. US Politics) and governments (e.g. Russian/Ukraine) are spamming biased content – Fake social media posts (e.g. likes, comments) and ratings (e.g. user reviews) – Easy for humans to spot fakes but algorithms will blindly aggregate this data – A few trusted reports > millions of 'echo chamber' posts
  • 15. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 15 Social Science Challenges • Protecting users right to privacy – Our lives are shared online – Evidence available from status/timeline, friends, location, interests/groups – Opt out? – Your friends activity can still be used to find you ... – Right to be forgotten? – Impossible to forget if your data has already been aggregated ...
  • 16. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 16 Social Science Challenges • Protecting users right to privacy – Micro-enterprise context – Being seen to respect user privacy is customer friendly – Risks – Losing user confidence on privacy issues – Customers deleting accounts or simply stopping using them
  • 17. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 17 Technical State of the Art • Geoparsing Clustered flood reportsKey Expert post-event assessment storm surge inundation area Street flooded tweet(s) Place flooded tweet(s) Ground Zero Wall StreetBattery Place Holland TunnelGround Zero Wall StreetBattery Place Holland Tunnel Cite: Middleton, S.E. Middleton, L. Modafferi, S. "Real-time Crisis Mapping of Natural Disasters using Social Media", Intelligent Systems, IEEE , vol.29, no.2, pp.9,17, Mar.-Apr. 2014
  • 18. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 18 Technical State of the Art • Fact extraction Cite: Middleton, S.E. "Extracting Attributed Verification and Debunking Reports from Social Media: MediaEval-2015 Trust and Credibility Analysis of Image and Video", MediaEval-2015, Wurzen, Germany (2015)
  • 19. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 19 Technical State of the Art • Eyewitness & Trust analysis Cite: Middleton, Middleton, S.E. Krivcovs, V. "Geoparsing and Geosemantics for Social Media: Spatio-Temporal Grounding of Content Propagating Rumours to support Trust and Veracity Analysis during Breaking News", ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), 34, 3, Article 16 (2016)
  • 20. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 20 Future Trends • Social media – Big datasets controlled by a few companies – Unregulated big data mining – Disambiguation & de-anonymoization of our profiles across social media sites will become routine • Internet of Things – Mobile phones, smart buildings, smart environments – Sensors, cameras, GPS, audio, CCTV – Data fingerprinting all our daily lives
  • 21. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 21 Future Trends • Human / bot collectives – Crowd-sourcing contribution, editing and verification behaviours – Bots and humans working together • Cyber-crime – Massive data breaches – Passwords/logins and personal activity/behaviour traces – Big datasets are a target for cybercriminals – Dark web marketplaces – Identify theft & ransomware at an industrial scale
  • 22. PUBLIC © University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre, 2016 22 Thanks you for your attention! Any questions? Try our Journalist Decision Support System (JDSS) for free! https://reveal-jdss.it-innovation.soton.ac.uk/reveal_journalists_dss Dr Stuart E. Middleton University of Southampton IT Innovation Centre email: sem@it-innovation.soton.ac.uk web: www.it-innovation.soton.ac.uk twitter:@stuart_e_middle @IT_Innov