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June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
SKIN INJURIES (BURN)
2
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
SKIN INJURIES (BURN)
3
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
1. Foreign bodies in the eye
 Objects such as dust or dirty
►cause irritation,
►can scratch the eye or
►become embedded in the eye.
 Signs and symptoms
►Redness
►Burning sensation and/or pain
►Watering or tearing of the eyes
►Presence of visible objects in the eye
4
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
1. Foreign bodies in the eye……
First aid care
►Keep the victim from rubbing his eye.
►Wash your hands thoroughly before examining the victim’s eye.
►Do not attempt to remove a foreign object by inserting a match stick,
or any other instrument.
►Refer the victim if something is embedded in the eye, or if something is
thought to be embedded but cannot be located.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
1. Foreign bodies in the eye……
First aid …..
 If object is floating freely in the eye:
►Keep victim from rubbing eye
►Wash your hands thoroughly
►Gently draw upper lid down over lower lid
 Stimulates formation of tears
 Lids may create wiping action to remove particle
►Can also grasp eyelashes b/n thumb & forefinger
 Gently raise upper eyelid
 Tell victim to look down and tilt head to injured side
6
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
1. Foreign bodies in the eye……
First aid …..
►Gently flush eye with water to remove particle
►Can also use corner of sterile gauze to gently remove particle
►If object is embedded or does not respond to previous methods of removal:
 Make no attempt to remove particle
 Apply a dry, sterile dressing
 Obtain medical help for the victim
7
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
© 2019, Jimma University
School of Nursing and Midwifery.
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 9
Linear epithelial defects suggestive of foreign body
under the eye lid
© 2019, Jimma University
School of Nursing and Midwifery.
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 10
Eye Injuries
►Splashes
►Particles in eye
►Blow to eye
►Cuts near eye
►Penetrating objects
10
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
2. Blows to the eye
Can be blows from a fist, accident or explosion
► May cause contusions or “black eyes”
► Results in internal bleeding and torn tissues
in the eye
► Can lead to loss of vision
 First aid care
► Apply sterile dressings or an eye shield
► it is best to cover both eyes to prevent mov’t
of the injured eye
► Keep victim lying flat
► Obtain medical help (eye specialist if possible)
11
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Eyelid Laceration
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
3. Penetrating eye injuries
 Extremely dangerous b/c can result in loss of eye fluid
 If object is protruding from eyes:
► Don’t attempt/try to remove it
► Support it by loosely applying dressings
 First aid
► Apply dressings to both eyes
 to prevent mov’t of injured eye
► Keep victim lying flat on back
 to prevent eye fluid from draining out
► Obtain medical help immediately (eye specialist)
13
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
FACE & JAW INJURY
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
SKIN INJURIES (BURN)
14
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SCALP & HEAD INJURIES & WOUNDS
Wounds of the scalp even if small tend
to profusely bleed.
Deep scalp wounds may be
complicated by fragment from skull
fractures or they may contain hair,
glass or other foreign material.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
1. Scalp injuries ….
First aid measures
►Do not try to clean scalp wounds.
►Control bleeding by raising the victim’s
head and shoulder;
►Place a sterile dressing on the wound.
►Apply a bandage to hold the dressing in
place and to provide pressure.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
2. Brain injury
May occur not only from wounds of the scalp and open or
closed fracture of the skull, but also in the case of an illness
such as a stroke or tumor.
Signs and symptoms
►Clear or blood tinged CSF draining from the nose or
ears.
►Temporary loss of consciousness.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
2. Brain injury……
 Other manifestations of brain injury include:
► muscle paralysis partial or complete on the opposite side extremities
► facial paralysis on the same side of brain injury.
► Speech disturbance,
► Convulsions (Local or generalized),
► Bleeding from the nose, ear canal or mouth –
 indicate skull fracture
► Pale or flushed face,
► Fast and weak pulse,
► Headache and dizziness,
► Vomiting,
► Unequal pupil size,
► Loss of bowel and bladder control.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
2. Brain injury……
First aid for suspected brain injury
►Call for ambulance, and obtain medical assistance as quickly as possible.
►Keep the victim lying down and treat for shock.
►Give particular attention to insuring an open air way.
►Control hemorrhage.
►Do not give fluid by mouth (keep NPO).
►Apply dressing and bandage over the skull if wound is present.
►Never put the head lower than the rest of the body.
►Record LOC.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
FACE & JAW INJURY
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
SKIN INJURIES (BURN)
22
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
FACE AND JAW INJURY
often occurs as a result of
►automobile accidents,
►Blast injury or
►other type of violent injuries.
The immediate problems are obstruction of the air passage by
►blood, saliva, and other secretions;
►swelling and severe hemorrhage.
Possible spinal injury
Possible head injury
LeFort Facial Fractures
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
FACE AND JAW INJURY
 First aid measures
►Call for ambulance and seek immediate medical assistance.
►Maintain an open air way.
►Provide continuous support to the head to prevent air way
obstruction.
►Reduce swelling
►If the victim is conscious help to lean foreword to drain secretion
from mouth and cough up.
►Give artificial respiration if necessary.
►Treat for shock.
►Apply protective dressing as necessary.
Bilateral Mandibular Fracture
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
FACE AND JAW INJURY
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
SKIN INJURIES (BURN)
25
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Nose injuries and nose bleeds
 Nose bleeding can result from injury or disease such as hypertension.
 It can also occur after cold, stressful activity or exposure to high altitude.
 Usually nosebleeds are more frightening
 Common Causes of Nosebleeds
►Nosebleeds may be caused by the following:
 Forceful nose blowing
 High blood pressure
 Dry weather conditions
 Trauma to the nose or head
 Bleeding disorders
 If you know that the bleeding is caused by an object in the nose, refer to the care for foreign
objects in the nose.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Nose injuries and nose bleeds
 First aid measures
►Keep the victim quiet.
►Keep the victim in sitting position head tilted foreword.
►Inform the victim to breathe through the mouth.
►Apply direct pressure to the bleeding nostril by pinching.
►Instruct the victim not to blow his mouth
►Apply cold compress to nose and face of the victim.
►If bleeding does not stop, insert a small clean pad of gauze
into one or both nostrils and apply pressure externally with
thumb and index finger.
►If it does not stop, obtain medical assistance.
►Make sure that nasal bone fractures, like all other fractures,
have medical attention
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Nose injuries and nose bleeds
1. Have the person sit with the head slightly
forward, pinching the nostrils, for10 to 15
minutes.
►If the nosebleed was caused by a severe head injury,
do not pinch the nose.
2. Once you have controlled the bleeding, tell the
person to avoid rubbing, blowing, or picking his
or her nose because this could start the
bleeding again.
3. If the person loses responsiveness, place him or
her in the recovery position to allow blood to
drain from the nose.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Nose injuries and nose bleeds
Prevention
To prevent nosebleeds:
►Use a humidifier if the air indoors is dry.
►Wear protective athletic equipment when
participating in sports that could cause
injuries to the nose.
►Practice gentle nose blowing.
►Teach children not to pick their noses. Nasal Fracture
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Dental Injury
 Irrigated with Hank’s solution or normal saline.
 Do NOT scrub the tooth as this may damage the
periodontal ligament
 Gently suction remaining blood clot and irrigate the
socket.
 Handle by the crown only.
 ?Primary tooth
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Knocked-Out Teeth
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
FACE AND JAW INJURY
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
SKIN INJURIES (BURN)
32
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
4. Neck injuries
Blunt force exerted on the face, mouth or
jaw may produce tissue damage and in the
process, the body fluids draining in to the
air passages may block the air way.
Blockage may also result due to hard
blow on the front of the neck especially if
the laryngeal area is affected and throat
tissue are bruised
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
4. Neck injuries…..
Apply mouth- to -mouth or mouth- to- nose respiration, if possible.
Obtain immediate medical assistance in case emergency
tracheostomy is needed.
Place the victim at rest on his back (supine position) to relax the
abdominal muscles.
Control bleeding, if not compromise airway
Give first aid for shock
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
FACE & JAW INJURY
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
SKIN INJURIES (BURN)
35
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Common Causes
►pressure on a part of the body, such as when a
body part is squeezed between two heavy objects.
What to Do
►Call EMS.
►If the object is restricting the person’s breathing,
or the object is crushing the person’s head, neck,
chest, or abdomen, remove the object if it can be
safely removed.
►If it is crushing another body part, leave the
object where it is until EMS personnel arrive.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
What To Do?????
 If you know the casualty has been crushed for less than 15 minutes
and you can release him, do this as quickly as possible.
 Control external bleeding & steady and support any suspected
fracture
 Treat the casualty for shock but do not raise his legs.
 If the casualty has been crushed for more than 15 minutes, or you
cannot move the cause of injury, leave him in the position found
and comfort and reassure him.
 Call for emergency help, giving clear details of the incident to the
dispatcher.
 Monitor and record vital signs—level of response, breathing, and
pulse — while waiting for help to arrive.
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
FACE & JAW INJURY
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
SKIN INJURIES (BURN)
38
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
5. Chest Injuries
It is usually a medical emergencies
because heart, lungs and major blood
vessels may be involved.
In all cases, obtain medical help
immediately
39
Open Chest Injury with
Occlusive Dressing Taped on
Three Sides
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
5. Chest Injuries
1. Sucking chest wound
►Deep open wound of chest that allows air to flow directly in and out with breathing
►Vacuum in pleura is destroyed
►lung on injured side collapses
►Needs immediate medical help
►Airtight dressing must be placed over wound
 to prevent air flow in & out of wound
40
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
5. Chest Injuries
1. Sucking chest wound
►Use aluminum foil, plastic wrap or other nonporous material
►Use tape or a bandage to hold nonporous material in place
►Maintain open airway & provide artificial respiration as needed
►Position on injured side and elevate head and chest slightly
 Allows uninjured lung to expand more freely
 Prevents pressure on uninjured lung from blood and damaged tissue
41
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
5. Chest Injuries……
2. Penetrating injuries of the chest
►Can result in
 sucking chest wounds or
 damage to heart and
 damage to blood vessels
►If object is protruding from chest (e.g., Knife)
 Don’t attempt to remove it
 Immobilize object by placing dressings around it and taping the dressings in position
 Place victim in comfortable position
 Maintain respirations
 Obtain medical help immediately
42
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
SPECIFIC INJURIES
EYE INJURIES
HEAD INJURIES
FACE & JAW INJURY
NOSE INJURIES
NECK INJURIES
CRUSH INJURIES
CHEST INJURIES
ABDOMINAL INJURIES
43
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Abdominal Injuries
44
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma
Pelvic Injury
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma
 Can cause damage to internal organs and bleeding
in major blood vessels.
 Intestines and other abdominal organs may
protrude from the open wound.
 Medical help must be obtained immediately
 Bleeding, shock and damage to organs can lead to
death in a short period of time.
Abdominal Injury from bullet
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma
 Signs and symptoms
►Severe abdominal pain and tenderness
►Visibility of protruding organs or open wounds
►Nausea and vomiting (especially blood)
►Rigidity of abdominal muscles
►Symptoms of shock
Abdominal Injury from a Knife Wound
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma
 First aid care
► Position victim flat on back
 Place pillow or rolled blanket under knees to help relax abdominal muscles
 Elevate head and shoulders to aid in breathing
► Remove clothing from around the wound or protruding organs
► Cover any organs with large, sterile dressing moistened with sterile water or normal
saline
► Make no attempt to replace protruding organs
► Avoid giving victim any fluids or food
 Victim may complain of excessive thirst
 Moisten lips, tongue and inside of mouth with a cool, wet cloth
► Obtain medical help immediately
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Abdominal Injuries
49
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
Abdominal Injuries
50
Place a Premoistened Dressing over the Wound
Do not attempt to replace intestines within the abdomen.
Place a premoistened dressing over the wound.
Cut Away Clothing from the Wound
and Support the Knees in a Flexed
Position
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS,
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing
Basic First Aid and Emergency Care
By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)

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First Aid for management of Specific Injuries.pptx

  • 1. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES
  • 2. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES SKIN INJURIES (BURN) 2
  • 3. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES SKIN INJURIES (BURN) 3
  • 4. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 1. Foreign bodies in the eye  Objects such as dust or dirty ►cause irritation, ►can scratch the eye or ►become embedded in the eye.  Signs and symptoms ►Redness ►Burning sensation and/or pain ►Watering or tearing of the eyes ►Presence of visible objects in the eye 4
  • 5. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 1. Foreign bodies in the eye…… First aid care ►Keep the victim from rubbing his eye. ►Wash your hands thoroughly before examining the victim’s eye. ►Do not attempt to remove a foreign object by inserting a match stick, or any other instrument. ►Refer the victim if something is embedded in the eye, or if something is thought to be embedded but cannot be located.
  • 6. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 1. Foreign bodies in the eye…… First aid …..  If object is floating freely in the eye: ►Keep victim from rubbing eye ►Wash your hands thoroughly ►Gently draw upper lid down over lower lid  Stimulates formation of tears  Lids may create wiping action to remove particle ►Can also grasp eyelashes b/n thumb & forefinger  Gently raise upper eyelid  Tell victim to look down and tilt head to injured side 6
  • 7. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 1. Foreign bodies in the eye…… First aid ….. ►Gently flush eye with water to remove particle ►Can also use corner of sterile gauze to gently remove particle ►If object is embedded or does not respond to previous methods of removal:  Make no attempt to remove particle  Apply a dry, sterile dressing  Obtain medical help for the victim 7
  • 8. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
  • 9. © 2019, Jimma University School of Nursing and Midwifery. Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 9 Linear epithelial defects suggestive of foreign body under the eye lid
  • 10. © 2019, Jimma University School of Nursing and Midwifery. Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 10 Eye Injuries ►Splashes ►Particles in eye ►Blow to eye ►Cuts near eye ►Penetrating objects 10
  • 11. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 2. Blows to the eye Can be blows from a fist, accident or explosion ► May cause contusions or “black eyes” ► Results in internal bleeding and torn tissues in the eye ► Can lead to loss of vision  First aid care ► Apply sterile dressings or an eye shield ► it is best to cover both eyes to prevent mov’t of the injured eye ► Keep victim lying flat ► Obtain medical help (eye specialist if possible) 11
  • 12. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Eyelid Laceration
  • 13. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 3. Penetrating eye injuries  Extremely dangerous b/c can result in loss of eye fluid  If object is protruding from eyes: ► Don’t attempt/try to remove it ► Support it by loosely applying dressings  First aid ► Apply dressings to both eyes  to prevent mov’t of injured eye ► Keep victim lying flat on back  to prevent eye fluid from draining out ► Obtain medical help immediately (eye specialist) 13
  • 14. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES FACE & JAW INJURY NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES SKIN INJURIES (BURN) 14
  • 15. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SCALP & HEAD INJURIES & WOUNDS Wounds of the scalp even if small tend to profusely bleed. Deep scalp wounds may be complicated by fragment from skull fractures or they may contain hair, glass or other foreign material.
  • 16. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 1. Scalp injuries …. First aid measures ►Do not try to clean scalp wounds. ►Control bleeding by raising the victim’s head and shoulder; ►Place a sterile dressing on the wound. ►Apply a bandage to hold the dressing in place and to provide pressure.
  • 17. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
  • 18. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
  • 19. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 2. Brain injury May occur not only from wounds of the scalp and open or closed fracture of the skull, but also in the case of an illness such as a stroke or tumor. Signs and symptoms ►Clear or blood tinged CSF draining from the nose or ears. ►Temporary loss of consciousness.
  • 20. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 2. Brain injury……  Other manifestations of brain injury include: ► muscle paralysis partial or complete on the opposite side extremities ► facial paralysis on the same side of brain injury. ► Speech disturbance, ► Convulsions (Local or generalized), ► Bleeding from the nose, ear canal or mouth –  indicate skull fracture ► Pale or flushed face, ► Fast and weak pulse, ► Headache and dizziness, ► Vomiting, ► Unequal pupil size, ► Loss of bowel and bladder control.
  • 21. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 2. Brain injury…… First aid for suspected brain injury ►Call for ambulance, and obtain medical assistance as quickly as possible. ►Keep the victim lying down and treat for shock. ►Give particular attention to insuring an open air way. ►Control hemorrhage. ►Do not give fluid by mouth (keep NPO). ►Apply dressing and bandage over the skull if wound is present. ►Never put the head lower than the rest of the body. ►Record LOC.
  • 22. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES FACE & JAW INJURY NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES SKIN INJURIES (BURN) 22
  • 23. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) FACE AND JAW INJURY often occurs as a result of ►automobile accidents, ►Blast injury or ►other type of violent injuries. The immediate problems are obstruction of the air passage by ►blood, saliva, and other secretions; ►swelling and severe hemorrhage. Possible spinal injury Possible head injury LeFort Facial Fractures
  • 24. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) FACE AND JAW INJURY  First aid measures ►Call for ambulance and seek immediate medical assistance. ►Maintain an open air way. ►Provide continuous support to the head to prevent air way obstruction. ►Reduce swelling ►If the victim is conscious help to lean foreword to drain secretion from mouth and cough up. ►Give artificial respiration if necessary. ►Treat for shock. ►Apply protective dressing as necessary. Bilateral Mandibular Fracture
  • 25. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES FACE AND JAW INJURY NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES SKIN INJURIES (BURN) 25
  • 26. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Nose injuries and nose bleeds  Nose bleeding can result from injury or disease such as hypertension.  It can also occur after cold, stressful activity or exposure to high altitude.  Usually nosebleeds are more frightening  Common Causes of Nosebleeds ►Nosebleeds may be caused by the following:  Forceful nose blowing  High blood pressure  Dry weather conditions  Trauma to the nose or head  Bleeding disorders  If you know that the bleeding is caused by an object in the nose, refer to the care for foreign objects in the nose.
  • 27. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Nose injuries and nose bleeds  First aid measures ►Keep the victim quiet. ►Keep the victim in sitting position head tilted foreword. ►Inform the victim to breathe through the mouth. ►Apply direct pressure to the bleeding nostril by pinching. ►Instruct the victim not to blow his mouth ►Apply cold compress to nose and face of the victim. ►If bleeding does not stop, insert a small clean pad of gauze into one or both nostrils and apply pressure externally with thumb and index finger. ►If it does not stop, obtain medical assistance. ►Make sure that nasal bone fractures, like all other fractures, have medical attention
  • 28. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Nose injuries and nose bleeds 1. Have the person sit with the head slightly forward, pinching the nostrils, for10 to 15 minutes. ►If the nosebleed was caused by a severe head injury, do not pinch the nose. 2. Once you have controlled the bleeding, tell the person to avoid rubbing, blowing, or picking his or her nose because this could start the bleeding again. 3. If the person loses responsiveness, place him or her in the recovery position to allow blood to drain from the nose.
  • 29. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Nose injuries and nose bleeds Prevention To prevent nosebleeds: ►Use a humidifier if the air indoors is dry. ►Wear protective athletic equipment when participating in sports that could cause injuries to the nose. ►Practice gentle nose blowing. ►Teach children not to pick their noses. Nasal Fracture
  • 30. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Dental Injury  Irrigated with Hank’s solution or normal saline.  Do NOT scrub the tooth as this may damage the periodontal ligament  Gently suction remaining blood clot and irrigate the socket.  Handle by the crown only.  ?Primary tooth
  • 31. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Knocked-Out Teeth
  • 32. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES FACE AND JAW INJURY NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES SKIN INJURIES (BURN) 32
  • 33. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 4. Neck injuries Blunt force exerted on the face, mouth or jaw may produce tissue damage and in the process, the body fluids draining in to the air passages may block the air way. Blockage may also result due to hard blow on the front of the neck especially if the laryngeal area is affected and throat tissue are bruised
  • 34. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 4. Neck injuries….. Apply mouth- to -mouth or mouth- to- nose respiration, if possible. Obtain immediate medical assistance in case emergency tracheostomy is needed. Place the victim at rest on his back (supine position) to relax the abdominal muscles. Control bleeding, if not compromise airway Give first aid for shock
  • 35. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES FACE & JAW INJURY NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES SKIN INJURIES (BURN) 35
  • 36. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Common Causes ►pressure on a part of the body, such as when a body part is squeezed between two heavy objects. What to Do ►Call EMS. ►If the object is restricting the person’s breathing, or the object is crushing the person’s head, neck, chest, or abdomen, remove the object if it can be safely removed. ►If it is crushing another body part, leave the object where it is until EMS personnel arrive.
  • 37. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) What To Do?????  If you know the casualty has been crushed for less than 15 minutes and you can release him, do this as quickly as possible.  Control external bleeding & steady and support any suspected fracture  Treat the casualty for shock but do not raise his legs.  If the casualty has been crushed for more than 15 minutes, or you cannot move the cause of injury, leave him in the position found and comfort and reassure him.  Call for emergency help, giving clear details of the incident to the dispatcher.  Monitor and record vital signs—level of response, breathing, and pulse — while waiting for help to arrive.
  • 38. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES FACE & JAW INJURY NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES SKIN INJURIES (BURN) 38
  • 39. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 5. Chest Injuries It is usually a medical emergencies because heart, lungs and major blood vessels may be involved. In all cases, obtain medical help immediately 39 Open Chest Injury with Occlusive Dressing Taped on Three Sides
  • 40. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 5. Chest Injuries 1. Sucking chest wound ►Deep open wound of chest that allows air to flow directly in and out with breathing ►Vacuum in pleura is destroyed ►lung on injured side collapses ►Needs immediate medical help ►Airtight dressing must be placed over wound  to prevent air flow in & out of wound 40
  • 41. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 5. Chest Injuries 1. Sucking chest wound ►Use aluminum foil, plastic wrap or other nonporous material ►Use tape or a bandage to hold nonporous material in place ►Maintain open airway & provide artificial respiration as needed ►Position on injured side and elevate head and chest slightly  Allows uninjured lung to expand more freely  Prevents pressure on uninjured lung from blood and damaged tissue 41
  • 42. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) 5. Chest Injuries…… 2. Penetrating injuries of the chest ►Can result in  sucking chest wounds or  damage to heart and  damage to blood vessels ►If object is protruding from chest (e.g., Knife)  Don’t attempt to remove it  Immobilize object by placing dressings around it and taping the dressings in position  Place victim in comfortable position  Maintain respirations  Obtain medical help immediately 42
  • 43. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) SPECIFIC INJURIES EYE INJURIES HEAD INJURIES FACE & JAW INJURY NOSE INJURIES NECK INJURIES CRUSH INJURIES CHEST INJURIES ABDOMINAL INJURIES 43
  • 44. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Abdominal Injuries 44
  • 45. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma Pelvic Injury
  • 46. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma  Can cause damage to internal organs and bleeding in major blood vessels.  Intestines and other abdominal organs may protrude from the open wound.  Medical help must be obtained immediately  Bleeding, shock and damage to organs can lead to death in a short period of time. Abdominal Injury from bullet
  • 47. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma  Signs and symptoms ►Severe abdominal pain and tenderness ►Visibility of protruding organs or open wounds ►Nausea and vomiting (especially blood) ►Rigidity of abdominal muscles ►Symptoms of shock Abdominal Injury from a Knife Wound
  • 48. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma  First aid care ► Position victim flat on back  Place pillow or rolled blanket under knees to help relax abdominal muscles  Elevate head and shoulders to aid in breathing ► Remove clothing from around the wound or protruding organs ► Cover any organs with large, sterile dressing moistened with sterile water or normal saline ► Make no attempt to replace protruding organs ► Avoid giving victim any fluids or food  Victim may complain of excessive thirst  Moisten lips, tongue and inside of mouth with a cool, wet cloth ► Obtain medical help immediately
  • 49. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Abdominal Injuries 49
  • 50. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc) Abdominal Injuries 50 Place a Premoistened Dressing over the Wound Do not attempt to replace intestines within the abdomen. Place a premoistened dressing over the wound. Cut Away Clothing from the Wound and Support the Knees in a Flexed Position
  • 51. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)
  • 52. June, 2021 © Haramaya University, CHMS, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Basic First Aid and Emergency Care By:- Ame Mehadi (BSc, MSc)