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Evaluating	
  Processing	
  as	
  a	
  	
  
Platform	
  for	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
Daniel	
  Volk	
  
28.03.2011	
  
Agenda	
  	
  
•  Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  What	
  is	
  a	
  Game?	
  
•  Why	
  Game	
  Prototyping?	
  
•  Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  What	
  is	
  Processing?	
  
•  How	
  to	
  use	
  Processing?	
  
•  Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  An	
  Example	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  What	
  is	
  Play?	
  
•  [Play	
  is]	
  ...	
  „a	
  free	
  ac8vity	
  standing	
   	
   	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
quite	
  consciously	
  outside	
  „ordinary“	
  	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
life	
  as	
  being	
  „not	
  serious“,	
  but	
  at	
  the	
  	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
same	
  Lme	
  absorbing	
  the	
  player	
   	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  
intensely	
  and	
  uMerly.	
  	
  
•  It	
  is	
  an	
  acLvity	
  connected	
  with	
  no	
  material	
  interest,	
  and	
  no	
  profit	
  
can	
  be	
  gained	
  by	
  it.	
  It	
  proceeds	
  within	
  its	
  own	
  proper	
  boundaries	
  
of	
  8me	
  and	
  space	
  according	
  to	
  fixed	
  rules	
  and	
  in	
  an	
  orderly	
  
manner.“	
  [Johan	
  Huizinga]	
  
•  The	
  Magic	
  Circle	
  
•  Game	
  Space	
  
•  Game	
  Time	
  
(	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  )	
  
...	
  primarily	
  true	
  for	
  games	
  ...	
  
the	
  real	
  world	
  
the	
  ficLonal	
  game	
  world	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  What	
  is	
  Play?	
  
•  Play	
  is	
  free	
  –	
  would	
  otherwise	
  loose	
  quality	
  as	
  diversion	
  
•  Play	
  is	
  separate	
  –	
  described	
  by	
  limits	
  of	
  space	
  and	
  Lme	
  
•  Play	
  is	
  uncertain	
  –	
  course	
  and	
  results	
  are	
  not	
  known	
  beforehand	
  
•  Play	
  is	
  unproduc8ve	
  –	
  creates	
  no	
  wealth	
  or	
  goods	
  
•  Play	
  is	
  governed	
  by	
  rules	
  –	
  a	
  new	
  legislaLon	
  is	
  established	
  
•  Play	
  is	
  make-­‐believe	
  –	
  it	
  creates	
  a	
  reality,	
  different	
  of	
  real	
  life	
  
•  Components	
  of	
  play	
  
•  Agon	
  (≈	
  compe88on)	
  
•  Alea	
  (≈	
  chance)	
  
•  Illinx	
  (≈	
  frenzy)	
  
•  Mimikry	
  (≈	
  masquerade)	
  
	
  
[Roger	
  Caillois]	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  What	
  is	
  a	
  Game?	
  
•  Games	
  can	
  be	
  the	
  origin	
  of	
  play.	
  
	
  
•  „Reduced	
  to	
  its	
  formal	
  essence,	
  a	
  game	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
is	
  an	
  ac8vity	
  among	
  two	
  or	
  more	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
independent	
  decision-­‐makers	
  seeking	
  to	
  achieve	
  their	
  objec8ves	
  
in	
  some	
  limi8ng	
  context.	
  A	
  more	
  convenLonal	
  definiLon	
  would	
  
say	
  that	
  a	
  game	
  is	
  a	
  context	
  with	
  rules	
  among	
  adversaries	
  trying	
  
to	
  win	
  objecLves.“	
  [Clark	
  C.	
  Abt]	
  
•  „A	
  game	
  is	
  a	
  form	
  of	
  art	
  in	
  which	
  parLcipants,	
  termed	
  players,	
  
make	
  decisions	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  manage	
  resources	
  through	
  game	
  
tokens	
  in	
  pursuit	
  of	
  a	
  goal.“	
  [Greg	
  CosLkyan]	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  What	
  is	
  a	
  Game?	
  
•  „Games	
  are	
  rule-­‐based“	
  
•  „Games	
  have	
  variying	
  endings,	
  with	
  different	
  numbers	
  assignable	
  
to	
  a	
  specific	
  outcome“	
  
•  „The	
  different	
  potenLal	
  outcomes	
  of	
  the	
  games	
  are	
  assigned	
  
different	
  values,	
  some	
  posiLve	
  and	
  some	
  negaLv“	
  
•  „The	
  player	
  exerts	
  effort	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  influence	
  the	
  outcome“	
  
•  „The	
  player	
  is	
  emo8onally	
  aLached	
  to	
  the	
  outcome	
  of	
  the	
  game“	
  
•  „The	
  same	
  game	
  (≈	
  rules)	
  can	
  be	
  played	
  with	
  or	
  without	
  real-­‐
world	
  consequences“	
  
[Jesper	
  Juul]	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
player(s)	
  
game	
  token(s)	
  
game	
  space	
  
game	
  8me	
  
game	
  rules	
  
ac8vity	
  
game	
  goals	
  
compe88on	
  
decisions	
  
1:0	
  
outcome	
  
challenge	
  
aLachment	
  
consequences	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Game	
  Rules	
  
•  DifferenLaLon	
  
•  (Game)world	
  rules	
  
•  Rules	
  define	
  the	
  boundaries	
  and	
  behaviour	
  of	
  the	
  world	
  containing	
  the	
  
player	
  (or	
  his	
  avatar)	
  –	
  the	
  infrastructure	
  upon	
  which	
  the	
  game	
  exists	
  
•  Non-­‐digital	
  gameworld	
  rules	
  are	
  typically	
  defined	
  by	
  the	
  specs	
  of	
  the	
  real	
  
world,	
  digital	
  games	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  defined	
  at	
  first	
  
•  Example	
  (non-­‐digital):	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  gravity	
  in	
  a	
  soccer	
  game	
  (g	
  =	
  9.81	
  m/s2)	
  
•  Example	
  (digital):	
  the	
  types	
  of	
  interacLons	
  possible	
  within	
  the	
  gameworld	
  
•  Gameplay	
  rules	
  
•  Rules	
  define	
  the	
  possibility	
  space	
  seman8cally	
  relevant	
  for	
  the	
  game	
  
•  Example	
  (non-­‐digital):	
  a	
  ball	
  that	
  crosses	
  the	
  goal	
  line	
  increases	
  the	
  score	
  
•  Example	
  (digital):	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  lives	
  a	
  jump‘n‘run	
  character	
  has	
  
...	
  also	
  generic	
  mulLverses	
  like	
  	
  
SecondLife	
  implement	
  this	
  category	
  	
  
of	
  „game“	
  rules	
  
	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Game	
  Rules	
  
•  Basics	
  
•  Game	
  rules	
  give	
  games	
  structure	
  
•  Game	
  rules	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  unambiguous	
  and	
  repeatable	
  
•  Game	
  rules	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  fixed	
  and	
  binding	
  
•  Game	
  rules	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  balanced	
  
•  Understandings	
  
•  Game	
  rules	
  are	
  limita8ons	
  
•  Rules	
  define	
  obstacles	
  that	
  impose	
  challenges	
  to	
  the	
  player	
  
	
  
•  Example:	
  a	
  field	
  player	
  in	
  soccer	
  is	
  not	
  allowed	
  to	
  use	
  his	
  hands	
  
•  Game	
  rules	
  are	
  opportuni8es	
  
•  Rules	
  define	
  possible	
  ac8ons	
  that	
  offer	
  choices	
  to	
  the	
  player	
  
	
  
•  Example:	
  you	
  can	
  try	
  to	
  provoke	
  the	
  opposing	
  player	
  using	
  his	
  hands	
  
...	
  e.g.	
  sensorimotor	
  challenges	
  in	
  soccer	
  	
  
(which	
  are	
  especially	
  interesLng,	
  since	
  	
  
conflict	
  is	
  involved)	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Game	
  Rules	
  
•  Levels	
  
•  Opera8onal	
  rules	
  
•  Are	
  visible	
  on	
  the	
  surface	
  (e.g.	
  in	
  form	
  of	
  a	
  rule-­‐set)	
  
•  Are	
  procedurally	
  formalized	
  by	
  instruc8ons/constraints	
  
•  Are	
  more	
  precise	
  (specific	
  for	
  one	
  game)	
  
•  Cons8tua8ve	
  rules	
  
•  Lie	
  hidden	
  underneath	
  the	
  surface	
  
•  Are	
  descrip8vely	
  formalized	
  by	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  
	
  a	
  finite	
  state	
  machine	
  
•  Are	
  more	
  abstract	
   	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  
	
  (specific	
  for	
  a	
  class	
  of	
  games)	
  
•  Implicit	
  rules	
  
•  Are	
  surrounding	
  rules	
  that	
  are	
  defined	
  by	
  the	
  player	
  community	
  
•  Are	
  typically	
  unwriLen	
  and	
  ojen	
  conveyed	
  outside	
  the	
  game	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Game	
  Rules	
  
•  General	
  approaches	
  
•  Games	
  of	
  Emergence	
  
•  The	
  gameplay	
  challenges	
  emerge	
  in	
  parallel	
  from	
  a	
  set	
  of	
  simple	
  (first-­‐
order),	
  interacLng	
  rules	
  (which	
  generates	
  a	
  wide	
  decision	
  tree)	
  
•  Is	
  typically	
  build	
  around	
  a	
  strong	
  simulaLve	
  core	
  
•  Games	
  of	
  Progression	
  
•  Gameplay	
  challenges	
  are	
  constructed	
  serially,	
  by	
  way	
  of	
  special	
  case	
  
(second-­‐order)	
  rules	
  (which	
  generates	
  a	
  narrow	
  decision	
  tree)	
  
•  Is	
  typically	
  build	
  upon	
  a	
  strong	
  narraLve	
  backbone	
  
•  Gameplay	
  
•  The	
  player	
  is	
  challenged	
  by	
  obstacles	
  while	
  working	
  towards	
  the	
  
goals	
  (and	
  their	
  rewards);	
  to	
  overcome	
  the	
  obstacles	
  he	
  makes	
  
choices	
  about	
  the	
  right	
  acLons,	
  interacts	
  with	
  the	
  game	
  accordingly	
  
and	
  in	
  doing	
  so	
  he	
  unfolds	
  the	
  gameplay	
  
...follows	
  the	
  principle	
  of	
  	
  
„easy	
  to	
  learn,	
  difficult	
  to	
  master“	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  What	
  is	
  a	
  Videogame?	
  
•  „A	
  videogame	
  is	
  a	
  game	
  which	
  we	
  play	
  thanks	
  to	
  an	
  audiovisual	
  
apparatus	
  and	
  which	
  can	
  be	
  based	
  on	
  a	
  story“	
  [Nicolas	
  Esposito]	
  (	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  )	
  
...	
  although	
  true	
  for	
  classic	
  games	
  ...	
  
a	
  ficLonal	
  virtual	
  world	
  
the	
  ficLonal	
  game	
  world	
  
the	
  Magic	
  Circle	
  
Remember	
  the	
  	
  
(Game)world	
  rules?	
  
Remember	
  the	
  	
  
Gameplay	
  rules?	
  
the	
  real	
  world	
  
can	
  be	
  an	
  abstracLon	
  of	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Interac8vity	
  
•  „Just	
  as	
  the	
  schwerpunkt	
  of	
  computers	
  is	
  processing,	
  so	
  too	
  the	
  
schwerpunkt	
  of	
  all	
  sojware	
  is	
  interac8vity	
  –	
  and	
  this	
  goes	
  double	
  
for	
  games.“	
  
•  InteracLvity	
  is	
  „a	
  cyclic	
  process	
  in	
  which	
  two	
  ac8ve	
  agents	
  
alternaLvely	
  (and	
  metaphorically)	
  listen,	
  think,	
  and	
  speak.“	
  
[Chris	
  Crawford]	
   Think	
  
Think	
  
Speak	
  Speak	
  
Listen	
  
Listen	
  
Human-­‐Computer-­‐	
  
Interac8on	
  	
  	
  	
  barrier	
  
...is	
  a	
  higher-­‐level	
  concept	
  	
  
compared	
  to	
  interac8on!	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  High	
  interac8vity	
  
•  High-­‐quality	
  listening	
  
•  How	
  wide	
  is	
  the	
  range	
  of	
  (inter)ac8on	
  op8ons	
  offered	
  to	
  the	
  player?	
  
•  High-­‐quality	
  thinking	
  
•  How	
  complex	
  is	
  the	
  set	
  of	
  algorithms	
  (process	
  intensity)	
  executed	
  
by	
  the	
  game	
  in	
  response	
  to	
  the	
  players	
  input?	
  
•  High-­‐quality	
  speaking	
  
•  How	
  strong	
  is	
  the	
  expressiveness	
  (the	
  more	
  sophisLcated	
  the	
  
answer,	
  the	
  beMer	
  –	
  representaLon	
  is	
  secondary)	
  of	
  the	
  game‘s	
  
reacLon?	
  	
  
•  Core	
  Game	
  Mechanic	
  
•  Every	
  game	
  is	
  designed	
  around	
  a	
  main	
  ac8vity	
  (cf.	
  „Jump‘n‘Run“)	
  
•  This	
  acLvity	
  is	
  very	
  sensi8ve	
  to	
  interac8on	
  deficiencies	
  
•  It	
  primarily	
  defines	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  interac8vity	
  
...in	
  a	
  way	
  similar	
  to	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  	
  
entropy	
  (cf.	
  informaLon	
  theory)	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Reasons	
  for	
  prototyping	
  
•  Game	
  rules	
  are	
  best	
  defined	
  using	
  boLom-­‐up	
  strategies	
  (quite	
  
ojen	
  interesLng	
  features	
  are	
  discovered	
  just	
  on	
  the	
  fly)	
  
•  The	
  same	
  holds	
  true	
  for	
  game	
  interac8vity	
  (direct	
  result	
  of	
  rules)	
  
•  This	
  is	
  especially	
  true	
  for	
  games	
  of	
  emergence	
  (restricLng	
  to	
  first-­‐
order	
  rules	
  means	
  provoking	
  second-­‐order	
  design	
  challenges)	
  
•  Game	
  balance	
  is	
  best	
  achieved	
  by	
  playing	
  and	
  refining	
  the	
  game	
  
•  The	
  same	
  holds	
  true	
  for	
  game	
  interac8on	
  (fine-­‐tuning	
  using	
  a	
  
running	
  prototype	
  is	
  especially	
  important	
  for	
  core	
  mechanics)	
  
•  This	
  all	
  assumes	
  creaLng	
  a	
  playable	
  prototype	
  fastest	
  possible	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  A	
  model	
  for	
  itera8ve	
  game	
  development	
  
•  Phases	
  
•  Concept	
  
•  Goal:	
  generate	
  ideas	
  
•  Tool:	
  gameplay	
  sketching	
  
•  Pre-­‐Produc8on	
  
•  Goal:	
  concreLze	
  ideas	
  
•  Tool:	
  gameplay	
  prototyping	
  
•  Produc8on	
  
•  Goal:	
  implement/refine	
  ideas	
  
•  Tool:	
  evoluLonary	
  development	
  
•  QA	
  
•  Goal:	
  evaluate/	
  refine	
  ideas	
  
•  Tool:	
  evoluLonary	
  development	
  
•  Origin	
  
•  USC	
  InteracLve	
  Media	
  Division	
  (2003)	
   [Tracy	
  Fullerton]	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  The	
  spiral	
  model	
  of	
  soXware	
  development	
   [Barry	
  Boehm]	
  
Exchange	
  width	
  by	
  depth	
  
•  Reduce	
  design	
  opLons	
  
•  Increase	
  prototype	
  scope	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Prototype	
  categories	
  (contentual	
  disLncLon)	
  
•  Game	
  design	
  focus	
  
•  The	
  prototype	
  is	
  built	
  around	
  a	
  game	
  design	
  issue	
  
•  Technology	
  focus	
  
•  The	
  prototype	
  is	
  build	
  around	
  a	
  technical	
  issue	
  
•  Prototype	
  categories	
  (goal	
  disLncLon)	
  
•  Generate	
  ideas	
  (sketching)	
  
•  A	
  sketch	
  is	
  used	
  to	
  explore	
  the	
  design	
  space,	
  rise	
  ques8ons	
  about	
  
various	
  opLons	
  and	
  propose	
  specific	
  selecLons	
  
•  ConcreLze/	
  Refine	
  ideas	
  (prototyping)	
  
•  A	
  prototype	
  is	
  used	
  to	
  refine	
  a	
  concrete	
  design	
  choice,	
  answer	
  
quesLons	
  that	
  arose	
  while	
  trying	
  out	
  opLons	
  and	
  test	
  selecLons	
  that	
  
have	
  been	
  made	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Prototype	
  categories	
  (structural	
  disLncLon)	
  
•  Horizontal	
  prototype	
  
•  Realizes	
  just	
  specific	
  levels	
  of	
  the	
  system	
  desired	
  and	
  concentrates	
  
on	
  singular	
  aspects	
  that	
  need	
  evaluaLon	
  (e.g.	
  the	
  GUI)	
  
•  VerLcal	
  prototype	
  
•  Realizes	
  a	
  properly	
  func8onal	
  itera8on	
  of	
  the	
  system	
  desired	
  that	
  
cuts	
  through	
  all	
  levels	
  of	
  the	
  system	
  but	
  limits	
  funcLonality	
  
considerably	
  (e.g.	
  the	
  first	
  game	
  level)	
  
•  Prototype	
  categories	
  (life	
  cycle	
  disLncLon)	
  
•  Throw-­‐away	
  prototype	
  
•  The	
  prototype	
  is	
  just	
  built	
  to	
  demonstrate	
  a	
  specific	
  aspect	
  or	
  to	
  
answer	
  a	
  concrete	
  ques8on	
  that	
  arose	
  while	
  development	
  
•  Pilot	
  system	
  
•  The	
  prototype	
  represents	
  a	
  preliminary	
  version	
  of	
  the	
  aspired	
  
product	
  and	
  is	
  base	
  for	
  further	
  development	
  iteraLons	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Technical	
  Requirements	
  
•  A	
  good	
  prototyping	
  environment	
  
•  facilitates	
  a	
  shallow	
  learning	
  curve	
  
•  allows	
  for	
  fast	
  itera8ons	
  
•  provides	
  verLcal	
  scalability 	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
(at	
  least	
  to	
  a	
  certain	
  degree)	
  
•  This	
  is	
  typically	
  accomplished,	
  if	
  the	
  environment	
  
•  sets	
  the	
  right	
  focus	
  (animaLon/	
  simulaLon/	
  media)	
  
•  contains	
  examples	
  and	
  snippets	
  
•  provides	
  reusable	
  components	
  
•  offers	
  a	
  supporLng	
  framework	
  
•  Is	
  sourrounded	
  by	
  helpful	
  tools	
  
Agenda	
  	
  
•  Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  What	
  is	
  a	
  Game?	
  
•  Why	
  Game	
  Prototyping?	
  
•  Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  What	
  is	
  Processing?	
  
•  How	
  to	
  use	
  Processing?	
  
•  Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  An	
  Example	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
„Processing	
  is	
  an	
  open	
  source	
  programming	
  language	
  and	
  
environment	
  for	
  people	
  who	
  want	
  to	
  create	
  images,	
  
anima8ons,	
  and	
  interac8ons“	
  [www.processing.org]	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  Some	
  examples...	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  The	
  Programming	
  Language	
  
•  Built	
  on	
  top	
  of	
  Java	
  
•  Is	
  strictly	
  typed	
  
•  Has	
  classes	
  and	
  inheritance	
  
•  The	
  mandatory	
  Hello	
  World	
  example:	
  
•  println("Hello World!");
•  Supports	
  three	
  modes	
  of	
  programming	
  
•  Basic	
  (just	
  one	
  method	
  body)	
  
•  Con8nuous	
  (setup()	
  and	
  looped	
  draw()	
  as	
  core)	
  
•  Java	
  (well,	
  it‘s	
  just	
  naLve	
  Java...	
  J)	
  
•  Can	
  be	
  exported	
  (compiled)	
  to	
  different	
  languages!	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  The	
  Programming	
  Environment	
  
•  Processing	
  Development	
  Environment	
  (PDE)	
  is	
  bundled	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
(Pro-­‐users	
  can	
  also	
  replace	
  it	
  by	
  Eclipse)	
  
•  Provides	
  basic	
  funcLonality	
  and	
  is	
  easy	
  to	
  use	
  
•  Contains	
  examples	
  and	
  snippets	
  
•  Exports	
  Applets	
  and	
  applicaLons	
  
•  Contains	
  a	
  basic	
  set	
  of	
  supporLng	
  tools	
  
•  Can	
  be	
  extended	
  by	
  external	
  tools	
   	
   	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  
(provides	
  an	
  extension	
  mechanism)	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  The	
  Programming	
  Interface	
  
•  Is	
  focused	
  on	
  Data	
  Visualiza8on	
  
•  Can	
  do	
  2D	
  and	
  3D	
  (both	
  can	
  be	
  done	
  HW-­‐accelerated!)	
  
•  Contains	
  a	
  bunch	
  of	
  globally-­‐accessible	
  funcLons	
  for	
  doing	
  
standard	
  work	
  (very	
  flat	
  API)	
  
•  The	
  real	
  Hello	
  World	
  example:	
  
•  textFont(loadFont("Dialog-16.vlw"), 16);
•  text("Hello World!", 10, 20);
•  Some	
  addiLonal	
  libraries	
  included	
  (Audio,	
  Video,	
  Network,	
  ...)	
  
•  Lots	
  of	
  external	
  libraries	
  available	
  (Hardware,	
  	
  SimulaLon,	
  ...) 	
  	
  
(provides	
  an	
  extension	
  interface)	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  Program	
  and	
  Control	
  Structures	
  
•  The	
  same	
  as	
  in	
  Java	
  
•  Data	
  Types	
  
•  Nearly	
  the	
  same	
  as	
  in	
  Java	
  (e.g.,	
  color,	
  ...)	
  
•  AddiLonal	
  helper	
  methods	
  for	
  handling	
  (e.g.,	
  Strings,	
  Arrays,	
  ...)	
  
•  Math	
  
•  Operators	
  are	
  the	
  same	
  as	
  in	
  Java	
  
•  Methods	
  for	
  CalculaLon	
  (ceil(),	
  dist(),	
  constrain(),	
  norm(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Methods	
  for	
  Trigonometry	
  (sin(),	
  cos(),	
  degrees(),	
  radians(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Methods	
  for	
  Random	
  Sampling	
  (random(),	
  noise(),	
  ...)	
  
•  PVector	
  as	
  datatype	
  for	
  two-­‐	
  or	
  three-­‐dimensional	
  vectors	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  Input	
  
•  Mouse	
  (e.g.,	
  mousePressed(),	
  mouseReleased(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Keyboard	
  (e.g.,	
  keyPressed(),	
  keyReleased(),	
  ...)	
  
•  File	
  (e.g.,	
  loadBytes(),	
  loadString(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Output	
  
•  Text/	
  Image	
  (e.g.,	
  println(),	
  saveFrame(),	
  ...)	
  
•  File	
  (e.g.,	
  saveStream(),	
  saveBytes(),	
  saveString(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Environmental	
  Control	
  
•  Controls	
  for	
  seqngs	
  (e.g.,	
  size(),	
  cursor(),	
  pushStyle(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Controls	
  for	
  main	
  loop	
  (e.g.,	
  frameRate(),	
  noLoop(),	
  redraw(),	
  ...)	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  Basic	
  2D	
  Drawing	
  
•  2D	
  PrimiLves	
  (e.g.,	
  point(),	
  line(),	
  ellipse(),	
  rect(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Curves	
  (e.g.,	
  arc(),	
  curve(),	
  bezier(),	
  ...)	
  
•  AMributes	
  (e.g.,	
  fill(),	
  stroke(),	
  smooth(),	
  color(),	
  ...)	
  
•  PShape	
  as	
  datatype	
  for	
  handling	
  SVG	
  shapes	
  
•  Basic	
  3D	
  Drawing	
  
•  3D	
  PrimiLves	
  (e.g.,	
  sphere(),	
  box(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Lights	
  (e.g.,	
  ambientLight(),	
  pointLight(),	
  spotLight(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Materials	
  (e.g.,	
  ambient(),	
  emissive(),	
  shininess(),	
  specular(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Camera	
  (e.g.,	
  camera(),	
  frustum(),	
  ortho(),	
  ...)	
  
Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  Advanced	
  2D/	
  3D	
  Drawing	
  
•  Vertex	
  Handling	
  (e.g.,	
  beginShape(),	
  vertex(),	
  texture(),	
  ...)	
  
•  TransformaLons	
  (e.g.,	
  pushMatrix(),	
  translate(),	
  rotate(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Images	
  
•  Handling	
  (e.g.,	
  image(),	
  imageMode(),	
  Lnt(),	
  ...)	
  
•  Pixel	
  Handling	
  (e.g.,	
  loadPixels(),	
  filter(),	
  blend(),	
  ...)	
  
•  PImage	
  as	
  datatype	
  for	
  handling	
  GIF,	
  JPG,	
  TGA	
  and	
  PNG	
  images	
  
•  PGraphics	
  as	
  datatype	
  for	
  the	
  main	
  rendering	
  context	
  
•  Typography	
  
•  Handling	
  (e.g.,	
  loadFont(),	
  textFont(),	
  text(),	
  ...)	
  
•  AMributes	
  (e.g.,	
  textMode(),	
  textSize(),	
  textAlign(),	
  ...)	
  
•  PFont	
  as	
  datatype	
  for	
  pixel-­‐based	
  VLW	
  fonts	
  
Agenda	
  	
  
•  Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  What	
  is	
  a	
  Game?	
  
•  Why	
  Game	
  Prototyping?	
  
•  Part	
  II	
  –	
  Processing	
  
•  What	
  is	
  Processing?	
  
•  How	
  to	
  use	
  Processing?	
  
•  Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  An	
  Example	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Core	
  Game	
  Mechanics	
  
•  Avoid	
  geqng	
  hit	
  by	
  incoming	
  objects	
  
•  TaMer	
  objects	
  by	
  using	
  effector	
  
•  Opera8onal	
  Rules	
  
•  Avatar	
  health	
  is	
  restricted	
  (obstacle)	
  
•  Different	
  objects	
  with	
  different	
  behaviour	
  (choice)	
  
•  Effectors	
  are	
  restricted	
  in	
  some	
  way	
  (obstacle/	
  choice)	
  
•  Different	
  effectors	
  are	
  available	
  (choice)	
  
•  Movement	
  of	
  avatar	
  is	
  restricted	
  to	
  screen	
  (obstacle)	
  
•  Player	
  tries	
  to	
  survive	
  as	
  long	
  as	
  possible	
  (main	
  goal)	
  
•  Player	
  tries	
  to	
  survive	
  certain	
  amount	
  of	
  Lme	
  (intermediate	
  goal);	
  
	
  is	
  then	
  offered	
  new	
  effector	
  opLons	
  (reward)	
  
•  Interac8on	
  
•  Player	
  controls	
  avatar	
  by	
  keyboard-­‐mouse-­‐combinaLon	
  
(→	
  game	
  Lme)	
  
(→	
  game	
  space)	
  
(→	
  game	
  category)	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  I	
  –	
  „Birth	
  of	
  an	
  avatar“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  Horizontal	
  throw-­‐away	
  (technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  player	
  avatar	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Show	
  simple	
  avatar	
  representaLon	
  
•  Move	
  avatar	
  using	
  keyboard	
  (a,w,s,d)-­‐keys	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Indirect	
  steering	
  works	
  beMer	
  
•  Playing	
  with	
  inerLa	
  feels	
  good	
  -­‐>	
  use	
  acceleraLon/	
  space	
  theme?	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Movement	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  restricted	
  to	
  screen	
  
•  Velocity	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  restricted	
  to	
  reasonable	
  limit	
  
•  MulLple-­‐key	
  movement	
  doesn‘t	
  work	
  properly	
  yet	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  II	
  –	
  „Aiming	
  at	
  bad	
  objects“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  Horizontal	
  throw-­‐away	
  (technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  player	
  avatar	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Show	
  simple	
  avatar	
  and	
  effector	
  representaLon	
  
•  Aim	
  effector	
  using	
  mouse	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  Using	
  translaLons	
  works	
  well	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Loosing	
  mouse	
  focus	
  interrupts	
  experience	
  
•  Crosshairs	
  mouse	
  cursor	
  would	
  improve	
  game	
  feeling	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  III	
  –	
  „Ready	
  for	
  take	
  off“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  Horizontal	
  pilot	
  (technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  player	
  avatar	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Combine	
  Prototype	
  I	
  and	
  II	
  
•  Remedy	
  current	
  NOKs/	
  Do	
  simple	
  code	
  refactorings	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  Movement	
  restricLon	
  should	
  be	
  part	
  of	
  gameplay	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Loosing	
  mouse	
  focus	
  interrupts	
  experience	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  IV	
  –	
  „Emissions	
  all	
  around“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  Horizontal	
  throw-­‐away	
  (technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  player	
  avatar	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Show	
  representaLon	
  of	
  effector	
  emissions	
  
•  Provide	
  basic	
  emission	
  behavior	
  
•  Launch	
  emissions	
  using	
  mouse	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Emissions	
  discharge	
  it	
  too	
  staLc	
  (add	
  random	
  factor)	
  
•  Emissions	
  lifeLme	
  is	
  too	
  staLc	
  (add	
  random	
  factor)	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  V	
  –	
  „Avatar,	
  trigger-­‐happy“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  Horizontal	
  pilot	
  (technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  player	
  avatar	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Combine	
  Prototype	
  III	
  and	
  IV	
  
•  Remedy	
  current	
  NOKs/	
  Do	
  simple	
  code	
  refactorings	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  Implemented	
  emiMer	
  might	
  work	
  best	
  as	
  short	
  distance	
  type	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Emission	
  rate	
  shouldn‘t	
  depend	
  on	
  framerate	
  
•  Emission	
  should	
  be	
  restricted	
  to	
  lej	
  mouse	
  buMon	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  VI	
  –	
  „Bad	
  objects	
  on	
  the	
  move“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  Horizontal	
  throw-­‐away	
  (technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  game	
  objects	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Show	
  representaLon	
  of	
  bad	
  objects	
  
•  Provide	
  basic	
  bad-­‐object	
  behavior	
  (hunLng	
  mouse)	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  IniLal	
  direcLon	
  of	
  bad	
  objects	
  has	
  to	
  be	
  set	
  
•  Bad	
  Objects	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  different	
  -­‐>	
  classes	
  of	
  objects?	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  VII	
  –	
  „The	
  (make	
  believe)	
  witch	
  hunt“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  VerLcal	
  pilot	
  (game	
  design/	
  technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  player	
  avatar/	
  InteracLon	
  with	
  game	
  objects	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Combine	
  Prototype	
  V	
  and	
  VI	
  	
  
•  Remedy	
  current	
  NOKs/	
  Do	
  simple	
  code	
  refactorings	
  
•  Colorize	
  game	
  world	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Swarm-­‐behavior	
  is	
  too	
  predictable	
  yet	
  
•  Annoying	
  flickering	
  -­‐>	
  double	
  buffering	
  enabled?	
  
•  Input-­‐handling	
  should	
  be	
  centralized	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  VIII	
  –	
  „Hit	
  ´em“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  Horizontal	
  throw-­‐away	
  (technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  game	
  objects	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Provide	
  basic	
  object-­‐to-­‐object	
  collision-­‐detecLon	
  
•  Provide	
  simple	
  collision-­‐handling	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Number	
  of	
  collision	
  checks	
  probably	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  restricted	
  
•  Style	
  of	
  collision-­‐handling	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  improved	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  IX	
  –	
  „The	
  (serious)	
  witch	
  hunt	
  “	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  VerLcal	
  pilot	
  (game	
  design/	
  technology)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  InteracLon	
  with	
  player	
  avatar/	
  InteracLon	
  with	
  game	
  objects	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Combine	
  Prototype	
  VII	
  and	
  VIII	
  	
  
•  Remedy	
  current	
  NOKs/	
  Do	
  simple	
  code	
  refactorings	
  
•  Add	
  simple	
  gameplay	
  behavior	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Add	
  visual	
  feedback	
  when	
  hiqng	
  bad	
  objects	
  
•  Add	
  player	
  health	
  and	
  points	
  
Part	
  III	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototype	
  
•  Prototype	
  X	
  –	
  „A	
  delicate	
  liMle	
  gameplay	
  plant“	
  
•  Type:	
  
•  VerLcal	
  pilot	
  (game	
  design)	
  
•  Focus:	
  	
  
•  Gameplay	
  Improvements	
  
•  Goals:	
  
•  Remedy	
  current	
  NOKs/	
  Do	
  simple	
  code	
  refactorings	
  
•  Enrich	
  gameplay	
  behavior/	
  Add	
  game	
  states	
  
•  Evalua8on	
  
•  OK:	
  
•  Approach	
  will	
  do	
  
•  NOK:	
  
•  Add	
  audio	
  component	
  to	
  the	
  game	
  
•  Add	
  different	
  bad	
  object	
  types	
  
Part	
  I	
  –	
  Game	
  Prototyping	
  
•  Technical	
  Evalua8on	
  
•  A	
  good	
  prototyping	
  environment	
  
•  facilitates	
  a	
  shallow	
  learning	
  curve	
  
•  allows	
  for	
  fast	
  itera8ons	
  
•  provides	
  verLcal	
  scalability 	
   	
   	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
(at	
  least	
  to	
  a	
  certain	
  degree)	
  
•  This	
  is	
  typically	
  accomplished,	
  if	
  the	
  environment	
  
•  sets	
  the	
  right	
  focus	
  (animaLon/	
  simulaLon/	
  media)	
  
•  contains	
  examples	
  and	
  snippets	
  
•  provides	
  reusable	
  components	
  
•  offers	
  a	
  supporLng	
  framework	
  
•  Is	
  sourrounded	
  by	
  helpful	
  tools	
  

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一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(brunel毕业证书)布鲁内尔大学毕业证如何办理
 

Evaluating Processing as a Platform for Game Prototyping

  • 1. Evaluating  Processing  as  a     Platform  for  Game  Prototyping   Daniel  Volk   28.03.2011  
  • 2. Agenda     •  Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  What  is  a  Game?   •  Why  Game  Prototyping?   •  Part  II  –  Processing   •  What  is  Processing?   •  How  to  use  Processing?   •  Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  An  Example  
  • 3. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  What  is  Play?   •  [Play  is]  ...  „a  free  ac8vity  standing                               quite  consciously  outside  „ordinary“                                   life  as  being  „not  serious“,  but  at  the                           same  Lme  absorbing  the  player               intensely  and  uMerly.     •  It  is  an  acLvity  connected  with  no  material  interest,  and  no  profit   can  be  gained  by  it.  It  proceeds  within  its  own  proper  boundaries   of  8me  and  space  according  to  fixed  rules  and  in  an  orderly   manner.“  [Johan  Huizinga]   •  The  Magic  Circle   •  Game  Space   •  Game  Time   (                                      )   ...  primarily  true  for  games  ...   the  real  world   the  ficLonal  game  world  
  • 4. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  What  is  Play?   •  Play  is  free  –  would  otherwise  loose  quality  as  diversion   •  Play  is  separate  –  described  by  limits  of  space  and  Lme   •  Play  is  uncertain  –  course  and  results  are  not  known  beforehand   •  Play  is  unproduc8ve  –  creates  no  wealth  or  goods   •  Play  is  governed  by  rules  –  a  new  legislaLon  is  established   •  Play  is  make-­‐believe  –  it  creates  a  reality,  different  of  real  life   •  Components  of  play   •  Agon  (≈  compe88on)   •  Alea  (≈  chance)   •  Illinx  (≈  frenzy)   •  Mimikry  (≈  masquerade)     [Roger  Caillois]  
  • 5. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  What  is  a  Game?   •  Games  can  be  the  origin  of  play.     •  „Reduced  to  its  formal  essence,  a  game                                         is  an  ac8vity  among  two  or  more                               independent  decision-­‐makers  seeking  to  achieve  their  objec8ves   in  some  limi8ng  context.  A  more  convenLonal  definiLon  would   say  that  a  game  is  a  context  with  rules  among  adversaries  trying   to  win  objecLves.“  [Clark  C.  Abt]   •  „A  game  is  a  form  of  art  in  which  parLcipants,  termed  players,   make  decisions  in  order  to  manage  resources  through  game   tokens  in  pursuit  of  a  goal.“  [Greg  CosLkyan]  
  • 6. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  What  is  a  Game?   •  „Games  are  rule-­‐based“   •  „Games  have  variying  endings,  with  different  numbers  assignable   to  a  specific  outcome“   •  „The  different  potenLal  outcomes  of  the  games  are  assigned   different  values,  some  posiLve  and  some  negaLv“   •  „The  player  exerts  effort  in  order  to  influence  the  outcome“   •  „The  player  is  emo8onally  aLached  to  the  outcome  of  the  game“   •  „The  same  game  (≈  rules)  can  be  played  with  or  without  real-­‐ world  consequences“   [Jesper  Juul]  
  • 7. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   player(s)   game  token(s)   game  space   game  8me   game  rules   ac8vity   game  goals   compe88on   decisions   1:0   outcome   challenge   aLachment   consequences  
  • 8. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Game  Rules   •  DifferenLaLon   •  (Game)world  rules   •  Rules  define  the  boundaries  and  behaviour  of  the  world  containing  the   player  (or  his  avatar)  –  the  infrastructure  upon  which  the  game  exists   •  Non-­‐digital  gameworld  rules  are  typically  defined  by  the  specs  of  the  real   world,  digital  games  need  to  be  defined  at  first   •  Example  (non-­‐digital):  the  level  of  gravity  in  a  soccer  game  (g  =  9.81  m/s2)   •  Example  (digital):  the  types  of  interacLons  possible  within  the  gameworld   •  Gameplay  rules   •  Rules  define  the  possibility  space  seman8cally  relevant  for  the  game   •  Example  (non-­‐digital):  a  ball  that  crosses  the  goal  line  increases  the  score   •  Example  (digital):  the  number  of  lives  a  jump‘n‘run  character  has   ...  also  generic  mulLverses  like     SecondLife  implement  this  category     of  „game“  rules    
  • 9. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Game  Rules   •  Basics   •  Game  rules  give  games  structure   •  Game  rules  need  to  be  unambiguous  and  repeatable   •  Game  rules  need  to  be  fixed  and  binding   •  Game  rules  need  to  be  balanced   •  Understandings   •  Game  rules  are  limita8ons   •  Rules  define  obstacles  that  impose  challenges  to  the  player     •  Example:  a  field  player  in  soccer  is  not  allowed  to  use  his  hands   •  Game  rules  are  opportuni8es   •  Rules  define  possible  ac8ons  that  offer  choices  to  the  player     •  Example:  you  can  try  to  provoke  the  opposing  player  using  his  hands   ...  e.g.  sensorimotor  challenges  in  soccer     (which  are  especially  interesLng,  since     conflict  is  involved)  
  • 10. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Game  Rules   •  Levels   •  Opera8onal  rules   •  Are  visible  on  the  surface  (e.g.  in  form  of  a  rule-­‐set)   •  Are  procedurally  formalized  by  instruc8ons/constraints   •  Are  more  precise  (specific  for  one  game)   •  Cons8tua8ve  rules   •  Lie  hidden  underneath  the  surface   •  Are  descrip8vely  formalized  by            a  finite  state  machine   •  Are  more  abstract              (specific  for  a  class  of  games)   •  Implicit  rules   •  Are  surrounding  rules  that  are  defined  by  the  player  community   •  Are  typically  unwriLen  and  ojen  conveyed  outside  the  game  
  • 11. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Game  Rules   •  General  approaches   •  Games  of  Emergence   •  The  gameplay  challenges  emerge  in  parallel  from  a  set  of  simple  (first-­‐ order),  interacLng  rules  (which  generates  a  wide  decision  tree)   •  Is  typically  build  around  a  strong  simulaLve  core   •  Games  of  Progression   •  Gameplay  challenges  are  constructed  serially,  by  way  of  special  case   (second-­‐order)  rules  (which  generates  a  narrow  decision  tree)   •  Is  typically  build  upon  a  strong  narraLve  backbone   •  Gameplay   •  The  player  is  challenged  by  obstacles  while  working  towards  the   goals  (and  their  rewards);  to  overcome  the  obstacles  he  makes   choices  about  the  right  acLons,  interacts  with  the  game  accordingly   and  in  doing  so  he  unfolds  the  gameplay   ...follows  the  principle  of     „easy  to  learn,  difficult  to  master“  
  • 12. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  What  is  a  Videogame?   •  „A  videogame  is  a  game  which  we  play  thanks  to  an  audiovisual   apparatus  and  which  can  be  based  on  a  story“  [Nicolas  Esposito]  (                                                            )   ...  although  true  for  classic  games  ...   a  ficLonal  virtual  world   the  ficLonal  game  world   the  Magic  Circle   Remember  the     (Game)world  rules?   Remember  the     Gameplay  rules?   the  real  world   can  be  an  abstracLon  of  
  • 13. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Interac8vity   •  „Just  as  the  schwerpunkt  of  computers  is  processing,  so  too  the   schwerpunkt  of  all  sojware  is  interac8vity  –  and  this  goes  double   for  games.“   •  InteracLvity  is  „a  cyclic  process  in  which  two  ac8ve  agents   alternaLvely  (and  metaphorically)  listen,  think,  and  speak.“   [Chris  Crawford]   Think   Think   Speak  Speak   Listen   Listen   Human-­‐Computer-­‐   Interac8on        barrier   ...is  a  higher-­‐level  concept     compared  to  interac8on!  
  • 14. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  High  interac8vity   •  High-­‐quality  listening   •  How  wide  is  the  range  of  (inter)ac8on  op8ons  offered  to  the  player?   •  High-­‐quality  thinking   •  How  complex  is  the  set  of  algorithms  (process  intensity)  executed   by  the  game  in  response  to  the  players  input?   •  High-­‐quality  speaking   •  How  strong  is  the  expressiveness  (the  more  sophisLcated  the   answer,  the  beMer  –  representaLon  is  secondary)  of  the  game‘s   reacLon?     •  Core  Game  Mechanic   •  Every  game  is  designed  around  a  main  ac8vity  (cf.  „Jump‘n‘Run“)   •  This  acLvity  is  very  sensi8ve  to  interac8on  deficiencies   •  It  primarily  defines  the  level  of  interac8vity   ...in  a  way  similar  to  the  concept  of     entropy  (cf.  informaLon  theory)  
  • 15. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Reasons  for  prototyping   •  Game  rules  are  best  defined  using  boLom-­‐up  strategies  (quite   ojen  interesLng  features  are  discovered  just  on  the  fly)   •  The  same  holds  true  for  game  interac8vity  (direct  result  of  rules)   •  This  is  especially  true  for  games  of  emergence  (restricLng  to  first-­‐ order  rules  means  provoking  second-­‐order  design  challenges)   •  Game  balance  is  best  achieved  by  playing  and  refining  the  game   •  The  same  holds  true  for  game  interac8on  (fine-­‐tuning  using  a   running  prototype  is  especially  important  for  core  mechanics)   •  This  all  assumes  creaLng  a  playable  prototype  fastest  possible  
  • 16. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  A  model  for  itera8ve  game  development   •  Phases   •  Concept   •  Goal:  generate  ideas   •  Tool:  gameplay  sketching   •  Pre-­‐Produc8on   •  Goal:  concreLze  ideas   •  Tool:  gameplay  prototyping   •  Produc8on   •  Goal:  implement/refine  ideas   •  Tool:  evoluLonary  development   •  QA   •  Goal:  evaluate/  refine  ideas   •  Tool:  evoluLonary  development   •  Origin   •  USC  InteracLve  Media  Division  (2003)   [Tracy  Fullerton]  
  • 17. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  The  spiral  model  of  soXware  development   [Barry  Boehm]   Exchange  width  by  depth   •  Reduce  design  opLons   •  Increase  prototype  scope  
  • 18. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Prototype  categories  (contentual  disLncLon)   •  Game  design  focus   •  The  prototype  is  built  around  a  game  design  issue   •  Technology  focus   •  The  prototype  is  build  around  a  technical  issue   •  Prototype  categories  (goal  disLncLon)   •  Generate  ideas  (sketching)   •  A  sketch  is  used  to  explore  the  design  space,  rise  ques8ons  about   various  opLons  and  propose  specific  selecLons   •  ConcreLze/  Refine  ideas  (prototyping)   •  A  prototype  is  used  to  refine  a  concrete  design  choice,  answer   quesLons  that  arose  while  trying  out  opLons  and  test  selecLons  that   have  been  made  
  • 19. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Prototype  categories  (structural  disLncLon)   •  Horizontal  prototype   •  Realizes  just  specific  levels  of  the  system  desired  and  concentrates   on  singular  aspects  that  need  evaluaLon  (e.g.  the  GUI)   •  VerLcal  prototype   •  Realizes  a  properly  func8onal  itera8on  of  the  system  desired  that   cuts  through  all  levels  of  the  system  but  limits  funcLonality   considerably  (e.g.  the  first  game  level)   •  Prototype  categories  (life  cycle  disLncLon)   •  Throw-­‐away  prototype   •  The  prototype  is  just  built  to  demonstrate  a  specific  aspect  or  to   answer  a  concrete  ques8on  that  arose  while  development   •  Pilot  system   •  The  prototype  represents  a  preliminary  version  of  the  aspired   product  and  is  base  for  further  development  iteraLons  
  • 20. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Technical  Requirements   •  A  good  prototyping  environment   •  facilitates  a  shallow  learning  curve   •  allows  for  fast  itera8ons   •  provides  verLcal  scalability                                       (at  least  to  a  certain  degree)   •  This  is  typically  accomplished,  if  the  environment   •  sets  the  right  focus  (animaLon/  simulaLon/  media)   •  contains  examples  and  snippets   •  provides  reusable  components   •  offers  a  supporLng  framework   •  Is  sourrounded  by  helpful  tools  
  • 21. Agenda     •  Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  What  is  a  Game?   •  Why  Game  Prototyping?   •  Part  II  –  Processing   •  What  is  Processing?   •  How  to  use  Processing?   •  Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  An  Example  
  • 22. Part  II  –  Processing   „Processing  is  an  open  source  programming  language  and   environment  for  people  who  want  to  create  images,   anima8ons,  and  interac8ons“  [www.processing.org]  
  • 23. Part  II  –  Processing   •  Some  examples...  
  • 24. Part  II  –  Processing   •  The  Programming  Language   •  Built  on  top  of  Java   •  Is  strictly  typed   •  Has  classes  and  inheritance   •  The  mandatory  Hello  World  example:   •  println("Hello World!"); •  Supports  three  modes  of  programming   •  Basic  (just  one  method  body)   •  Con8nuous  (setup()  and  looped  draw()  as  core)   •  Java  (well,  it‘s  just  naLve  Java...  J)   •  Can  be  exported  (compiled)  to  different  languages!  
  • 25. Part  II  –  Processing   •  The  Programming  Environment   •  Processing  Development  Environment  (PDE)  is  bundled                         (Pro-­‐users  can  also  replace  it  by  Eclipse)   •  Provides  basic  funcLonality  and  is  easy  to  use   •  Contains  examples  and  snippets   •  Exports  Applets  and  applicaLons   •  Contains  a  basic  set  of  supporLng  tools   •  Can  be  extended  by  external  tools                 (provides  an  extension  mechanism)  
  • 26. Part  II  –  Processing   •  The  Programming  Interface   •  Is  focused  on  Data  Visualiza8on   •  Can  do  2D  and  3D  (both  can  be  done  HW-­‐accelerated!)   •  Contains  a  bunch  of  globally-­‐accessible  funcLons  for  doing   standard  work  (very  flat  API)   •  The  real  Hello  World  example:   •  textFont(loadFont("Dialog-16.vlw"), 16); •  text("Hello World!", 10, 20); •  Some  addiLonal  libraries  included  (Audio,  Video,  Network,  ...)   •  Lots  of  external  libraries  available  (Hardware,    SimulaLon,  ...)     (provides  an  extension  interface)  
  • 27. Part  II  –  Processing   •  Program  and  Control  Structures   •  The  same  as  in  Java   •  Data  Types   •  Nearly  the  same  as  in  Java  (e.g.,  color,  ...)   •  AddiLonal  helper  methods  for  handling  (e.g.,  Strings,  Arrays,  ...)   •  Math   •  Operators  are  the  same  as  in  Java   •  Methods  for  CalculaLon  (ceil(),  dist(),  constrain(),  norm(),  ...)   •  Methods  for  Trigonometry  (sin(),  cos(),  degrees(),  radians(),  ...)   •  Methods  for  Random  Sampling  (random(),  noise(),  ...)   •  PVector  as  datatype  for  two-­‐  or  three-­‐dimensional  vectors  
  • 28. Part  II  –  Processing   •  Input   •  Mouse  (e.g.,  mousePressed(),  mouseReleased(),  ...)   •  Keyboard  (e.g.,  keyPressed(),  keyReleased(),  ...)   •  File  (e.g.,  loadBytes(),  loadString(),  ...)   •  Output   •  Text/  Image  (e.g.,  println(),  saveFrame(),  ...)   •  File  (e.g.,  saveStream(),  saveBytes(),  saveString(),  ...)   •  Environmental  Control   •  Controls  for  seqngs  (e.g.,  size(),  cursor(),  pushStyle(),  ...)   •  Controls  for  main  loop  (e.g.,  frameRate(),  noLoop(),  redraw(),  ...)  
  • 29. Part  II  –  Processing   •  Basic  2D  Drawing   •  2D  PrimiLves  (e.g.,  point(),  line(),  ellipse(),  rect(),  ...)   •  Curves  (e.g.,  arc(),  curve(),  bezier(),  ...)   •  AMributes  (e.g.,  fill(),  stroke(),  smooth(),  color(),  ...)   •  PShape  as  datatype  for  handling  SVG  shapes   •  Basic  3D  Drawing   •  3D  PrimiLves  (e.g.,  sphere(),  box(),  ...)   •  Lights  (e.g.,  ambientLight(),  pointLight(),  spotLight(),  ...)   •  Materials  (e.g.,  ambient(),  emissive(),  shininess(),  specular(),  ...)   •  Camera  (e.g.,  camera(),  frustum(),  ortho(),  ...)  
  • 30. Part  II  –  Processing   •  Advanced  2D/  3D  Drawing   •  Vertex  Handling  (e.g.,  beginShape(),  vertex(),  texture(),  ...)   •  TransformaLons  (e.g.,  pushMatrix(),  translate(),  rotate(),  ...)   •  Images   •  Handling  (e.g.,  image(),  imageMode(),  Lnt(),  ...)   •  Pixel  Handling  (e.g.,  loadPixels(),  filter(),  blend(),  ...)   •  PImage  as  datatype  for  handling  GIF,  JPG,  TGA  and  PNG  images   •  PGraphics  as  datatype  for  the  main  rendering  context   •  Typography   •  Handling  (e.g.,  loadFont(),  textFont(),  text(),  ...)   •  AMributes  (e.g.,  textMode(),  textSize(),  textAlign(),  ...)   •  PFont  as  datatype  for  pixel-­‐based  VLW  fonts  
  • 31. Agenda     •  Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  What  is  a  Game?   •  Why  Game  Prototyping?   •  Part  II  –  Processing   •  What  is  Processing?   •  How  to  use  Processing?   •  Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  An  Example  
  • 32. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Core  Game  Mechanics   •  Avoid  geqng  hit  by  incoming  objects   •  TaMer  objects  by  using  effector   •  Opera8onal  Rules   •  Avatar  health  is  restricted  (obstacle)   •  Different  objects  with  different  behaviour  (choice)   •  Effectors  are  restricted  in  some  way  (obstacle/  choice)   •  Different  effectors  are  available  (choice)   •  Movement  of  avatar  is  restricted  to  screen  (obstacle)   •  Player  tries  to  survive  as  long  as  possible  (main  goal)   •  Player  tries  to  survive  certain  amount  of  Lme  (intermediate  goal);    is  then  offered  new  effector  opLons  (reward)   •  Interac8on   •  Player  controls  avatar  by  keyboard-­‐mouse-­‐combinaLon   (→  game  Lme)   (→  game  space)   (→  game  category)  
  • 33. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  I  –  „Birth  of  an  avatar“   •  Type:   •  Horizontal  throw-­‐away  (technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  player  avatar   •  Goals:   •  Show  simple  avatar  representaLon   •  Move  avatar  using  keyboard  (a,w,s,d)-­‐keys   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Indirect  steering  works  beMer   •  Playing  with  inerLa  feels  good  -­‐>  use  acceleraLon/  space  theme?   •  NOK:   •  Movement  needs  to  be  restricted  to  screen   •  Velocity  needs  to  be  restricted  to  reasonable  limit   •  MulLple-­‐key  movement  doesn‘t  work  properly  yet  
  • 34. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  II  –  „Aiming  at  bad  objects“   •  Type:   •  Horizontal  throw-­‐away  (technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  player  avatar   •  Goals:   •  Show  simple  avatar  and  effector  representaLon   •  Aim  effector  using  mouse   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  Using  translaLons  works  well   •  NOK:   •  Loosing  mouse  focus  interrupts  experience   •  Crosshairs  mouse  cursor  would  improve  game  feeling  
  • 35. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  III  –  „Ready  for  take  off“   •  Type:   •  Horizontal  pilot  (technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  player  avatar   •  Goals:   •  Combine  Prototype  I  and  II   •  Remedy  current  NOKs/  Do  simple  code  refactorings   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  Movement  restricLon  should  be  part  of  gameplay   •  NOK:   •  Loosing  mouse  focus  interrupts  experience  
  • 36. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  IV  –  „Emissions  all  around“   •  Type:   •  Horizontal  throw-­‐away  (technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  player  avatar   •  Goals:   •  Show  representaLon  of  effector  emissions   •  Provide  basic  emission  behavior   •  Launch  emissions  using  mouse   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  NOK:   •  Emissions  discharge  it  too  staLc  (add  random  factor)   •  Emissions  lifeLme  is  too  staLc  (add  random  factor)  
  • 37. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  V  –  „Avatar,  trigger-­‐happy“   •  Type:   •  Horizontal  pilot  (technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  player  avatar   •  Goals:   •  Combine  Prototype  III  and  IV   •  Remedy  current  NOKs/  Do  simple  code  refactorings   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  Implemented  emiMer  might  work  best  as  short  distance  type   •  NOK:   •  Emission  rate  shouldn‘t  depend  on  framerate   •  Emission  should  be  restricted  to  lej  mouse  buMon  
  • 38. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  VI  –  „Bad  objects  on  the  move“   •  Type:   •  Horizontal  throw-­‐away  (technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  game  objects   •  Goals:   •  Show  representaLon  of  bad  objects   •  Provide  basic  bad-­‐object  behavior  (hunLng  mouse)   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  NOK:   •  IniLal  direcLon  of  bad  objects  has  to  be  set   •  Bad  Objects  need  to  be  different  -­‐>  classes  of  objects?  
  • 39. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  VII  –  „The  (make  believe)  witch  hunt“   •  Type:   •  VerLcal  pilot  (game  design/  technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  player  avatar/  InteracLon  with  game  objects   •  Goals:   •  Combine  Prototype  V  and  VI     •  Remedy  current  NOKs/  Do  simple  code  refactorings   •  Colorize  game  world   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  NOK:   •  Swarm-­‐behavior  is  too  predictable  yet   •  Annoying  flickering  -­‐>  double  buffering  enabled?   •  Input-­‐handling  should  be  centralized  
  • 40. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  VIII  –  „Hit  ´em“   •  Type:   •  Horizontal  throw-­‐away  (technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  game  objects   •  Goals:   •  Provide  basic  object-­‐to-­‐object  collision-­‐detecLon   •  Provide  simple  collision-­‐handling   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  NOK:   •  Number  of  collision  checks  probably  need  to  be  restricted   •  Style  of  collision-­‐handling  needs  to  be  improved  
  • 41. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  IX  –  „The  (serious)  witch  hunt  “   •  Type:   •  VerLcal  pilot  (game  design/  technology)   •  Focus:     •  InteracLon  with  player  avatar/  InteracLon  with  game  objects   •  Goals:   •  Combine  Prototype  VII  and  VIII     •  Remedy  current  NOKs/  Do  simple  code  refactorings   •  Add  simple  gameplay  behavior   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  NOK:   •  Add  visual  feedback  when  hiqng  bad  objects   •  Add  player  health  and  points  
  • 42. Part  III  –  Game  Prototype   •  Prototype  X  –  „A  delicate  liMle  gameplay  plant“   •  Type:   •  VerLcal  pilot  (game  design)   •  Focus:     •  Gameplay  Improvements   •  Goals:   •  Remedy  current  NOKs/  Do  simple  code  refactorings   •  Enrich  gameplay  behavior/  Add  game  states   •  Evalua8on   •  OK:   •  Approach  will  do   •  NOK:   •  Add  audio  component  to  the  game   •  Add  different  bad  object  types  
  • 43. Part  I  –  Game  Prototyping   •  Technical  Evalua8on   •  A  good  prototyping  environment   •  facilitates  a  shallow  learning  curve   •  allows  for  fast  itera8ons   •  provides  verLcal  scalability                                       (at  least  to  a  certain  degree)   •  This  is  typically  accomplished,  if  the  environment   •  sets  the  right  focus  (animaLon/  simulaLon/  media)   •  contains  examples  and  snippets   •  provides  reusable  components   •  offers  a  supporLng  framework   •  Is  sourrounded  by  helpful  tools