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AVAF 209 Aircraft Structures II I.  Evolution of Aircraft Structures II.  Types of Aircraft Structures: That Produce Lift That Produce Control That Modify Lift That Aid Control That Hold People That Support the Aircraft on the Ground That Hold the Powerplant Rotorcraft
Wright brothers Wilbur Orville
Gustave Whitehead
Structure of early machines: Wings of bent wooden ribs covered with fabric Body of open frameworks of wood strips lashed together with wire Landing gear were skids
Control surfaces  small wings  “ Wing Warping” Structure of early machines:
Up to World War I: drag problem
World War I: Biplane  open cockpits  radial engines
metal tube truss construction Welded thin-walled metal tube  covered with fabric lighter weight and stronger World War I:
1920s and 30s: Stressed-Skin construction
 
Aluminum skin 1920s and 30s:
I.  Evolution of Aircraft Structures II.  Types of Aircraft Structures: That Produce Lift That Produce Control That Modify Lift That Aid Control That Hold People That Support the Aircraft (Ground) That Hold the Powerplant Rotorcraft Aluminum structure  MONOCOQUE construction  1920s and 30s:
Since 1930s: SEMI-MONOCOQUE construction
High altitude flight Since 1930s:
Early 1950s:
Part 91:  General Operating and Flight Rules Special Inspections: Part 91 General Required Equipment Maintenance Requirements Inspections Special Inspections Maintenance Records Altimeter & Static System, Transponder, ELT, Hard/Overweight Landing, Severe Turbulence, Aging Aircraft For certain older Large Aircraft the Pressure Vessel must be specially inspected after so many Pressurization Cycles Also, after Dec. 16, 2008 all turbine-powered transport category aircraft must have their fuel tank systems specially inspected and maintained “ Aging Aircraft” – 91.410 Aloha Airlines “Patio Seating” Boeing 737-297 April 28, 1988
Structures That Produce Lift:
AIRFOIL LEADING EDGE TRAILING EDGE ASYMMETRICAL  SYMMETRICAL Structures That Produce Lift:
Lift Theories:  Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
Lift Theories:  Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK HOW?
Lift Theories:  Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
Lift Theories:  Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
Lift Theories:  Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
Lift Theories:  Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
Lift Theories:  Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Downwash Angle
Lift Theories:  Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Greater Downwash Angle
Lift Theories:  Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Too Much Downwash Angle STALL!
Lift Theories:  Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK = Too Little Downwash Angle STALL!
Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
CENTER OF GRAVITY  CENTER OF LIFT NOSE-HEAVY AIRCRAFT Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
CANTILEVER (NO EXTERNAL STRUTS) Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
WINGLETS Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
WINGLETS Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
3 AXES: LATERAL AXIS PITCH Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
3 AXES: LONGITUDINAL  AXIS ROLL (BANK) Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
3 AXES: VERTICAL  AXIS YAW Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
PRIMARY CONTROLS: ELEVATOR AILERONS RUDDER Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
PITCH: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
PITCH: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft ELEVATOR HORIZONTAL STABILIZER EMPENNAGE TAIL LOAD
PITCH: WHEEL OR  STICK PULLED BACK TAIL LOAD INCREASED NOSE UP Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
PITCH: STABILATOR Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft LEFT BANK
ROLL:  AILERONS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS ADVERSE YAW Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS ADVERSE YAW Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS ADVERSE YAW – 4 WAYS TO COMBAT IT: 1.  PILOT RUDDER ACTION ONLY Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS ADVERSE YAW – 2.  DIFFERENTIAL TRAVEL Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS ADVERSE YAW – 3.  FRISE ( freeze)  TYPE AILERON Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  AILERONS ADVERSE YAW –  4.  RUDDER-AILERON INTERCONNECT SPRINGS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  SPOILERS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
ROLL:  SPOILERS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
YAW: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
YAW: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft RUDDER VERTICAL STABILIZER
YAW:  RUDDER PEDALS IN  COCKPIT Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
YAW:  RUDDERVATORS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
YAW:  RUDDERVATORS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft Elevator Action Rudder Action
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALLSPEED TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK TO CONTROL THE BOUNDARY LAYER
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALLSPEED FLAPS TRAILING EDGE LEADING EDGE
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING  EDGE  FLAPS
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING  EDGE  FLAPS PLAIN FLAP
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING  EDGE  FLAPS SPLIT FLAP
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING  EDGE  FLAPS SLOTTED FLAP
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING  EDGE  FLAPS FOWLER FLAP
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING  EDGE  FLAPS TRIPLE SLOTTED FOWLER FLAP
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: LEADING  EDGE  FLAPS DROOPED KRUEGER
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK SLOTS SLATS
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SLOTS
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALL SPEED TO ALLOW HIGHER  ANGLES OF ATTACK SLATS
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALL SPEED TO ALLOW HIGHER  ANGLES OF ATTACK SLATS
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO CONTROL THE BOUNDARY LAYER UPPER SURFACE SUCTION FLAP AUGMENTATION
AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALL SPEED TO ALLOW HIGHER  ANGLES OF ATTACK SUCTION
STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: WANT WING ROOT TO  STALL FIRST
STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: WANT WING ROOT TO  STALL FIRST STALL  STRIP OR  TWISTED  WING
STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SHOCK INDUCED SEPARATION @ Critical Mach  Number
STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SHOCK INDUCED SEPARATION VORTEX GENERATORS
STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SHOCK INDUCED SEPARATION VORTEX GENERATORS TIP VORTICES
SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: FIXED TRIM TAB
SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: ADJUSTABLE TRIM TAB
SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: SERVO TAB
SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: ANTI-SERVO TAB
SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: SPRING TAB
OTHER AIDS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: RUDDER  OVERHANG OR  BALANCE  SURFACE
OTHER AIDS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: AERODYNAMIC BALANCE PANEL
Structures That Hold People: To protect the crew and passengers, withstand the stresses created in flight and landing, and mount all other major components Truss Pratt Longerons Struts Wire Stays
Structures That Hold People: To protect the crew and passengers, withstand the stresses created in flight and landing, and mount all other major components Truss Warren Metal Tubing
Conventional Landing Gear: Tail Wheel 2 Main Wheels “ Tail Dragger” Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
Conventional Landing Gear: Ground Loop Visibility on Ground Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
Tricycle Landing Gear: Nose Wheel 2 Main Wheels Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
Drag Problems: Fixed Gear Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
Drag Problems: Fixed Gear Wheel Fairings “ Wheel Pants” Streamlines Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
Drag Problems: Retractable Gear Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
Other Types of Landing Gear: Floats With wheels = Amphibian Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
Other Types of Landing Gear: Seaplane With wheels =  Amphibian Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: The engine is attached inside the cowling to an ENGINE MOUNT which may be: Semimonocoque Welded tubular That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: The engine is attached inside the cowling to an ENGINE MOUNT which may be Semimonocoque Welded tubular “ Rails” or “Cradle” That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them: On all, the engine is attached to the mount by RUBBER SHOCK MOUNTS Known generically as “Lord Mounts”  Isolate engine vibrations from the fuselage
Turbine (Jet) Engines: Turbine engines are mounted in PODS or NACELLES under the wings or on the side of the rear fuselage or inside the fuselage The pods are attached with PYLONS That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
Turbine (Jet) Engines: That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
Rotorcraft:
Rotorcraft: Structures :
 

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1 Evolution And Type Of Structures

  • 1. AVAF 209 Aircraft Structures II I. Evolution of Aircraft Structures II. Types of Aircraft Structures: That Produce Lift That Produce Control That Modify Lift That Aid Control That Hold People That Support the Aircraft on the Ground That Hold the Powerplant Rotorcraft
  • 4. Structure of early machines: Wings of bent wooden ribs covered with fabric Body of open frameworks of wood strips lashed together with wire Landing gear were skids
  • 5. Control surfaces small wings “ Wing Warping” Structure of early machines:
  • 6. Up to World War I: drag problem
  • 7. World War I: Biplane open cockpits radial engines
  • 8. metal tube truss construction Welded thin-walled metal tube covered with fabric lighter weight and stronger World War I:
  • 9. 1920s and 30s: Stressed-Skin construction
  • 10.  
  • 12. I. Evolution of Aircraft Structures II. Types of Aircraft Structures: That Produce Lift That Produce Control That Modify Lift That Aid Control That Hold People That Support the Aircraft (Ground) That Hold the Powerplant Rotorcraft Aluminum structure MONOCOQUE construction 1920s and 30s:
  • 14. High altitude flight Since 1930s:
  • 16. Part 91: General Operating and Flight Rules Special Inspections: Part 91 General Required Equipment Maintenance Requirements Inspections Special Inspections Maintenance Records Altimeter & Static System, Transponder, ELT, Hard/Overweight Landing, Severe Turbulence, Aging Aircraft For certain older Large Aircraft the Pressure Vessel must be specially inspected after so many Pressurization Cycles Also, after Dec. 16, 2008 all turbine-powered transport category aircraft must have their fuel tank systems specially inspected and maintained “ Aging Aircraft” – 91.410 Aloha Airlines “Patio Seating” Boeing 737-297 April 28, 1988
  • 18. AIRFOIL LEADING EDGE TRAILING EDGE ASYMMETRICAL SYMMETRICAL Structures That Produce Lift:
  • 19. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 20. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK HOW?
  • 21. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 22. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 23. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 24. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 25. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Downwash Angle
  • 26. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Greater Downwash Angle
  • 27. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Too Much Downwash Angle STALL!
  • 28. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK = Too Little Downwash Angle STALL!
  • 29. Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 30. CENTER OF GRAVITY CENTER OF LIFT NOSE-HEAVY AIRCRAFT Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 31. CANTILEVER (NO EXTERNAL STRUTS) Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 32. WINGLETS Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 33. WINGLETS Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 34. 3 AXES: LATERAL AXIS PITCH Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 35. 3 AXES: LONGITUDINAL AXIS ROLL (BANK) Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 36. 3 AXES: VERTICAL AXIS YAW Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 37. PRIMARY CONTROLS: ELEVATOR AILERONS RUDDER Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 38. PITCH: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 39. PITCH: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft ELEVATOR HORIZONTAL STABILIZER EMPENNAGE TAIL LOAD
  • 40. PITCH: WHEEL OR STICK PULLED BACK TAIL LOAD INCREASED NOSE UP Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 41. PITCH: STABILATOR Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 42. ROLL: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 43. ROLL: AILERONS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 44. ROLL: AILERONS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 45. ROLL: AILERONS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft LEFT BANK
  • 46. ROLL: AILERONS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 47. ROLL: AILERONS ADVERSE YAW Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 48. ROLL: AILERONS ADVERSE YAW Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 49. ROLL: AILERONS ADVERSE YAW – 4 WAYS TO COMBAT IT: 1. PILOT RUDDER ACTION ONLY Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 50. ROLL: AILERONS ADVERSE YAW – 2. DIFFERENTIAL TRAVEL Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 51. ROLL: AILERONS ADVERSE YAW – 3. FRISE ( freeze) TYPE AILERON Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 52. ROLL: AILERONS ADVERSE YAW – 4. RUDDER-AILERON INTERCONNECT SPRINGS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 53. ROLL: SPOILERS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 54. ROLL: SPOILERS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 55. YAW: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 56. YAW: Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft RUDDER VERTICAL STABILIZER
  • 57. YAW: RUDDER PEDALS IN COCKPIT Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 58. YAW: RUDDERVATORS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 59. YAW: RUDDERVATORS Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft Elevator Action Rudder Action
  • 60. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALLSPEED TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK TO CONTROL THE BOUNDARY LAYER
  • 61. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALLSPEED FLAPS TRAILING EDGE LEADING EDGE
  • 62. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING EDGE FLAPS
  • 63. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING EDGE FLAPS PLAIN FLAP
  • 64. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING EDGE FLAPS SPLIT FLAP
  • 65. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING EDGE FLAPS SLOTTED FLAP
  • 66. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING EDGE FLAPS FOWLER FLAP
  • 67. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TRAILING EDGE FLAPS TRIPLE SLOTTED FOWLER FLAP
  • 68. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: LEADING EDGE FLAPS DROOPED KRUEGER
  • 69. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK SLOTS SLATS
  • 70. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SLOTS
  • 71. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALL SPEED TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK SLATS
  • 72. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALL SPEED TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK SLATS
  • 73. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO CONTROL THE BOUNDARY LAYER UPPER SURFACE SUCTION FLAP AUGMENTATION
  • 74. AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: TO DECREASE STALL SPEED TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK SUCTION
  • 75. STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: WANT WING ROOT TO STALL FIRST
  • 76. STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: WANT WING ROOT TO STALL FIRST STALL STRIP OR TWISTED WING
  • 77. STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SHOCK INDUCED SEPARATION @ Critical Mach Number
  • 78. STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SHOCK INDUCED SEPARATION VORTEX GENERATORS
  • 79. STALL CONTROL DEVICES: Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SHOCK INDUCED SEPARATION VORTEX GENERATORS TIP VORTICES
  • 80. SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: FIXED TRIM TAB
  • 81. SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: ADJUSTABLE TRIM TAB
  • 82. SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: SERVO TAB
  • 83. SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: ANTI-SERVO TAB
  • 84. SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: SPRING TAB
  • 85. OTHER AIDS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: RUDDER OVERHANG OR BALANCE SURFACE
  • 86. OTHER AIDS: Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: AERODYNAMIC BALANCE PANEL
  • 87. Structures That Hold People: To protect the crew and passengers, withstand the stresses created in flight and landing, and mount all other major components Truss Pratt Longerons Struts Wire Stays
  • 88. Structures That Hold People: To protect the crew and passengers, withstand the stresses created in flight and landing, and mount all other major components Truss Warren Metal Tubing
  • 89. Conventional Landing Gear: Tail Wheel 2 Main Wheels “ Tail Dragger” Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 90. Conventional Landing Gear: Ground Loop Visibility on Ground Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 91. Tricycle Landing Gear: Nose Wheel 2 Main Wheels Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 92. Drag Problems: Fixed Gear Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 93. Drag Problems: Fixed Gear Wheel Fairings “ Wheel Pants” Streamlines Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 94. Drag Problems: Retractable Gear Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 95. Other Types of Landing Gear: Floats With wheels = Amphibian Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 96. Other Types of Landing Gear: Seaplane With wheels = Amphibian Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 97. Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: The engine is attached inside the cowling to an ENGINE MOUNT which may be: Semimonocoque Welded tubular That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  • 98. Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: The engine is attached inside the cowling to an ENGINE MOUNT which may be Semimonocoque Welded tubular “ Rails” or “Cradle” That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  • 99. Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them: On all, the engine is attached to the mount by RUBBER SHOCK MOUNTS Known generically as “Lord Mounts” Isolate engine vibrations from the fuselage
  • 100. Turbine (Jet) Engines: Turbine engines are mounted in PODS or NACELLES under the wings or on the side of the rear fuselage or inside the fuselage The pods are attached with PYLONS That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  • 101. Turbine (Jet) Engines: That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  • 104.