SlideShare a Scribd company logo
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS UTILIZED IN THE MANAGEMENT
OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER
Abigail Bissonette, SPT; Haley Brandt, SPT; Susan Christensen, SPT, CSCS; Alyson Cybulski, SPT; Sara Girolami, SPT; Jacob McDonald, SPT;
Caitlin Schober, SPT; Dr. Ann Franz, Ph.D., P.T., CSCS
WHAT IS DCD?
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is
characterized by difficulty in movement skills (gross
and fine motor) that are not primarily due to any
physical, neurological, or behavioral disorders.
Children with DCD struggle with learning and
performing everyday tasks in their environment that
negatively affect their everyday life. If cognitive
impairments are present in children with DCD, motor
impairments must be greater than in children of the
same age without DCD with cognitive impairments.
A physician makes the diagnosis after all other
possible explanations for the motor difficulties are
ruled out and if all of the above characteristics are
present.
PURPOSE
Interventions Review Findings
Task-oriented Effective for children with DCD. More effective than
process-oriented and traditional therapy
CO-OP More effective than current treatment approaches.
NTT The task that is trained is improved.
MIT Seems to work for some children, but needs more research.
Traditional therapy Effective for children with DCD. More effective than
process-oriented.
PMT Not an effective approach with small effect size (0.082)
Body Functions &
Structure
May be effective, but less that task-oriented approaches
Gross Motor &
Strength
May help, and often used in therapy
Parent/Teacher
Guided
No clear evidence for efficacy, but should educate parents
to assist in interventions at home.
Process-oriented Not recommended for improving motor performance in
children DCD
SIT Inconclusive evidence about effectiveness of SIT compared
to other treatments or no treatments.
Kinaesthetic
Training
Moderate evidence that kinaesthetic training may help
improve kinaesthetic acuity.
INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA
SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the
efficacy of therapeutic interventions for children
with DCD to improve motor performance based on
currently available research.
RESULTS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
Intervention should be aimed at task-oriented functional activities that are meaningful and relevant to
the child’s daily life, with involvement from parents and teachers. Moreover, our review demonstrated
that a variety of interventions are beneficial in improving a child’s motor performance.
Improvements in Study Design:
• Consistent and Functional Outcome Measures
•M-ABC, BOT, DCD-Q
• Interventions that are generalizable to functional tasks
•Task-oriented approach, sports- or ADL-specific interventions
• Long-term studies > 3 months
• Larger sample size to better generalize results to children with DCD
• Increased rigor in sampling (Inclusion and exclusion criteria)
•Consistent diagnostic criteria for DCD
• Determine optimal duration, intensity, and frequency to standardize recommendations
• Interventions grouped by age, subtype, and/or comorbidities
Inclusion Criteria: Birth to 21 years old, English, Past
20 years, Human
Exclusion Criteria: Surgical procedures, Medical
procedures
Search Terms: DCD, Birth-21 years, Intervention,
Treatment, Developmental Delay, Group Therapy,
Physical Activity, Motor Performance, Sensory
Integration, Neuromotor task training, Task-oriented
approach, Physical therapy
Search Engines/Databases: PubMed, Google
Scholar, PEDro, TRIP
Intervention
Category
Article
Type of
Study
Participant Characteristics Interventions Outcome Measures Results
Cognitive Approach
Hyland (2012) RCT n = 39; Dx: DCD Analyzed 39 video-taped sessions to evaluate children’s use of DPA, a self-regulation technique, during CO-OP,
task-specific, and conventional therapy approaches
Pre- and post-test comparison use of DPA for each type of therapy +
Wilson (2002) RT n = 54; Dx: Probable
DCD
MIT: n = 18; 60 min 1x/wk x 5wks individual treatment
Traditional-PMT: n = 18; 60 min 1x/wk x 5wks individual treatment
Wait-List Control: n = 18; no intervention
M-ABC* =
Cosper (2009) Cohort
Study
n = 12; Dx: DCD Interactive Metronome Training: n = 12, 1hr/wk x 15 individual treatment: Repetitive pattern motor activities
timed to beats
BOT-2*, GDS Continuous Performance Test (sustained attention) +
Leemrijse (2000) RT with 6
single cases
n=6; Dx: DCD Experimental Group 1: n = 3; 12-18 wks of LBD, 12-18 wks SI
Experimental Group 2: n = 3; 12-18 wks of SI, 12-18 wks LBD
M-ABC* (LBD), Praxis Tests of the SIPT* (LBD), Rhythm IntegratedTM* (LBD), VAS
(parent worry)* (LBD & SI)
+
LBD>SI
Group
Pless (2000) Research
Report
n = 37; Dx: DCD and
Probable DCD
Group Motor Skill Interventions: n = 17; 1x/wk x10 wks
Control: n = 20; no motor skill intervention
M-ABC checklist and motor portion +
Hung (2012) RCT Pilot n = 23; Dx: DCD Group-Based: n = 12, 4-6 children:1 therapist; 45 min/wk x 8 wks; HEP: 20 min/d
Individual-Based: n = 11; 45 min/wk x 8 wks; HEP x 20 min/d
M-ABC* =
Zwicker (2014) RT n = 11; Dx: DCD Group-Based: 6hrs/d x 2-wk summer camp sessions M-ABC-2, DCD-Q, COPM*, PEGS, CSAPPA, CAPE, parent survey +
Dunford (2011) Repeated
Measure
n = 8; Dx: DCD Group CO-OP: 50 min x 8 sessions x 2 wks M-ABC*, Harter, COPM* +
NTT
Niemeijer (2006) Pilot Study n =19; Dx: DCD NTT: 1x/wk x 9 wks M-ABC* (adjusting body positioning and explaining why), TGMD-2* (giving
clues, explaining why, providing rhythm, and asking about understanding)
+
Niemeijer (2007) RCT n =39; Dx: DCD NTT: n = 26; 1x/wk x 9 wks
Control: n = 13; 9 wks no training
M-ABC*, TGMD-2* +
Ferguson (2013) Quasi-
experimenta
l design
n= 46; Dx: Probable DCD NTT: n = 27; 45-60 min, 2x/wk x 9 wks: Workstations included soccer, netball, tagging games, indigenous games.
Wii: n = 19; 30 min, 3x/wk x 6 wks: Choice of 18 games mimicking cycling, soccer, skateboarding, skiing. Play at
least 2x.
M-ABC-2* (NTT), Functional Strength Measure* (total & 6/9 items NTT; 1 item
for Wii), Hand-held dynamometer, Muscle Power Sprint Test* (NTT & Wii),
Metre Shuttle Run Test* (NTT)
+
NTT>Wii
Task Specific
Fong (2012) RCT n = 62; Dx: DCD TKD training: n = 21; 1 hr/wk x 12 wks; Home practice: 45-60 min, 6 d/wk, parent activity log
Control: DCD n = 23; non-DCD n=18
SOT*, UST* +
Fong (2013) RCT n = 62; Dx: DCD TKD training: n = 21; 1 hr/wk x 12 wks; Home practice: 45-60 min, 6 d/wk, parent activity log
Control: DCD n = 23; non-DCD n=18
Isokinetic concentric strength (Cybex Norm isokinetic dynamometer)*, UST*,
MCT
+
Hillier (2010) Pilot Study n = 13; Dx: DCD Aquatic Therapy: 30 min, 1x/wk x 6 sessions
Control: no intervention
M-ABC, PSPCSA, Parent Questionnaire +
Tsai (2009) RT n = 43; Dx: DCD Table Tennis: 50 min, 3x/wk x 10 wks M-ABC-2*, reaction times and error responses* +
Traditional Physical
Therapy
Giagazoglou
(2015)
Cohort
Study
n = 20; Dx: Probable
DCD
Experimental Group: n = 10; 45 min, 3x/wk x12 wks: Balance training circuit with 15 min on trampoline
Control: n = 10; no intervention
BCTC*, TBCT*, Balance Testing on EPS pressure platform* +
Kane (2009) Case Report n = 5; Dx: DCD 55 min, 2x/wk x 6 sessions: Aerobic warm-up, core stability exercises, task-specific intervention per child’s sports
goals
DCD-Q, Leisure section of Canadian occupational and performance model,
BOTMP, CSAPPA, therapist-derived measure of core stability, child-chosen goals
and perceived competency for each goal
+
Menz (2013) Case Report n = 1; Dx: Probable DCD 60 min, 2x/wk x 24 sessions: Progressive strength training using universal exercise unit BOT-2*, COPM*, DCDQ*, TGMD-2, Monkey bars +
Kaufman (2007) Case Report n = 1; Dx: DCD 20-30 min, 2x/wk x 12 wks: Progressive strength training using body weight and weights HDD, BOT-MP, Proprioceptive test, parent and teacher report +
Watemberg
(2007)
RT n = 28; Dx: DCD Physical Therapy: n = 14; 1hr, 2x/wk x 4 wks in groups of 4-5 children; HEP: 30min/d
Control: n = 14; no intervention
M-ABC* +
Virtual Reality
Hammond (2014) Pilot Study n = 18; Dx: DCD and
Probable DCD
Wii Fit: 10 min, 3x/wk x 1 month
Control: Jump Ahead program
DCD-Q, BOT-2*, CSQ: Ability, Satisfaction, SDQ +
Jelsma (2014) RT n = 48; Dx: Probable
DCD
Wii Fit: 30 min, 3x/wk x 6 wks M-ABC-2*, BOT-2,* Wii Fit ski slalom test*, Enjoyment Scale +
Ashkenazi (2013) Pilot Study n = 9; Dx: Probable DCD Sony PlayStation 2 Eye toy: 60 min, 1x/wk x 10 sessions: Also included goal-directed, task-oriented approach M-ABC*, DCD-Q*, Parent’s subjective reports, Walk and talk test, 6-minute walk
test
+
Ashkenazi, T., Weiss, P. L., Orian, D., & Laufer, Y. (2013). Low-cost virtual reality intervention program for children with developmental coordination disorder: A pilot feasibility study. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 25(4), 467-473
Barnhart, B. H., Davenport, M., Epps, S. B., & Nordquist, V. M. (2003). Developmental coordination disorder. Physical Therapy, 83(8), 722-731.
Blank, R., Smits-Engelsman, B., Polatajko, H., & Wilson, P. (2012). European Academy for Childhood Disability (EACD): Recommendations on the definition, diagnosis, and intervention of developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 54(1), 54-
93.
Cosper, S. M., Lee, G. P., Peters, S. B., & Bishop, E. (2009). Interactive metronome training in children with attention deficit and developmental coordination disorders. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 32(4), 331-336.
Dunford, C. (2011). Goal-oriented group intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 31(3), 288-300.
Ferguson, G. D., Jelsma, D., Jelsma, J., & Smits-Engelsman, B. C. (2013). The efficacy of two task-orientated interventions for children with developmental coordination disorder: Neuromotor task training and Nintendo Wii Fit training. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(9),
2449-2461.
Fong, S. S, Chung, J. W., Chow, L. P., Ma, A. W., & Tsang, W. W. (2013). Differential effect of taekwondo training on knee muscle strength and reactive and static balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in
Developmental Disabilities, 34(5), 1446-1455.
Fong, S. S., Tsang, W. W., & Ng, G. Y. (2012). Taekwondo training improves sensory organization and balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(1), 85-95.
Giagazoglou, P., Sidiropoulou, M., Mitsiou, M., Arabatzi, F., & Kellis, E. (2015). Can balance trampoline training promote motor coordination and balance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 36, 13-19.
Hammond, J., Jones, V., Hill, E. L., Green, D., & Male, I. (2012). An investigation of the impact of regular use of the Wii Fit to improve motor and psychosocial outcomes in children with movement difficulties: A pilot study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40(2), 165-175.
Hillier, S., McIntyre, A., & Plummer, L. (2010). Aquatic physical therapy for children with developmental coordination disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 30(2), 111-124.
Hung, W. W. Y., & Pang, M. Y. C. (2012). Effects of group-based versus individual-based exercise training on motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 42, 122-128.
Hyland, M. Polatajko, H. J. (2011). Enabling children with developmental coordination disorder to self-regulate through the use of dynamic performance analysis: Evidence from the CO-OP approach. Human Movement Science, 31(2012), 987-998.
Jelsma, D., Geuze, R., Mombarg, R., & Smits-Engelsman, B. (2014). The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable developmental coordination disorder and balance problems. Human Movement Science, 33, 404-418.
Kane, K., & Bell, A. (2009). A core stability group program for children with developmental coordination disorder: 3 clinical case reports. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 21(4), 375-382.
Kaufman, L. B., & Schilling, D. L. (2007). Implementation of a strength training program for a 5-year-old child with poor body awareness and developmental coordination disorder. Physical Therapy, 87(4), 455-467.
Leemrijse, C., Meijer, O. G., Vermeer, A., Adér, H. J., & Diemel, S. (2000). The efficacy of Le Bon Départ and sensory integration treatment for children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized study with six single cases. Clinical Rehabilitation, 14(3), 247-259.
Menz, S. M., Hatten, K., & Grant-Beuttler, M. (2013). Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 25(2), 214-223.
Niemeijer A. S., Smits-Engelsman B. C., & Schoemaker M. M. (2006). Are teaching principles associated with improved motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder? A pilot study. Physical Therapy. 86(9), 1221-1230.
Niemeijer A. S., Smits-Engelsman B. C., & Schoemaker M. M. (2007). Neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder: A controlled trial. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49(6), 406-411.
Pless M., Carlsson, M., Sundelin, C., & Persson, K. (2000). Effects of group motor skill intervention on five to six year old children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 12(4), 183-189.
Smits-Engelsman, B., Blank, R., Van Der Kaay, A., Mosterd-Van Der Meijs, R., Vlugt-Van Den Brand, E., Polatajko, H., & Wilson, P. (2013). Efficacy of interventions to improve motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A combined systematic review
and meta-analysis. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55(3), 229-237.
Tsai, C. L. (2009). The effectiveness of exercise intervention on inhibitory control in children with developmental coordination disorder: Using a visuospatial attention paradigm as a model. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1268-1280.
Watemberg, N., Waiserberg, N., Zuk, L., & Lerman-Sagie, T. (2007). Developmental coordination disorder in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and physical therapy intervention. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49, 920-925.
Wilson, P. H., Thomas, P. R., & Madruff, P. (2002). Motor imagery training ameliorates motor clumsiness in children. Journal of Child Neurology, 17(7), 491-498.
Zwicker, J., Rehal, H., Sodhi, S., Karkling, M., Paul, A., Hilliard, M., & Jarus, T. (2014). Effectiveness of a summer camp intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. Advanced online publication. Retrieved from
http://informahealthcare.com/potp. DOI: 10.3109/01942638.2014.957431.
REFERENCES
ABBREVIATIONS
Treatment Approaches: Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP); Dynamic Performance Analysis (DPA); Le Bon Départ (LBD); Motor Imagery Training (MIT);
Neuromotor Task Training (NTT); Perceptual Motor Training (PMT); Sensory Integration Training (SIT); Taekwondo (TKD). Study Types: Randomized Control Trial (RCT); Randomized Trial
(RT). Diagnoses: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD); Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Outcome Measures: Body Coordination Test
for Children (BCTC); Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2; BOTMP); Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE); Canadian Occupational Performance
Measure (COPM); Children’s Self-Perceptions of Adequacy and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA); Coordination Skills Questionnaire (CSQ); Developmental Coordination Disorder
Questionnaire (DCD-Q); Hand Held Dynamometer (HDD); Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC); Motor Control Test (MCT); Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting in Children
with Disabilities (PEGS); Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA); Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Sensory
Organization Test (SOT); Trampoline Body Coordination Test (TBCT); Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2); Unilateral Stance Test (UST); Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

More Related Content

What's hot

Effect of Standing to Improve Balance and Gait of Children with Cerebral Palsy
Effect of Standing to Improve Balance and Gait of Children with Cerebral PalsyEffect of Standing to Improve Balance and Gait of Children with Cerebral Palsy
Effect of Standing to Improve Balance and Gait of Children with Cerebral Palsy
ijtsrd
 
BPS Mental Fatigue Poster
BPS Mental Fatigue PosterBPS Mental Fatigue Poster
BPS Mental Fatigue Poster
Sam Joyce
 
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary studentsEffects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
spastudent
 
Green exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in nature
Green exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in natureGreen exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in nature
Green exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in nature
James Neill
 
Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After TBI
Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After TBIInterventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After TBI
Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After TBI
Loki Stormbringer
 
Collaborative research on Dyslexia as at 6th Jan 2015
Collaborative research on Dyslexia as at 6th Jan 2015Collaborative research on Dyslexia as at 6th Jan 2015
Collaborative research on Dyslexia as at 6th Jan 2015
Nancy Doyle
 
A comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of resisted
A comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of resistedA comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of resisted
A comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of resisted
Alexander Decker
 
Rehabilitation and Outcomes - Year in Review
Rehabilitation and Outcomes - Year in ReviewRehabilitation and Outcomes - Year in Review
Rehabilitation and Outcomes - Year in Review
OARSI
 
Medical complexity and complications of patients with traumatically induced doc
Medical complexity and complications of patients with traumatically induced docMedical complexity and complications of patients with traumatically induced doc
Medical complexity and complications of patients with traumatically induced doc
Brain Injury Alliance of New Jersey
 
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
spastudent
 
Alice Medalia SRF Webinar
Alice Medalia SRF WebinarAlice Medalia SRF Webinar
Alice Medalia SRF Webinar
Alzforum
 
The effects of Pranayama yoga on Stress and Anxiety
The effects of Pranayama yoga on Stress and AnxietyThe effects of Pranayama yoga on Stress and Anxiety
The effects of Pranayama yoga on Stress and Anxiety
Jatin Chaudhary
 
Wii Fit balance training in outpatient people with subacute stroke
Wii Fit balance training in outpatient people with subacute strokeWii Fit balance training in outpatient people with subacute stroke
Wii Fit balance training in outpatient people with subacute stroke
Games for Health Europe
 
Jurnal imagery 1
Jurnal imagery 1Jurnal imagery 1
Jurnal imagery 1
risa herdiyana
 
Impairments In Prospective And Retrospective Memory Following Stroke
Impairments In Prospective And Retrospective Memory Following StrokeImpairments In Prospective And Retrospective Memory Following Stroke
Impairments In Prospective And Retrospective Memory Following Stroke
Jorge Barbosa
 
The sports journal2012
The sports journal2012The sports journal2012
The sports journal2012
Marina Tsetseli
 
Dsc foundation nov 2019 final
Dsc foundation nov 2019  finalDsc foundation nov 2019  final
Dsc foundation nov 2019 final
Promote Perth Design
 
Brain training unit 1 HU public
Brain training unit 1   HU publicBrain training unit 1   HU public
Brain training unit 1 HU public
tbaker17
 
Bokums et al_2012_psych_v3_n5_406_409
Bokums et al_2012_psych_v3_n5_406_409Bokums et al_2012_psych_v3_n5_406_409
Bokums et al_2012_psych_v3_n5_406_409
Cassio Meira Jr.
 
Thesis Defense Presentation
Thesis Defense PresentationThesis Defense Presentation
Thesis Defense Presentation
Tyler Kybartas
 

What's hot (20)

Effect of Standing to Improve Balance and Gait of Children with Cerebral Palsy
Effect of Standing to Improve Balance and Gait of Children with Cerebral PalsyEffect of Standing to Improve Balance and Gait of Children with Cerebral Palsy
Effect of Standing to Improve Balance and Gait of Children with Cerebral Palsy
 
BPS Mental Fatigue Poster
BPS Mental Fatigue PosterBPS Mental Fatigue Poster
BPS Mental Fatigue Poster
 
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary studentsEffects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
Effects of Cardiovascular Vs Strength Training on Cognition in Tertiary students
 
Green exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in nature
Green exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in natureGreen exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in nature
Green exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in nature
 
Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After TBI
Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After TBIInterventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After TBI
Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After TBI
 
Collaborative research on Dyslexia as at 6th Jan 2015
Collaborative research on Dyslexia as at 6th Jan 2015Collaborative research on Dyslexia as at 6th Jan 2015
Collaborative research on Dyslexia as at 6th Jan 2015
 
A comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of resisted
A comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of resistedA comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of resisted
A comparative study to evaluate the effectiveness of resisted
 
Rehabilitation and Outcomes - Year in Review
Rehabilitation and Outcomes - Year in ReviewRehabilitation and Outcomes - Year in Review
Rehabilitation and Outcomes - Year in Review
 
Medical complexity and complications of patients with traumatically induced doc
Medical complexity and complications of patients with traumatically induced docMedical complexity and complications of patients with traumatically induced doc
Medical complexity and complications of patients with traumatically induced doc
 
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
What is the Relationship between Quality of Life and Physical Functions of Pa...
 
Alice Medalia SRF Webinar
Alice Medalia SRF WebinarAlice Medalia SRF Webinar
Alice Medalia SRF Webinar
 
The effects of Pranayama yoga on Stress and Anxiety
The effects of Pranayama yoga on Stress and AnxietyThe effects of Pranayama yoga on Stress and Anxiety
The effects of Pranayama yoga on Stress and Anxiety
 
Wii Fit balance training in outpatient people with subacute stroke
Wii Fit balance training in outpatient people with subacute strokeWii Fit balance training in outpatient people with subacute stroke
Wii Fit balance training in outpatient people with subacute stroke
 
Jurnal imagery 1
Jurnal imagery 1Jurnal imagery 1
Jurnal imagery 1
 
Impairments In Prospective And Retrospective Memory Following Stroke
Impairments In Prospective And Retrospective Memory Following StrokeImpairments In Prospective And Retrospective Memory Following Stroke
Impairments In Prospective And Retrospective Memory Following Stroke
 
The sports journal2012
The sports journal2012The sports journal2012
The sports journal2012
 
Dsc foundation nov 2019 final
Dsc foundation nov 2019  finalDsc foundation nov 2019  final
Dsc foundation nov 2019 final
 
Brain training unit 1 HU public
Brain training unit 1   HU publicBrain training unit 1   HU public
Brain training unit 1 HU public
 
Bokums et al_2012_psych_v3_n5_406_409
Bokums et al_2012_psych_v3_n5_406_409Bokums et al_2012_psych_v3_n5_406_409
Bokums et al_2012_psych_v3_n5_406_409
 
Thesis Defense Presentation
Thesis Defense PresentationThesis Defense Presentation
Thesis Defense Presentation
 

Viewers also liked

INS 2016 BT-ADHD Poster
INS 2016 BT-ADHD PosterINS 2016 BT-ADHD Poster
INS 2016 BT-ADHD Poster
Isabella Taormina
 
Memory, Concentration and
Memory, Concentration andMemory, Concentration and
Memory, Concentration and
Mischka Alli
 
Family Focused Tele Intervention For Developmental Coordination Disorder V.2
Family Focused Tele Intervention For Developmental Coordination Disorder V.2Family Focused Tele Intervention For Developmental Coordination Disorder V.2
Family Focused Tele Intervention For Developmental Coordination Disorder V.2
University of Otago
 
Parents and online technologies: Parental Awareness of Youth Online Behaviors...
Parents and online technologies: Parental Awareness of Youth Online Behaviors...Parents and online technologies: Parental Awareness of Youth Online Behaviors...
Parents and online technologies: Parental Awareness of Youth Online Behaviors...
Safer Internet Forum 2010 (European Commission)
 
Guarding The Tongue
Guarding The TongueGuarding The Tongue
Guarding The Tongue
zakir2012
 
LIW - Improving the motor coordination of children with Developmental Coordin...
LIW - Improving the motor coordination of children with Developmental Coordin...LIW - Improving the motor coordination of children with Developmental Coordin...
LIW - Improving the motor coordination of children with Developmental Coordin...
theppa
 
UNCRC poster for children
UNCRC poster for childrenUNCRC poster for children
UNCRC poster for children
SOS Children's Villages International
 
Odu%20 clinical%20science%20iii%20dcd%202011[1]
Odu%20 clinical%20science%20iii%20dcd%202011[1]Odu%20 clinical%20science%20iii%20dcd%202011[1]
Odu%20 clinical%20science%20iii%20dcd%202011[1]
esloskey
 
DEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of THE NEONATAL HIP JOINT, Dr TRẦN NGÂN CHÂU
DEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of THE NEONATAL HIP JOINT, Dr TRẦN NGÂN CHÂUDEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of THE NEONATAL HIP JOINT, Dr TRẦN NGÂN CHÂU
DEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of THE NEONATAL HIP JOINT, Dr TRẦN NGÂN CHÂU
hungnguyenthien
 
Risk factors in children who had late DDH - البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان – استشا...
  Risk factors in children who had late DDH - البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان – استشا...  Risk factors in children who had late DDH - البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان – استشا...
Risk factors in children who had late DDH - البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان – استشا...
Prof Freih Abu Hassan البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان
 
Alexiev Harcke - US Predict Pavlik DDH Residua - JPO 26(1)16-23
Alexiev Harcke - US Predict Pavlik DDH Residua - JPO 26(1)16-23Alexiev Harcke - US Predict Pavlik DDH Residua - JPO 26(1)16-23
Alexiev Harcke - US Predict Pavlik DDH Residua - JPO 26(1)16-23
Venelin Alexiev
 
DDH 5-13-10
DDH 5-13-10DDH 5-13-10
DDH 5-13-10
guest8efb8bb
 
Nyborg causes2
Nyborg causes2Nyborg causes2
Nyborg causes2
Dorothy Bishop
 
Dore programme and fish oil interventions: evaluation
Dore programme and fish oil interventions: evaluationDore programme and fish oil interventions: evaluation
Dore programme and fish oil interventions: evaluation
Dorothy Bishop
 
The effect of an extra sex chromosome on language development
The effect of an extra sex chromosome on language developmentThe effect of an extra sex chromosome on language development
The effect of an extra sex chromosome on language development
Dorothy Bishop
 
Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Kyung Jei Woo
 
To accompany blogpost on pre-registration
To accompany blogpost on pre-registrationTo accompany blogpost on pre-registration
To accompany blogpost on pre-registration
Dorothy Bishop
 
Developmental Disorder
Developmental DisorderDevelopmental Disorder
Developmental Disorder
MingMing Davis
 
Multiway ANOVA and spurious results: SYSTAT manual explains
Multiway ANOVA and spurious results: SYSTAT manual explainsMultiway ANOVA and spurious results: SYSTAT manual explains
Multiway ANOVA and spurious results: SYSTAT manual explains
Dorothy Bishop
 
Developmental Dysplasia of hip
Developmental Dysplasia of hip Developmental Dysplasia of hip
Developmental Dysplasia of hip
Prasanna Durai
 

Viewers also liked (20)

INS 2016 BT-ADHD Poster
INS 2016 BT-ADHD PosterINS 2016 BT-ADHD Poster
INS 2016 BT-ADHD Poster
 
Memory, Concentration and
Memory, Concentration andMemory, Concentration and
Memory, Concentration and
 
Family Focused Tele Intervention For Developmental Coordination Disorder V.2
Family Focused Tele Intervention For Developmental Coordination Disorder V.2Family Focused Tele Intervention For Developmental Coordination Disorder V.2
Family Focused Tele Intervention For Developmental Coordination Disorder V.2
 
Parents and online technologies: Parental Awareness of Youth Online Behaviors...
Parents and online technologies: Parental Awareness of Youth Online Behaviors...Parents and online technologies: Parental Awareness of Youth Online Behaviors...
Parents and online technologies: Parental Awareness of Youth Online Behaviors...
 
Guarding The Tongue
Guarding The TongueGuarding The Tongue
Guarding The Tongue
 
LIW - Improving the motor coordination of children with Developmental Coordin...
LIW - Improving the motor coordination of children with Developmental Coordin...LIW - Improving the motor coordination of children with Developmental Coordin...
LIW - Improving the motor coordination of children with Developmental Coordin...
 
UNCRC poster for children
UNCRC poster for childrenUNCRC poster for children
UNCRC poster for children
 
Odu%20 clinical%20science%20iii%20dcd%202011[1]
Odu%20 clinical%20science%20iii%20dcd%202011[1]Odu%20 clinical%20science%20iii%20dcd%202011[1]
Odu%20 clinical%20science%20iii%20dcd%202011[1]
 
DEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of THE NEONATAL HIP JOINT, Dr TRẦN NGÂN CHÂU
DEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of THE NEONATAL HIP JOINT, Dr TRẦN NGÂN CHÂUDEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of THE NEONATAL HIP JOINT, Dr TRẦN NGÂN CHÂU
DEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of THE NEONATAL HIP JOINT, Dr TRẦN NGÂN CHÂU
 
Risk factors in children who had late DDH - البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان – استشا...
  Risk factors in children who had late DDH - البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان – استشا...  Risk factors in children who had late DDH - البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان – استشا...
Risk factors in children who had late DDH - البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان – استشا...
 
Alexiev Harcke - US Predict Pavlik DDH Residua - JPO 26(1)16-23
Alexiev Harcke - US Predict Pavlik DDH Residua - JPO 26(1)16-23Alexiev Harcke - US Predict Pavlik DDH Residua - JPO 26(1)16-23
Alexiev Harcke - US Predict Pavlik DDH Residua - JPO 26(1)16-23
 
DDH 5-13-10
DDH 5-13-10DDH 5-13-10
DDH 5-13-10
 
Nyborg causes2
Nyborg causes2Nyborg causes2
Nyborg causes2
 
Dore programme and fish oil interventions: evaluation
Dore programme and fish oil interventions: evaluationDore programme and fish oil interventions: evaluation
Dore programme and fish oil interventions: evaluation
 
The effect of an extra sex chromosome on language development
The effect of an extra sex chromosome on language developmentThe effect of an extra sex chromosome on language development
The effect of an extra sex chromosome on language development
 
Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
 
To accompany blogpost on pre-registration
To accompany blogpost on pre-registrationTo accompany blogpost on pre-registration
To accompany blogpost on pre-registration
 
Developmental Disorder
Developmental DisorderDevelopmental Disorder
Developmental Disorder
 
Multiway ANOVA and spurious results: SYSTAT manual explains
Multiway ANOVA and spurious results: SYSTAT manual explainsMultiway ANOVA and spurious results: SYSTAT manual explains
Multiway ANOVA and spurious results: SYSTAT manual explains
 
Developmental Dysplasia of hip
Developmental Dysplasia of hip Developmental Dysplasia of hip
Developmental Dysplasia of hip
 

Similar to Final Version of the Poster

Multimodal Behavioral Assessment After Experimental Brain Trauma
Multimodal Behavioral Assessment After Experimental Brain TraumaMultimodal Behavioral Assessment After Experimental Brain Trauma
Multimodal Behavioral Assessment After Experimental Brain Trauma
InsideScientific
 
CBT interventions for Panic Disorder
CBT interventions for Panic DisorderCBT interventions for Panic Disorder
CBT interventions for Panic Disorder
johnsikorski
 
How can Big Data help upgrade brain care?
How can Big Data help upgrade brain care?How can Big Data help upgrade brain care?
How can Big Data help upgrade brain care?
SharpBrains
 
coQoL: co-calibrating physical and psychological outcomes and consumer wearab...
coQoL: co-calibrating physical and psychological outcomes and consumer wearab...coQoL: co-calibrating physical and psychological outcomes and consumer wearab...
coQoL: co-calibrating physical and psychological outcomes and consumer wearab...
Vlad Manea
 
Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorde...
Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorde...Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorde...
Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorde...
Karel Van Isacker
 
Meditacion ayuda a la resitencia de enfermedades cerebrales
Meditacion ayuda a la resitencia de enfermedades cerebralesMeditacion ayuda a la resitencia de enfermedades cerebrales
Meditacion ayuda a la resitencia de enfermedades cerebrales
RAUL TAYA PEREZ
 
8 2008-normative data for the letter cancellation task in school children
8 2008-normative data for the letter cancellation task in school children8 2008-normative data for the letter cancellation task in school children
8 2008-normative data for the letter cancellation task in school children
Elsa von Licy
 
Teaching Autism: CTD & PTD Review
Teaching Autism: CTD & PTD ReviewTeaching Autism: CTD & PTD Review
Teaching Autism: CTD & PTD Review
GabrielaBucur
 
A systematic approach towards designing low-cost motor and cognitive rehabili...
A systematic approach towards designing low-cost motor and cognitive rehabili...A systematic approach towards designing low-cost motor and cognitive rehabili...
A systematic approach towards designing low-cost motor and cognitive rehabili...
Sergi Bermudez i Badia
 
Generic to Specific Recognition Models for Membership Analysis in Group Videos
Generic to Specific Recognition Models for Membership Analysis in Group VideosGeneric to Specific Recognition Models for Membership Analysis in Group Videos
Generic to Specific Recognition Models for Membership Analysis in Group Videos
MOVING Project
 
The effects of green exercise on stress, anxiety and mood
The effects of green exercise on stress, anxiety and moodThe effects of green exercise on stress, anxiety and mood
The effects of green exercise on stress, anxiety and mood
James Neill
 
Brazendale 2015 - Maximizing childrens PA using the LET US Play principles
Brazendale 2015 - Maximizing childrens PA using the LET US Play principlesBrazendale 2015 - Maximizing childrens PA using the LET US Play principles
Brazendale 2015 - Maximizing childrens PA using the LET US Play principles
Keith Brazendale
 
Cerebral palsy physiotherapy management
Cerebral palsy physiotherapy management Cerebral palsy physiotherapy management
Cerebral palsy physiotherapy management
Shruthi Puthran
 
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patientsEffects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Daniel Yazbek
 
68 trends in neuropediatric physical therapy - publicado
68   trends in neuropediatric physical therapy - publicado68   trends in neuropediatric physical therapy - publicado
68 trends in neuropediatric physical therapy - publicado
Nathanael Amparo
 
Reward Punishment Learning and Global Cognition in Parkinson's Disease 4.19.10
Reward Punishment Learning and Global Cognition in Parkinson's Disease 4.19.10Reward Punishment Learning and Global Cognition in Parkinson's Disease 4.19.10
Reward Punishment Learning and Global Cognition in Parkinson's Disease 4.19.10
Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics
 
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex r cópia
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex r   cópiaPoster wfnr 2013 validation of dex r   cópia
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex r cópia
Andrew Bateman
 
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex-R
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex-RPoster wfnr 2013 validation of dex-R
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex-R
Andrew Bateman
 
Practical management of ataxia and balance impairment: Part 2
Practical management of ataxia and balance impairment: Part 2Practical management of ataxia and balance impairment: Part 2
Practical management of ataxia and balance impairment: Part 2
MS Trust
 
Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Physical Exercise for Adults with Ch...
Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Physical Exercise for Adults with Ch...Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Physical Exercise for Adults with Ch...
Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Physical Exercise for Adults with Ch...
BERNARD Paquito
 

Similar to Final Version of the Poster (20)

Multimodal Behavioral Assessment After Experimental Brain Trauma
Multimodal Behavioral Assessment After Experimental Brain TraumaMultimodal Behavioral Assessment After Experimental Brain Trauma
Multimodal Behavioral Assessment After Experimental Brain Trauma
 
CBT interventions for Panic Disorder
CBT interventions for Panic DisorderCBT interventions for Panic Disorder
CBT interventions for Panic Disorder
 
How can Big Data help upgrade brain care?
How can Big Data help upgrade brain care?How can Big Data help upgrade brain care?
How can Big Data help upgrade brain care?
 
coQoL: co-calibrating physical and psychological outcomes and consumer wearab...
coQoL: co-calibrating physical and psychological outcomes and consumer wearab...coQoL: co-calibrating physical and psychological outcomes and consumer wearab...
coQoL: co-calibrating physical and psychological outcomes and consumer wearab...
 
Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorde...
Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorde...Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorde...
Computer games for user engagement in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorde...
 
Meditacion ayuda a la resitencia de enfermedades cerebrales
Meditacion ayuda a la resitencia de enfermedades cerebralesMeditacion ayuda a la resitencia de enfermedades cerebrales
Meditacion ayuda a la resitencia de enfermedades cerebrales
 
8 2008-normative data for the letter cancellation task in school children
8 2008-normative data for the letter cancellation task in school children8 2008-normative data for the letter cancellation task in school children
8 2008-normative data for the letter cancellation task in school children
 
Teaching Autism: CTD & PTD Review
Teaching Autism: CTD & PTD ReviewTeaching Autism: CTD & PTD Review
Teaching Autism: CTD & PTD Review
 
A systematic approach towards designing low-cost motor and cognitive rehabili...
A systematic approach towards designing low-cost motor and cognitive rehabili...A systematic approach towards designing low-cost motor and cognitive rehabili...
A systematic approach towards designing low-cost motor and cognitive rehabili...
 
Generic to Specific Recognition Models for Membership Analysis in Group Videos
Generic to Specific Recognition Models for Membership Analysis in Group VideosGeneric to Specific Recognition Models for Membership Analysis in Group Videos
Generic to Specific Recognition Models for Membership Analysis in Group Videos
 
The effects of green exercise on stress, anxiety and mood
The effects of green exercise on stress, anxiety and moodThe effects of green exercise on stress, anxiety and mood
The effects of green exercise on stress, anxiety and mood
 
Brazendale 2015 - Maximizing childrens PA using the LET US Play principles
Brazendale 2015 - Maximizing childrens PA using the LET US Play principlesBrazendale 2015 - Maximizing childrens PA using the LET US Play principles
Brazendale 2015 - Maximizing childrens PA using the LET US Play principles
 
Cerebral palsy physiotherapy management
Cerebral palsy physiotherapy management Cerebral palsy physiotherapy management
Cerebral palsy physiotherapy management
 
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patientsEffects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
Effects of Strength Training in Multiple sclerosis patients
 
68 trends in neuropediatric physical therapy - publicado
68   trends in neuropediatric physical therapy - publicado68   trends in neuropediatric physical therapy - publicado
68 trends in neuropediatric physical therapy - publicado
 
Reward Punishment Learning and Global Cognition in Parkinson's Disease 4.19.10
Reward Punishment Learning and Global Cognition in Parkinson's Disease 4.19.10Reward Punishment Learning and Global Cognition in Parkinson's Disease 4.19.10
Reward Punishment Learning and Global Cognition in Parkinson's Disease 4.19.10
 
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex r cópia
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex r   cópiaPoster wfnr 2013 validation of dex r   cópia
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex r cópia
 
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex-R
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex-RPoster wfnr 2013 validation of dex-R
Poster wfnr 2013 validation of dex-R
 
Practical management of ataxia and balance impairment: Part 2
Practical management of ataxia and balance impairment: Part 2Practical management of ataxia and balance impairment: Part 2
Practical management of ataxia and balance impairment: Part 2
 
Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Physical Exercise for Adults with Ch...
Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Physical Exercise for Adults with Ch...Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Physical Exercise for Adults with Ch...
Cognitive Behavior Therapy combined with Physical Exercise for Adults with Ch...
 

Final Version of the Poster

  • 1. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS UTILIZED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER Abigail Bissonette, SPT; Haley Brandt, SPT; Susan Christensen, SPT, CSCS; Alyson Cybulski, SPT; Sara Girolami, SPT; Jacob McDonald, SPT; Caitlin Schober, SPT; Dr. Ann Franz, Ph.D., P.T., CSCS WHAT IS DCD? Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is characterized by difficulty in movement skills (gross and fine motor) that are not primarily due to any physical, neurological, or behavioral disorders. Children with DCD struggle with learning and performing everyday tasks in their environment that negatively affect their everyday life. If cognitive impairments are present in children with DCD, motor impairments must be greater than in children of the same age without DCD with cognitive impairments. A physician makes the diagnosis after all other possible explanations for the motor difficulties are ruled out and if all of the above characteristics are present. PURPOSE Interventions Review Findings Task-oriented Effective for children with DCD. More effective than process-oriented and traditional therapy CO-OP More effective than current treatment approaches. NTT The task that is trained is improved. MIT Seems to work for some children, but needs more research. Traditional therapy Effective for children with DCD. More effective than process-oriented. PMT Not an effective approach with small effect size (0.082) Body Functions & Structure May be effective, but less that task-oriented approaches Gross Motor & Strength May help, and often used in therapy Parent/Teacher Guided No clear evidence for efficacy, but should educate parents to assist in interventions at home. Process-oriented Not recommended for improving motor performance in children DCD SIT Inconclusive evidence about effectiveness of SIT compared to other treatments or no treatments. Kinaesthetic Training Moderate evidence that kinaesthetic training may help improve kinaesthetic acuity. INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS The purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for children with DCD to improve motor performance based on currently available research. RESULTS AND FUTURE RESEARCH Intervention should be aimed at task-oriented functional activities that are meaningful and relevant to the child’s daily life, with involvement from parents and teachers. Moreover, our review demonstrated that a variety of interventions are beneficial in improving a child’s motor performance. Improvements in Study Design: • Consistent and Functional Outcome Measures •M-ABC, BOT, DCD-Q • Interventions that are generalizable to functional tasks •Task-oriented approach, sports- or ADL-specific interventions • Long-term studies > 3 months • Larger sample size to better generalize results to children with DCD • Increased rigor in sampling (Inclusion and exclusion criteria) •Consistent diagnostic criteria for DCD • Determine optimal duration, intensity, and frequency to standardize recommendations • Interventions grouped by age, subtype, and/or comorbidities Inclusion Criteria: Birth to 21 years old, English, Past 20 years, Human Exclusion Criteria: Surgical procedures, Medical procedures Search Terms: DCD, Birth-21 years, Intervention, Treatment, Developmental Delay, Group Therapy, Physical Activity, Motor Performance, Sensory Integration, Neuromotor task training, Task-oriented approach, Physical therapy Search Engines/Databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, PEDro, TRIP Intervention Category Article Type of Study Participant Characteristics Interventions Outcome Measures Results Cognitive Approach Hyland (2012) RCT n = 39; Dx: DCD Analyzed 39 video-taped sessions to evaluate children’s use of DPA, a self-regulation technique, during CO-OP, task-specific, and conventional therapy approaches Pre- and post-test comparison use of DPA for each type of therapy + Wilson (2002) RT n = 54; Dx: Probable DCD MIT: n = 18; 60 min 1x/wk x 5wks individual treatment Traditional-PMT: n = 18; 60 min 1x/wk x 5wks individual treatment Wait-List Control: n = 18; no intervention M-ABC* = Cosper (2009) Cohort Study n = 12; Dx: DCD Interactive Metronome Training: n = 12, 1hr/wk x 15 individual treatment: Repetitive pattern motor activities timed to beats BOT-2*, GDS Continuous Performance Test (sustained attention) + Leemrijse (2000) RT with 6 single cases n=6; Dx: DCD Experimental Group 1: n = 3; 12-18 wks of LBD, 12-18 wks SI Experimental Group 2: n = 3; 12-18 wks of SI, 12-18 wks LBD M-ABC* (LBD), Praxis Tests of the SIPT* (LBD), Rhythm IntegratedTM* (LBD), VAS (parent worry)* (LBD & SI) + LBD>SI Group Pless (2000) Research Report n = 37; Dx: DCD and Probable DCD Group Motor Skill Interventions: n = 17; 1x/wk x10 wks Control: n = 20; no motor skill intervention M-ABC checklist and motor portion + Hung (2012) RCT Pilot n = 23; Dx: DCD Group-Based: n = 12, 4-6 children:1 therapist; 45 min/wk x 8 wks; HEP: 20 min/d Individual-Based: n = 11; 45 min/wk x 8 wks; HEP x 20 min/d M-ABC* = Zwicker (2014) RT n = 11; Dx: DCD Group-Based: 6hrs/d x 2-wk summer camp sessions M-ABC-2, DCD-Q, COPM*, PEGS, CSAPPA, CAPE, parent survey + Dunford (2011) Repeated Measure n = 8; Dx: DCD Group CO-OP: 50 min x 8 sessions x 2 wks M-ABC*, Harter, COPM* + NTT Niemeijer (2006) Pilot Study n =19; Dx: DCD NTT: 1x/wk x 9 wks M-ABC* (adjusting body positioning and explaining why), TGMD-2* (giving clues, explaining why, providing rhythm, and asking about understanding) + Niemeijer (2007) RCT n =39; Dx: DCD NTT: n = 26; 1x/wk x 9 wks Control: n = 13; 9 wks no training M-ABC*, TGMD-2* + Ferguson (2013) Quasi- experimenta l design n= 46; Dx: Probable DCD NTT: n = 27; 45-60 min, 2x/wk x 9 wks: Workstations included soccer, netball, tagging games, indigenous games. Wii: n = 19; 30 min, 3x/wk x 6 wks: Choice of 18 games mimicking cycling, soccer, skateboarding, skiing. Play at least 2x. M-ABC-2* (NTT), Functional Strength Measure* (total & 6/9 items NTT; 1 item for Wii), Hand-held dynamometer, Muscle Power Sprint Test* (NTT & Wii), Metre Shuttle Run Test* (NTT) + NTT>Wii Task Specific Fong (2012) RCT n = 62; Dx: DCD TKD training: n = 21; 1 hr/wk x 12 wks; Home practice: 45-60 min, 6 d/wk, parent activity log Control: DCD n = 23; non-DCD n=18 SOT*, UST* + Fong (2013) RCT n = 62; Dx: DCD TKD training: n = 21; 1 hr/wk x 12 wks; Home practice: 45-60 min, 6 d/wk, parent activity log Control: DCD n = 23; non-DCD n=18 Isokinetic concentric strength (Cybex Norm isokinetic dynamometer)*, UST*, MCT + Hillier (2010) Pilot Study n = 13; Dx: DCD Aquatic Therapy: 30 min, 1x/wk x 6 sessions Control: no intervention M-ABC, PSPCSA, Parent Questionnaire + Tsai (2009) RT n = 43; Dx: DCD Table Tennis: 50 min, 3x/wk x 10 wks M-ABC-2*, reaction times and error responses* + Traditional Physical Therapy Giagazoglou (2015) Cohort Study n = 20; Dx: Probable DCD Experimental Group: n = 10; 45 min, 3x/wk x12 wks: Balance training circuit with 15 min on trampoline Control: n = 10; no intervention BCTC*, TBCT*, Balance Testing on EPS pressure platform* + Kane (2009) Case Report n = 5; Dx: DCD 55 min, 2x/wk x 6 sessions: Aerobic warm-up, core stability exercises, task-specific intervention per child’s sports goals DCD-Q, Leisure section of Canadian occupational and performance model, BOTMP, CSAPPA, therapist-derived measure of core stability, child-chosen goals and perceived competency for each goal + Menz (2013) Case Report n = 1; Dx: Probable DCD 60 min, 2x/wk x 24 sessions: Progressive strength training using universal exercise unit BOT-2*, COPM*, DCDQ*, TGMD-2, Monkey bars + Kaufman (2007) Case Report n = 1; Dx: DCD 20-30 min, 2x/wk x 12 wks: Progressive strength training using body weight and weights HDD, BOT-MP, Proprioceptive test, parent and teacher report + Watemberg (2007) RT n = 28; Dx: DCD Physical Therapy: n = 14; 1hr, 2x/wk x 4 wks in groups of 4-5 children; HEP: 30min/d Control: n = 14; no intervention M-ABC* + Virtual Reality Hammond (2014) Pilot Study n = 18; Dx: DCD and Probable DCD Wii Fit: 10 min, 3x/wk x 1 month Control: Jump Ahead program DCD-Q, BOT-2*, CSQ: Ability, Satisfaction, SDQ + Jelsma (2014) RT n = 48; Dx: Probable DCD Wii Fit: 30 min, 3x/wk x 6 wks M-ABC-2*, BOT-2,* Wii Fit ski slalom test*, Enjoyment Scale + Ashkenazi (2013) Pilot Study n = 9; Dx: Probable DCD Sony PlayStation 2 Eye toy: 60 min, 1x/wk x 10 sessions: Also included goal-directed, task-oriented approach M-ABC*, DCD-Q*, Parent’s subjective reports, Walk and talk test, 6-minute walk test + Ashkenazi, T., Weiss, P. L., Orian, D., & Laufer, Y. (2013). Low-cost virtual reality intervention program for children with developmental coordination disorder: A pilot feasibility study. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 25(4), 467-473 Barnhart, B. H., Davenport, M., Epps, S. B., & Nordquist, V. M. (2003). Developmental coordination disorder. Physical Therapy, 83(8), 722-731. Blank, R., Smits-Engelsman, B., Polatajko, H., & Wilson, P. (2012). European Academy for Childhood Disability (EACD): Recommendations on the definition, diagnosis, and intervention of developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 54(1), 54- 93. Cosper, S. M., Lee, G. P., Peters, S. B., & Bishop, E. (2009). Interactive metronome training in children with attention deficit and developmental coordination disorders. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 32(4), 331-336. Dunford, C. (2011). Goal-oriented group intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 31(3), 288-300. Ferguson, G. D., Jelsma, D., Jelsma, J., & Smits-Engelsman, B. C. (2013). The efficacy of two task-orientated interventions for children with developmental coordination disorder: Neuromotor task training and Nintendo Wii Fit training. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(9), 2449-2461. Fong, S. S, Chung, J. W., Chow, L. P., Ma, A. W., & Tsang, W. W. (2013). Differential effect of taekwondo training on knee muscle strength and reactive and static balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(5), 1446-1455. Fong, S. S., Tsang, W. W., & Ng, G. Y. (2012). Taekwondo training improves sensory organization and balance control in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(1), 85-95. Giagazoglou, P., Sidiropoulou, M., Mitsiou, M., Arabatzi, F., & Kellis, E. (2015). Can balance trampoline training promote motor coordination and balance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 36, 13-19. Hammond, J., Jones, V., Hill, E. L., Green, D., & Male, I. (2012). An investigation of the impact of regular use of the Wii Fit to improve motor and psychosocial outcomes in children with movement difficulties: A pilot study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40(2), 165-175. Hillier, S., McIntyre, A., & Plummer, L. (2010). Aquatic physical therapy for children with developmental coordination disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 30(2), 111-124. Hung, W. W. Y., & Pang, M. Y. C. (2012). Effects of group-based versus individual-based exercise training on motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 42, 122-128. Hyland, M. Polatajko, H. J. (2011). Enabling children with developmental coordination disorder to self-regulate through the use of dynamic performance analysis: Evidence from the CO-OP approach. Human Movement Science, 31(2012), 987-998. Jelsma, D., Geuze, R., Mombarg, R., & Smits-Engelsman, B. (2014). The impact of Wii Fit intervention on dynamic balance control in children with probable developmental coordination disorder and balance problems. Human Movement Science, 33, 404-418. Kane, K., & Bell, A. (2009). A core stability group program for children with developmental coordination disorder: 3 clinical case reports. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 21(4), 375-382. Kaufman, L. B., & Schilling, D. L. (2007). Implementation of a strength training program for a 5-year-old child with poor body awareness and developmental coordination disorder. Physical Therapy, 87(4), 455-467. Leemrijse, C., Meijer, O. G., Vermeer, A., Adér, H. J., & Diemel, S. (2000). The efficacy of Le Bon Départ and sensory integration treatment for children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized study with six single cases. Clinical Rehabilitation, 14(3), 247-259. Menz, S. M., Hatten, K., & Grant-Beuttler, M. (2013). Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 25(2), 214-223. Niemeijer A. S., Smits-Engelsman B. C., & Schoemaker M. M. (2006). Are teaching principles associated with improved motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder? A pilot study. Physical Therapy. 86(9), 1221-1230. Niemeijer A. S., Smits-Engelsman B. C., & Schoemaker M. M. (2007). Neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder: A controlled trial. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49(6), 406-411. Pless M., Carlsson, M., Sundelin, C., & Persson, K. (2000). Effects of group motor skill intervention on five to six year old children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 12(4), 183-189. Smits-Engelsman, B., Blank, R., Van Der Kaay, A., Mosterd-Van Der Meijs, R., Vlugt-Van Den Brand, E., Polatajko, H., & Wilson, P. (2013). Efficacy of interventions to improve motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder: A combined systematic review and meta-analysis. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55(3), 229-237. Tsai, C. L. (2009). The effectiveness of exercise intervention on inhibitory control in children with developmental coordination disorder: Using a visuospatial attention paradigm as a model. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30, 1268-1280. Watemberg, N., Waiserberg, N., Zuk, L., & Lerman-Sagie, T. (2007). Developmental coordination disorder in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and physical therapy intervention. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49, 920-925. Wilson, P. H., Thomas, P. R., & Madruff, P. (2002). Motor imagery training ameliorates motor clumsiness in children. Journal of Child Neurology, 17(7), 491-498. Zwicker, J., Rehal, H., Sodhi, S., Karkling, M., Paul, A., Hilliard, M., & Jarus, T. (2014). Effectiveness of a summer camp intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. Advanced online publication. Retrieved from http://informahealthcare.com/potp. DOI: 10.3109/01942638.2014.957431. REFERENCES ABBREVIATIONS Treatment Approaches: Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP); Dynamic Performance Analysis (DPA); Le Bon Départ (LBD); Motor Imagery Training (MIT); Neuromotor Task Training (NTT); Perceptual Motor Training (PMT); Sensory Integration Training (SIT); Taekwondo (TKD). Study Types: Randomized Control Trial (RCT); Randomized Trial (RT). Diagnoses: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD); Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Outcome Measures: Body Coordination Test for Children (BCTC); Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2; BOTMP); Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE); Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM); Children’s Self-Perceptions of Adequacy and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA); Coordination Skills Questionnaire (CSQ); Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q); Hand Held Dynamometer (HDD); Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC); Motor Control Test (MCT); Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting in Children with Disabilities (PEGS); Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA); Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Sensory Organization Test (SOT); Trampoline Body Coordination Test (TBCT); Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2); Unilateral Stance Test (UST); Visual Analog Scale (VAS)