1 Evolution And Type Of Structures

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1 Evolution And Type Of Structures

  1. 1. AVAF 209 Aircraft Structures II <ul><li>I. Evolution of Aircraft Structures </li></ul><ul><li>II. Types of Aircraft Structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That Produce Lift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Produce Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Modify Lift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Aid Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Hold People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Support the Aircraft on the Ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Hold the Powerplant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotorcraft </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Wright brothers </li></ul>Wilbur Orville
  3. 3. <ul><li>Gustave Whitehead </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Structure of early machines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wings of bent wooden ribs covered with fabric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body of open frameworks of wood strips lashed together with wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landing gear were skids </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Control surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small wings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wing Warping” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure of early machines: </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Up to World War I: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drag problem </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>World War I: </li></ul><ul><li>Biplane </li></ul><ul><li>open cockpits </li></ul><ul><li>radial engines </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>metal tube truss construction </li></ul><ul><li>Welded thin-walled metal tube </li></ul><ul><li>covered with fabric </li></ul><ul><li>lighter weight and stronger </li></ul><ul><li>World War I: </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1920s and 30s: </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed-Skin construction </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Aluminum skin </li></ul><ul><li>1920s and 30s: </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>I. Evolution of Aircraft Structures </li></ul><ul><li>II. Types of Aircraft Structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That Produce Lift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Produce Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Modify Lift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Aid Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Hold People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Support the Aircraft (Ground) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Hold the Powerplant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotorcraft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aluminum structure </li></ul><ul><li>MONOCOQUE construction </li></ul><ul><li>1920s and 30s: </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Since 1930s: </li></ul><ul><li>SEMI-MONOCOQUE construction </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>High altitude flight </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1930s: </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Early 1950s: </li></ul>
  15. 16. Part 91: General Operating and Flight Rules <ul><li>Special Inspections: </li></ul><ul><li>Part 91 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Inspections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance Records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altimeter & Static System, Transponder, ELT, Hard/Overweight Landing, Severe Turbulence, Aging Aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For certain older Large Aircraft the Pressure Vessel must be specially inspected after so many Pressurization Cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also, after Dec. 16, 2008 all turbine-powered transport category aircraft must have their fuel tank systems specially inspected and maintained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Aging Aircraft” – 91.410 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aloha Airlines “Patio Seating” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boeing 737-297 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>April 28, 1988 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Structures That Produce Lift:
  17. 18. AIRFOIL <ul><li>LEADING EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>TRAILING EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>ASYMMETRICAL </li></ul><ul><li>SYMMETRICAL </li></ul>Structures That Produce Lift:
  18. 19. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  19. 20. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK HOW?
  20. 21. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  21. 22. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  22. 23. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  23. 24. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  24. 25. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Downwash Angle
  25. 26. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Greater Downwash Angle
  26. 27. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Too Much Downwash Angle STALL!
  27. 28. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK = Too Little Downwash Angle STALL!
  28. 29. Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  29. 30. <ul><li>CENTER OF GRAVITY </li></ul><ul><li>CENTER OF LIFT </li></ul><ul><li>NOSE-HEAVY AIRCRAFT </li></ul>Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  30. 31. <ul><li>CANTILEVER (NO EXTERNAL STRUTS) </li></ul>Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  31. 32. <ul><li>WINGLETS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  32. 33. <ul><li>WINGLETS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  33. 34. <ul><li>3 AXES: </li></ul><ul><li>LATERAL AXIS </li></ul><ul><li>PITCH </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  34. 35. <ul><li>3 AXES: </li></ul><ul><li>LONGITUDINAL </li></ul><ul><li>AXIS </li></ul><ul><li>ROLL (BANK) </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  35. 36. <ul><li>3 AXES: </li></ul><ul><li>VERTICAL </li></ul><ul><li>AXIS </li></ul><ul><li>YAW </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  36. 37. <ul><li>PRIMARY CONTROLS: </li></ul><ul><li>ELEVATOR </li></ul><ul><li>AILERONS </li></ul><ul><li>RUDDER </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  37. 38. <ul><li>PITCH: </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  38. 39. <ul><li>PITCH: </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft <ul><li>ELEVATOR </li></ul><ul><li>HORIZONTAL </li></ul><ul><li>STABILIZER </li></ul><ul><li>EMPENNAGE </li></ul><ul><li>TAIL LOAD </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>PITCH: </li></ul><ul><li>WHEEL OR </li></ul><ul><li>STICK PULLED </li></ul><ul><li>BACK </li></ul><ul><li>TAIL LOAD </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASED </li></ul><ul><li>NOSE UP </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  40. 41. <ul><li>PITCH: </li></ul><ul><li>STABILATOR </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  41. 42. <ul><li>ROLL: </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  42. 43. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  43. 44. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  44. 45. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft LEFT BANK
  45. 46. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  46. 47. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERSE YAW </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  47. 48. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERSE YAW </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  48. 49. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERSE YAW – 4 WAYS TO COMBAT IT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. PILOT RUDDER ACTION ONLY </li></ul></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  49. 50. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERSE YAW – 2. DIFFERENTIAL TRAVEL </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  50. 51. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERSE YAW – 3. FRISE ( freeze) TYPE AILERON </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  51. 52. <ul><li>ROLL: AILERONS </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERSE YAW – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4. RUDDER-AILERON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INTERCONNECT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPRINGS </li></ul></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  52. 53. <ul><li>ROLL: SPOILERS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  53. 54. <ul><li>ROLL: SPOILERS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  54. 55. <ul><li>YAW: </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  55. 56. <ul><li>YAW: </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft <ul><li>RUDDER </li></ul><ul><li>VERTICAL </li></ul><ul><li>STABILIZER </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>YAW: RUDDER </li></ul><ul><li>PEDALS IN </li></ul><ul><li>COCKPIT </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  57. 58. <ul><li>YAW: RUDDERVATORS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  58. 59. <ul><li>YAW: </li></ul><ul><li>RUDDERVATORS </li></ul>Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft Elevator Action Rudder Action
  59. 60. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TO DECREASE STALLSPEED </li></ul><ul><li>TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK </li></ul><ul><li>TO CONTROL THE BOUNDARY LAYER </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TO DECREASE STALLSPEED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FLAPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRAILING EDGE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LEADING EDGE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TRAILING </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>FLAPS </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TRAILING </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>FLAPS </li></ul><ul><li>PLAIN FLAP </li></ul>
  63. 64. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TRAILING </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>FLAPS </li></ul><ul><li>SPLIT FLAP </li></ul>
  64. 65. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TRAILING </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>FLAPS </li></ul><ul><li>SLOTTED </li></ul><ul><li>FLAP </li></ul>
  65. 66. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TRAILING </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>FLAPS </li></ul><ul><li>FOWLER </li></ul><ul><li>FLAP </li></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TRAILING </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>FLAPS </li></ul><ul><li>TRIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>SLOTTED </li></ul><ul><li>FOWLER </li></ul><ul><li>FLAP </li></ul>
  67. 68. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>LEADING </li></ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul><ul><li>FLAPS </li></ul><ul><li>DROOPED </li></ul><ul><li>KRUEGER </li></ul>
  68. 69. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLOTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLATS </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SLOTS
  70. 71. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TO DECREASE </li></ul><ul><li>STALL SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>TO ALLOW </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHER </li></ul><ul><li>ANGLES </li></ul><ul><li>OF ATTACK </li></ul>SLATS
  71. 72. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TO DECREASE </li></ul><ul><li>STALL SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>TO ALLOW </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHER </li></ul><ul><li>ANGLES </li></ul><ul><li>OF ATTACK </li></ul>SLATS
  72. 73. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TO CONTROL THE BOUNDARY LAYER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UPPER SURFACE SUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FLAP AUGMENTATION </li></ul></ul>
  73. 74. <ul><li>AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES): </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>TO DECREASE </li></ul><ul><li>STALL SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>TO ALLOW </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHER </li></ul><ul><li>ANGLES </li></ul><ul><li>OF ATTACK </li></ul>SUCTION
  74. 75. <ul><li>STALL CONTROL DEVICES: </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>WANT WING </li></ul><ul><li>ROOT TO </li></ul><ul><li>STALL FIRST </li></ul>
  75. 76. <ul><li>STALL CONTROL DEVICES: </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>WANT WING </li></ul><ul><li>ROOT TO </li></ul><ul><li>STALL FIRST </li></ul><ul><li>STALL </li></ul><ul><li>STRIP OR </li></ul><ul><li>TWISTED </li></ul><ul><li>WING </li></ul>
  76. 77. <ul><li>STALL CONTROL DEVICES: </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>SHOCK INDUCED </li></ul><ul><li>SEPARATION </li></ul><ul><li>@ Critical Mach Number </li></ul>
  77. 78. <ul><li>STALL CONTROL DEVICES: </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>SHOCK INDUCED </li></ul><ul><li>SEPARATION </li></ul><ul><li>VORTEX </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATORS </li></ul>
  78. 79. <ul><li>STALL CONTROL DEVICES: </li></ul>Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: <ul><li>SHOCK INDUCED </li></ul><ul><li>SEPARATION </li></ul><ul><li>VORTEX </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATORS </li></ul><ul><li>TIP VORTICES </li></ul>
  79. 80. <ul><li>SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: </li></ul>Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: <ul><li>FIXED TRIM TAB </li></ul>
  80. 81. <ul><li>SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: </li></ul>Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: <ul><li>ADJUSTABLE TRIM TAB </li></ul>
  81. 82. <ul><li>SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: </li></ul>Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: <ul><li>SERVO TAB </li></ul>
  82. 83. <ul><li>SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: </li></ul>Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: <ul><li>ANTI-SERVO TAB </li></ul>
  83. 84. <ul><li>SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS: </li></ul>Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: <ul><li>SPRING TAB </li></ul>
  84. 85. <ul><li>OTHER AIDS: </li></ul>Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: <ul><li>RUDDER </li></ul><ul><li>OVERHANG OR </li></ul><ul><li>BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>SURFACE </li></ul>
  85. 86. <ul><li>OTHER AIDS: </li></ul>Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls: <ul><li>AERODYNAMIC BALANCE PANEL </li></ul>
  86. 87. Structures That Hold People: To protect the crew and passengers, withstand the stresses created in flight and landing, and mount all other major components <ul><li>Truss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pratt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longerons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire Stays </li></ul></ul>
  87. 88. Structures That Hold People: To protect the crew and passengers, withstand the stresses created in flight and landing, and mount all other major components <ul><li>Truss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warren </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubing </li></ul></ul>
  88. 89. <ul><li>Conventional Landing Gear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail Wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Main Wheels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tail Dragger” </li></ul></ul>Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  89. 90. <ul><li>Conventional Landing Gear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground Loop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility on Ground </li></ul></ul>Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  90. 91. <ul><li>Tricycle Landing Gear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nose Wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Main Wheels </li></ul></ul>Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  91. 92. <ul><li>Drag Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Gear </li></ul></ul>Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  92. 93. <ul><li>Drag Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Gear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel Fairings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wheel Pants” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streamlines </li></ul></ul>Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  93. 94. <ul><li>Drag Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retractable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gear </li></ul></ul>Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  94. 95. <ul><li>Other Types of Landing Gear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With wheels = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibian </li></ul></ul>Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  95. 96. <ul><li>Other Types of Landing Gear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seaplane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With wheels = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphibian </li></ul></ul>Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  96. 97. <ul><li>Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: </li></ul><ul><li>The engine is attached inside the cowling to an ENGINE MOUNT which may be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semimonocoque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welded tubular </li></ul></ul>That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  97. 98. <ul><li>Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: </li></ul><ul><li>The engine is attached inside the cowling to an ENGINE MOUNT which may be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semimonocoque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welded tubular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rails” or “Cradle” </li></ul></ul>That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  98. 99. <ul><li>Reciprocating (Piston) Engines: </li></ul>That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them: <ul><li>On all, the engine is attached to the mount by RUBBER SHOCK MOUNTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known generically as “Lord Mounts” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate engine vibrations from the fuselage </li></ul></ul>
  99. 100. <ul><li>Turbine (Jet) Engines: </li></ul><ul><li>Turbine engines are mounted in PODS or NACELLES under the wings or on the side of the rear fuselage or inside the fuselage </li></ul><ul><li>The pods are attached with PYLONS </li></ul>That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  100. 101. <ul><li>Turbine (Jet) Engines: </li></ul>That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  101. 102. <ul><li>Rotorcraft: </li></ul>
  102. 103. <ul><li>Rotorcraft: </li></ul>Structures :

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