High Speed Aircraft

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High Speed Aircraft

  1. 1. Venturi Effects<br />Subsonic<br /><ul><li>Converging
  2. 2. Increasing velocity
  3. 3. Decreasing pressure
  4. 4. Constant density
  5. 5. Diverging
  6. 6. Decreasing velocity
  7. 7. Increasing pressure
  8. 8. Constant density</li></ul>At supersonic speeds venturi effect is reversed.<br />Supersonic<br /><ul><li>Converging
  9. 9. Decreasing velocity
  10. 10. Increasing pressure
  11. 11. Increasing density
  12. 12. Diverging
  13. 13. Increasing velocity
  14. 14. Decreasing pressure
  15. 15. Decreasing density
  16. 16. Sound is pressure disturbances radiating in all directions from the source.
  17. 17. Travels @ 661.7 knots (1,116.9 fps, 761.5 mph) under standard conditions
  18. 18. Speed is directly proportional to temperature. This goes down as temp goes down.
  19. 19. Can be calculated (Cs=local speed of sound)
  20. 20. CS in kts = 29.04 oR
  21. 21. CS in fps = 49.022 oR
  22. 22. CS in mph = 33.42 oR</li></ul>Mach Number=Object SpeedSpeed of Sound (Relative to local speed of sound)<br />-When source of sound is traveling at the speed of sound, the sound waves cannot get ahead of the source, but pile up and form a shock wave.<br />-“Sonic boom” is the effect of the pressure change.<br />Subsonic = <.75 (NO airflow on that aircraft is above .75, such as across upper surface of wing)<br />Transonic = .75-1.2 (Control buffering)<br />Supersonic = >1.2 (Smooth and efficient flight.)<br />Hypersonic = >5.0<br />Three types of shockwaves:<br /><ul><li>Oblique
  23. 23. Shock wave comes off at oblique angle to surface.
  24. 24. Wing leading edge, nose, stabilizer leading edges.
  25. 25. Can also be from trailing edges.
  26. 26. Smaller angle as speed increases.
  27. 27. Flow turned into preceding flow.
  28. 28. Velocity is decreased, but still supersonic.
  29. 29. Energy is lost. Mainly in heat energy.
  30. 30. Increase in pressure and density.
  31. 31. Normal
  32. 32. Perpendicular to surface that creates it.
  33. 33. In front of airfoil.
  34. 34. Air being pushed ahead of the surface.
  35. 35. No change in airflow.
  36. 36. Airflow velocity is decreased to subsonic.
  37. 37. Big increase in pressure and density.
  38. 38. Big decrease in energy.
  39. 39. Overcome by sharp leading and trailing edges
  40. 40. Expansion
  41. 41. Surface turns away from normal flow.
  42. 42. Velocity is increased to higher supersonic.
  43. 43. Pressure and density decreased.
  44. 44. No energy loss.</li></ul>As airspeed increases, bow wave moves closer to surface, and shrinks.<br />To increase critical mach, or delay formation of:<br /><ul><li>Vortex generator
  45. 45. Small airfoils produce vortices, which produce pressure and hold boundary layer.
  46. 46. Swept wing
  47. 47. Affects the fineness of a wing.
  48. 48. Fineness Ratio: Ratio of the chord to the thickness.
  49. 49. Thinner wing will increase critical Mach number. Reduce effect of shock waves.
  50. 50. Thin wings are bad at subsonic speed.
  51. 51. Swept wings give same effect, with not as bad subsonic speed.

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