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A presentation on extracts from
The Handbook of
Emotional Intelligence
Edited by Ruven-Bar O & James D. A. Parker
By:
Team 1
{Ankur Gupta (23PPM02)
Anjan (23PPM01)}
1
Chapter Slide No.
Chapter 4 Emotional Competence:
A developmental Perspective
3-10
Chapter 7 Too Many Intelligence?
Integrating Social, Emotional and
Practical Intelligence
11-20
Chapter 11 Development of Emotional Expression
Understanding and Regulation in Infants
and Young children
21-25
Table of contents:
2
EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE (EC)
(A Developmental Perspective)
 Author discusses the concept of emotional competence, contrasting it with
emotional intelligence
 Aims to clarify their theoretical perspective as a developmental psychologist,
citing research with children and adolescents
 Additionally, how different subdisciplines within psychology shape views on
complex concepts like emotion, intelligence, and competence
3
Definition of Emotional Competence
 Demonstrating self-efficacy in emotion-eliciting social transactions, where
self-efficacy refers to believing in one's capacity to achieve desired outcomes
influenced by cultural values
 The concept involves strategically applying emotional knowledge and
expressiveness in interpersonal exchanges to regulate emotions towards
desired goals, integrated with moral commitments
 Mature EC reflects ethical values and wisdom, yet it is a complex construct
that encompasses various contributing processes and consequences, often
overlooked in psychological discourse
4
Contributors to Emotional Competence
1. The Self’s Role
2. The Role of Moral Disposition
3. The Role of Developmental History
5
The Self’s Role
 ‘Self’ serves to give meaning to the environment and guides goal-directed behavior through
interactions with it
 Emotions function to prompt actions that help us adapt to circumstances. Self-efficacy is
reinforced when adaptive goals are achieved
 The self is conceptualized as comprising three main aspects:
1) the ecological self, which governs pragmatic engagement with the environment;
2) the extended self, which bridges past experiences to guide adaptation in new contexts; and
3) the evaluative self, which assigns value and emotion to interactions.
 It influences how individuals navigate social situations, affecting their emotional competence.
Variability in emotional competence arises from the multi-dimentional nature of the self and its
interaction with dynamic social environments
 The cultural context also shapes emotional competence, raising questions about the
universality of emotional intelligence constructs
6
The Role of Moral Disposition
 EC is closely intertwined with moral disposition and personal integrity
 Living in accordance with one's moral sense, characterized by qualities like sympathy,
self-control, fairness, and a sense of obligation, reflects EC
 These qualities align with Aristotle's virtues and are essential for a balanced and well-
lived life
 Developmentally, EC matures over time, with preschool children showing early signs
like sympathy and compliance, while adolescents with emerging personal integrity
demonstrate more mature EC
 Immature adolescents may still lack formed character and may be perceived as less
emotionally competent. The journey towards EC begins in childhood, with maturity and
experiences shaping its development
7
The Role of Developmental History
 Refers to the social constructivist perspective on EC, highlighting the influence of
developmental history and social experience on our understanding and expression of
emotions
 Emphasizes the individualized nature of emotional experiences shaped by exposure to
specific contexts, social history, and cognitive development
 Seven skills of EC:
1) awareness of one's emotional state, 2) discerning others' emotions,
3) using emotion vocabulary, 4) empathic involvement,
5) understanding inner emotional states versus outer expression, 6) adaptive coping, and
7) awareness of the role emotions play in relationships
8
Consequences of EC
(A) Management of Emotions
 Copying strategies: Learned from a young age, with older children becoming more adept at
justifying and contextualizing their coping methods
 Observed management of emotional-expressive behavior: Observational studies reveal how
children handle emotions in interactions in challenging situations, showing varying degrees of
composure and emotional expression based on age
(B) Subjective well-being: is linked to the capacity for emotional self-efficacy, involving
accepting and integrating emotional experiences. Research indicates that children with self-control
skills also exhibit emotional competence, contributing to their well-being
(C) Resilience: the ability to recover from adverse experiences, is influenced by emotional
competence and social support, with emotionally competent individuals better equipped to handle
stressors within manageable limits
9
Emotional competence versus emotional intelligence
 Defined differently, with emotional competence often including ethical values and
developmental history, while emotional intelligence focuses on perceiving,
appraising, and expressing emotions.
 Research on emotional intelligence has yielded mixed results, with some suggesting
it's not a distinct mental aptitude. However, recent work by Mayer, Caruso, and
Salovey aims to establish emotional intelligence as a valid construct, focusing on
perception, understanding, and managing emotions.
 Critics argue that calling these abilities "intelligence" may be problematic, preferring
to view them as skills within a developmental context.
 Epstein's concept of constructive thinking overlaps with emotional intelligence,
emphasizing flexible problem-solving orientation.
10
Chapter 7
Too Many Intelligences?
Integrating Social , Emotional
and Practical intelligence.
11
Why integration?
• Integrating social, emotional, and practical intelligence means using these different skills together
for greater success in life. Here's what each type focuses on:
• Social Intelligence: Understanding people, reading social situations, and building relationships.
Ex.: Resolving conflicts peacefully, being persuasive and influential.
• Emotional Intelligence: Being aware of your own emotions, managing them well, and
understanding the emotions of others. Ex.: Coping well with stress, making sound decisions under
emotional strain.
• Practical Intelligence: Solving everyday problems, adapting to changes, and applying your
knowledge to the real world. Ex.: finding creative solutions to challenges, navigating complicated
systems.
• Using these intelligences together helps people build stronger connections, make wiser decisions,
and overcome challenges both personally and professionally. Integration of social, emotional, and
practical intelligence produces Stronger relationships, Increased adaptability &Goal
achievement.
12
Different Ways to Measure Social Intelligence
• Self-Report Measures: Individuals answer questionnaires or surveys about their social skills,
understanding of social cues, and behaviors in social situations.
Strengths: Easy to administer, provide insight into how a person sees their own social abilities.
Limitations : Susceptible to bias (people may overestimate or underestimate their abilities), don't
capture actual behavior in real-life settings
• Performance-Based Tests: Individuals participate in tasks, situations, or role-plays designed to
measure their social skills in action.
Strengths: More objective than self-reports,assess how someone handles social situations.
Limitations: Can be time-consuming, may not fully replicate the complexity of real-life
interactions.
13
• Multi-Rater Assessments: Assessments involve gathering feedback from people who interact with the
individual regularly (colleagues, friends, managers, etc.)
Strengths: Provide a well-rounded perspective on how an individual is perceived socially, less prone to
self-assessment bias.
Limitations: Can be influenced by subjective opinions of raters, requires careful selection of raters to
provide honest and insightful feedback.
• Emotional Intelligence Assessments: Tests measure a person's ability to understand, manage, and express
their own emotions as well as perceive and respond to the emotions of others.
Strengths: Offer insight into a key component of social intelligence - the ability to regulate emotions and
understand their impact on social interactions.
Limitations: Don't provide a direct measure of all the complexities of social intelligence.
• It's important to note that measuring social intelligence is not an exact science, and different assessments
may capture different aspects of social intelligence.
• Nonetheless, these assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's social intelligence and
help identify areas for growth and development.
14
Behaviourally based measurement of Social Intelligence
Behaviorally based measurement focuses on directly observing an individual's actions within
social situations to gain insights into their social intelligence.
• Social Skills Assessment: Analyzing specific behaviors (eye-contact, active listening, etc.)
during structured tasks or simulations to evaluate overall social skill.
• Role-Play Exercises: Using designed scenarios to assess how effectively individuals read
social cues, communicate, solve problems, and behave in various simulated social
interactions.
• Naturalistic Observation: Evaluating real-world social behavior in environments like
classrooms or workplaces, focusing on communication, nonverbal cues, and social
adaptability.
• Sociometric Measures: Assessing social standing within a group. Gathering data on
relationships, friendships, and acceptance/rejection highlights an individual's ability to build
positive connections.
.
15
Behaviorally based measurement of Social Intelligence:
• These behaviourally based measures of social intelligence offer more objective and
concrete assessments by focusing on observable behaviors rather than self-
perception or subjective ratings.
• However, it's important to consider the context in which the behaviours are
observed, as individuals may behave differently in different situations.
• Involves a more qualitative and descriptive understanding of social skills and
behaviours, focusing on the practical application and real-world context of social
intelligence.
• Instead of relying on standardized tests or quantitative measures, this approach
emphasizes in-depth observations, case studies, and narratives to explore and
interpret social intelligence.
16
Non-Psychometric approach to understanding
Social Intelligence
Non-psychometric approaches focus on real-world behaviors and experiences to
gain a deeper, more nuanced understanding of social intelligence,rather than the
data-focused emphasis of test-based assessment.
• Qualitative Interviews: Go beyond survey questions, allowing in-depth exploration of
experiences, thought processes, and motivations of individuals considered socially
intelligent.
• Case Studies: Focus on individuals exhibiting strong social intelligence. These deep-
dives use observation, interviews, and analysis of real-life situations to offer a richly
detailed understanding.
• Ethnographic Research: Researchers immerse themselves in communities to study
social interactions organically. This helps reveal how people adapt to norms and
build relationships within their specific social landscape.
17
• Narrative Analysis: Examining stories and personal accounts provides understanding into
how social intelligence is experienced and reflected upon. Looks for patterns and insights
from these narratives.
Non-Psychometric Approach to Social Intelligence
• A non-psychometric approach to understanding social intelligence places greater emphasis
on contextual understanding, subjective experiences, and qualitative analysis rather than
relying solely on quantitative measures.
• It allows for a more holistic and nuanced exploration of social intelligence in real-life
situations and can provide a deeper understanding of the complexities and dynamics of
human social interactions
• Relationship with Other Types of Intelligence
• While emotional intelligence (EI) helps manage emotions (one's own and others'), social
intelligence is about navigating the complexities of interactions between people.
• Practical intelligence focuses on applying knowledge in real-world situations. Both practical
intelligence and EI contribute to success in various aspects of life, working together with
social intelligence.
18
Integrating Social, Emotional, and Practical
intelligence within a Tacit knowledge framework
What is Tacit Knowledge?
• Unwritten expertise: The know-how that's hard to put into words, acquired through
experience. It's intuition, gut feelings, and deep practical understanding.
• Difficult to transfer: Tacit knowledge isn't easily taught through manuals or lectures.
How Each Intelligence Supports Tacit Knowledge
1. Social Intelligence:
• Helps observe skilled people and pick up on subtle cues to acquire tacit knowledge.
• Facilitates building relationships that enable smooth sharing of tacit knowledge.
2. Emotional Intelligence:
• Assists in managing the emotions involved in the often uncertain process of learning
and using tacit knowledge (intuition, pattern recognition, collaboration).
19
3. Practical Intelligence:
• Enables putting tacit knowledge into action effectively.
• Allows adapting tacit knowledge to new situations.
• Helps solve complex problems using intuitive and experience-based insights
Benefits of Integrating Intelligences for Tacit Knowledge
• Enhanced Learning: Develops richer, more usable tacit knowledge for yourself.
• Improved Effectiveness: Allows you to apply your tacit knowledge across various
situations.
• Collaborative Success: Enables more effective teams, better knowledge sharing,
and collective intelligence.
• Organizational Advantage: Organizations with good tacit knowledge transfer
benefit from greater innovation and adaptability.
20
Chapter 11
Development of Emotional Expression
Understanding and Regulation in
Infants and Young children
21
Some Key aspects of socio-emotional development in Infants & Young Children :
• Emotional Expression: Infants express basic emotions (joy, sadness, anger) using faces, bodies, and
sounds. They refine how they express a wider range of emotions as they get older.
• Social Referencing/Learning from Others: As infants and young children interact with caregivers and
other significant individuals, they engage in social referencing. Social referencing involves looking to
others, typically their caregivers, to understand and interpret ambiguous situations or emotions.
They observe the emotional expressions and cues of others to guide their own emotional responses.
• Emotional Understanding: During the early years, children gradually develop a better understanding
of their own and others' emotions. They learn to label and identify basic emotions in themselves and
others, understand that emotions can change, and recognize the causes and consequences of
emotions. This understanding helps them navigate social interactions and develop empathy.
• Emotional Regulation: Infants and young children learn to regulate their emotions gradually. Initially,
caregivers play a vital role in soothing and regulating their emotions. As they grow, children develop
their own calming strategies, like self-soothing or seeking help from a grown-up. With experience,
they get better at managing their feelings in different situations.
22
• Attachment and Emotional Development The quality of the child's attachment
relationship with their caregivers influences their emotional development. A secure
attachment relationship provides a foundation for the child to feel safe, explore their
emotions, and regulate them effectively. It also promotes the child's ability to understand
and empathize with others' emotions.
• Parents, caregivers, and educators play a crucial role in supporting the development of
emotional expression understanding and regulation in infants and young children.
• Providing a nurturing and responsive environment, validating their emotions, teaching
emotional vocabulary, and modeling healthy emotional expression are essential for
fostering emotional development. Additionally, creating opportunities for children to
practice emotional regulation skills and teaching coping strategies can further support
their socio-emotional growth.
23
The development of emotional expression understanding and regulation in infants and
young children is a crucial aspect of their socio-emotional development. Young
children express emotions in various ways as they are still developing their emotional
understanding and regulation skills.
Here are some common ways in which young children express their emotions:
• Facial Expressions : Young children mostly convey their feelings through their facial
expressions. When they are happy or joyful, they would smile; when they are unhappy or sad,
they might frown or cry; and when they are angry or frustrated, they might scowl or wrinkle
their brows.
• Vocalizations :Young children and infants convey their feelings through a variety of noises and
vocalizations. When they are joyful, they may coo, talk, or giggle; when they are unhappy or
frustrated, they may cry, wail, or scream.
24
• Gestures: Children may use gestures to express their emotions. For example, they might
reach out their arms to indicate they want to be held or hug tightly when they feel
affectionate. They may also use pointing or waving to communicate their desires or share
their excitement
• Play and Imaginative Expression: Play provides young children with a medium to express
and explore their emotions. They may engage in pretend play, acting out different
emotions and scenarios. They might use toys or dolls to role-play and express a range of
emotions.
• Individual Differences: Each child is unique, and their emotional experiences can vary.
Factors such as temperament, personality, and past experiences influence how children
perceive and express emotions. Caregivers should be mindful of these individual
differences and provide support that is tailored to each child's needs.
It's important to note that young children's ability to express emotions can vary based on
their age, temperament, and individual development. As they grow older and their
emotional understanding and regulation skills improve, they may become more adept at
verbally expressing their emotions and using language to communicate their feelings.
25
THANKS
26

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Emotional intelligence in leadership is comprised of empathy, social skills, self-awarenessPPT Group 1.pptx

  • 1. A presentation on extracts from The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence Edited by Ruven-Bar O & James D. A. Parker By: Team 1 {Ankur Gupta (23PPM02) Anjan (23PPM01)} 1
  • 2. Chapter Slide No. Chapter 4 Emotional Competence: A developmental Perspective 3-10 Chapter 7 Too Many Intelligence? Integrating Social, Emotional and Practical Intelligence 11-20 Chapter 11 Development of Emotional Expression Understanding and Regulation in Infants and Young children 21-25 Table of contents: 2
  • 3. EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE (EC) (A Developmental Perspective)  Author discusses the concept of emotional competence, contrasting it with emotional intelligence  Aims to clarify their theoretical perspective as a developmental psychologist, citing research with children and adolescents  Additionally, how different subdisciplines within psychology shape views on complex concepts like emotion, intelligence, and competence 3
  • 4. Definition of Emotional Competence  Demonstrating self-efficacy in emotion-eliciting social transactions, where self-efficacy refers to believing in one's capacity to achieve desired outcomes influenced by cultural values  The concept involves strategically applying emotional knowledge and expressiveness in interpersonal exchanges to regulate emotions towards desired goals, integrated with moral commitments  Mature EC reflects ethical values and wisdom, yet it is a complex construct that encompasses various contributing processes and consequences, often overlooked in psychological discourse 4
  • 5. Contributors to Emotional Competence 1. The Self’s Role 2. The Role of Moral Disposition 3. The Role of Developmental History 5
  • 6. The Self’s Role  ‘Self’ serves to give meaning to the environment and guides goal-directed behavior through interactions with it  Emotions function to prompt actions that help us adapt to circumstances. Self-efficacy is reinforced when adaptive goals are achieved  The self is conceptualized as comprising three main aspects: 1) the ecological self, which governs pragmatic engagement with the environment; 2) the extended self, which bridges past experiences to guide adaptation in new contexts; and 3) the evaluative self, which assigns value and emotion to interactions.  It influences how individuals navigate social situations, affecting their emotional competence. Variability in emotional competence arises from the multi-dimentional nature of the self and its interaction with dynamic social environments  The cultural context also shapes emotional competence, raising questions about the universality of emotional intelligence constructs 6
  • 7. The Role of Moral Disposition  EC is closely intertwined with moral disposition and personal integrity  Living in accordance with one's moral sense, characterized by qualities like sympathy, self-control, fairness, and a sense of obligation, reflects EC  These qualities align with Aristotle's virtues and are essential for a balanced and well- lived life  Developmentally, EC matures over time, with preschool children showing early signs like sympathy and compliance, while adolescents with emerging personal integrity demonstrate more mature EC  Immature adolescents may still lack formed character and may be perceived as less emotionally competent. The journey towards EC begins in childhood, with maturity and experiences shaping its development 7
  • 8. The Role of Developmental History  Refers to the social constructivist perspective on EC, highlighting the influence of developmental history and social experience on our understanding and expression of emotions  Emphasizes the individualized nature of emotional experiences shaped by exposure to specific contexts, social history, and cognitive development  Seven skills of EC: 1) awareness of one's emotional state, 2) discerning others' emotions, 3) using emotion vocabulary, 4) empathic involvement, 5) understanding inner emotional states versus outer expression, 6) adaptive coping, and 7) awareness of the role emotions play in relationships 8
  • 9. Consequences of EC (A) Management of Emotions  Copying strategies: Learned from a young age, with older children becoming more adept at justifying and contextualizing their coping methods  Observed management of emotional-expressive behavior: Observational studies reveal how children handle emotions in interactions in challenging situations, showing varying degrees of composure and emotional expression based on age (B) Subjective well-being: is linked to the capacity for emotional self-efficacy, involving accepting and integrating emotional experiences. Research indicates that children with self-control skills also exhibit emotional competence, contributing to their well-being (C) Resilience: the ability to recover from adverse experiences, is influenced by emotional competence and social support, with emotionally competent individuals better equipped to handle stressors within manageable limits 9
  • 10. Emotional competence versus emotional intelligence  Defined differently, with emotional competence often including ethical values and developmental history, while emotional intelligence focuses on perceiving, appraising, and expressing emotions.  Research on emotional intelligence has yielded mixed results, with some suggesting it's not a distinct mental aptitude. However, recent work by Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey aims to establish emotional intelligence as a valid construct, focusing on perception, understanding, and managing emotions.  Critics argue that calling these abilities "intelligence" may be problematic, preferring to view them as skills within a developmental context.  Epstein's concept of constructive thinking overlaps with emotional intelligence, emphasizing flexible problem-solving orientation. 10
  • 11. Chapter 7 Too Many Intelligences? Integrating Social , Emotional and Practical intelligence. 11
  • 12. Why integration? • Integrating social, emotional, and practical intelligence means using these different skills together for greater success in life. Here's what each type focuses on: • Social Intelligence: Understanding people, reading social situations, and building relationships. Ex.: Resolving conflicts peacefully, being persuasive and influential. • Emotional Intelligence: Being aware of your own emotions, managing them well, and understanding the emotions of others. Ex.: Coping well with stress, making sound decisions under emotional strain. • Practical Intelligence: Solving everyday problems, adapting to changes, and applying your knowledge to the real world. Ex.: finding creative solutions to challenges, navigating complicated systems. • Using these intelligences together helps people build stronger connections, make wiser decisions, and overcome challenges both personally and professionally. Integration of social, emotional, and practical intelligence produces Stronger relationships, Increased adaptability &Goal achievement. 12
  • 13. Different Ways to Measure Social Intelligence • Self-Report Measures: Individuals answer questionnaires or surveys about their social skills, understanding of social cues, and behaviors in social situations. Strengths: Easy to administer, provide insight into how a person sees their own social abilities. Limitations : Susceptible to bias (people may overestimate or underestimate their abilities), don't capture actual behavior in real-life settings • Performance-Based Tests: Individuals participate in tasks, situations, or role-plays designed to measure their social skills in action. Strengths: More objective than self-reports,assess how someone handles social situations. Limitations: Can be time-consuming, may not fully replicate the complexity of real-life interactions. 13
  • 14. • Multi-Rater Assessments: Assessments involve gathering feedback from people who interact with the individual regularly (colleagues, friends, managers, etc.) Strengths: Provide a well-rounded perspective on how an individual is perceived socially, less prone to self-assessment bias. Limitations: Can be influenced by subjective opinions of raters, requires careful selection of raters to provide honest and insightful feedback. • Emotional Intelligence Assessments: Tests measure a person's ability to understand, manage, and express their own emotions as well as perceive and respond to the emotions of others. Strengths: Offer insight into a key component of social intelligence - the ability to regulate emotions and understand their impact on social interactions. Limitations: Don't provide a direct measure of all the complexities of social intelligence. • It's important to note that measuring social intelligence is not an exact science, and different assessments may capture different aspects of social intelligence. • Nonetheless, these assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's social intelligence and help identify areas for growth and development. 14
  • 15. Behaviourally based measurement of Social Intelligence Behaviorally based measurement focuses on directly observing an individual's actions within social situations to gain insights into their social intelligence. • Social Skills Assessment: Analyzing specific behaviors (eye-contact, active listening, etc.) during structured tasks or simulations to evaluate overall social skill. • Role-Play Exercises: Using designed scenarios to assess how effectively individuals read social cues, communicate, solve problems, and behave in various simulated social interactions. • Naturalistic Observation: Evaluating real-world social behavior in environments like classrooms or workplaces, focusing on communication, nonverbal cues, and social adaptability. • Sociometric Measures: Assessing social standing within a group. Gathering data on relationships, friendships, and acceptance/rejection highlights an individual's ability to build positive connections. . 15
  • 16. Behaviorally based measurement of Social Intelligence: • These behaviourally based measures of social intelligence offer more objective and concrete assessments by focusing on observable behaviors rather than self- perception or subjective ratings. • However, it's important to consider the context in which the behaviours are observed, as individuals may behave differently in different situations. • Involves a more qualitative and descriptive understanding of social skills and behaviours, focusing on the practical application and real-world context of social intelligence. • Instead of relying on standardized tests or quantitative measures, this approach emphasizes in-depth observations, case studies, and narratives to explore and interpret social intelligence. 16
  • 17. Non-Psychometric approach to understanding Social Intelligence Non-psychometric approaches focus on real-world behaviors and experiences to gain a deeper, more nuanced understanding of social intelligence,rather than the data-focused emphasis of test-based assessment. • Qualitative Interviews: Go beyond survey questions, allowing in-depth exploration of experiences, thought processes, and motivations of individuals considered socially intelligent. • Case Studies: Focus on individuals exhibiting strong social intelligence. These deep- dives use observation, interviews, and analysis of real-life situations to offer a richly detailed understanding. • Ethnographic Research: Researchers immerse themselves in communities to study social interactions organically. This helps reveal how people adapt to norms and build relationships within their specific social landscape. 17
  • 18. • Narrative Analysis: Examining stories and personal accounts provides understanding into how social intelligence is experienced and reflected upon. Looks for patterns and insights from these narratives. Non-Psychometric Approach to Social Intelligence • A non-psychometric approach to understanding social intelligence places greater emphasis on contextual understanding, subjective experiences, and qualitative analysis rather than relying solely on quantitative measures. • It allows for a more holistic and nuanced exploration of social intelligence in real-life situations and can provide a deeper understanding of the complexities and dynamics of human social interactions • Relationship with Other Types of Intelligence • While emotional intelligence (EI) helps manage emotions (one's own and others'), social intelligence is about navigating the complexities of interactions between people. • Practical intelligence focuses on applying knowledge in real-world situations. Both practical intelligence and EI contribute to success in various aspects of life, working together with social intelligence. 18
  • 19. Integrating Social, Emotional, and Practical intelligence within a Tacit knowledge framework What is Tacit Knowledge? • Unwritten expertise: The know-how that's hard to put into words, acquired through experience. It's intuition, gut feelings, and deep practical understanding. • Difficult to transfer: Tacit knowledge isn't easily taught through manuals or lectures. How Each Intelligence Supports Tacit Knowledge 1. Social Intelligence: • Helps observe skilled people and pick up on subtle cues to acquire tacit knowledge. • Facilitates building relationships that enable smooth sharing of tacit knowledge. 2. Emotional Intelligence: • Assists in managing the emotions involved in the often uncertain process of learning and using tacit knowledge (intuition, pattern recognition, collaboration). 19
  • 20. 3. Practical Intelligence: • Enables putting tacit knowledge into action effectively. • Allows adapting tacit knowledge to new situations. • Helps solve complex problems using intuitive and experience-based insights Benefits of Integrating Intelligences for Tacit Knowledge • Enhanced Learning: Develops richer, more usable tacit knowledge for yourself. • Improved Effectiveness: Allows you to apply your tacit knowledge across various situations. • Collaborative Success: Enables more effective teams, better knowledge sharing, and collective intelligence. • Organizational Advantage: Organizations with good tacit knowledge transfer benefit from greater innovation and adaptability. 20
  • 21. Chapter 11 Development of Emotional Expression Understanding and Regulation in Infants and Young children 21
  • 22. Some Key aspects of socio-emotional development in Infants & Young Children : • Emotional Expression: Infants express basic emotions (joy, sadness, anger) using faces, bodies, and sounds. They refine how they express a wider range of emotions as they get older. • Social Referencing/Learning from Others: As infants and young children interact with caregivers and other significant individuals, they engage in social referencing. Social referencing involves looking to others, typically their caregivers, to understand and interpret ambiguous situations or emotions. They observe the emotional expressions and cues of others to guide their own emotional responses. • Emotional Understanding: During the early years, children gradually develop a better understanding of their own and others' emotions. They learn to label and identify basic emotions in themselves and others, understand that emotions can change, and recognize the causes and consequences of emotions. This understanding helps them navigate social interactions and develop empathy. • Emotional Regulation: Infants and young children learn to regulate their emotions gradually. Initially, caregivers play a vital role in soothing and regulating their emotions. As they grow, children develop their own calming strategies, like self-soothing or seeking help from a grown-up. With experience, they get better at managing their feelings in different situations. 22
  • 23. • Attachment and Emotional Development The quality of the child's attachment relationship with their caregivers influences their emotional development. A secure attachment relationship provides a foundation for the child to feel safe, explore their emotions, and regulate them effectively. It also promotes the child's ability to understand and empathize with others' emotions. • Parents, caregivers, and educators play a crucial role in supporting the development of emotional expression understanding and regulation in infants and young children. • Providing a nurturing and responsive environment, validating their emotions, teaching emotional vocabulary, and modeling healthy emotional expression are essential for fostering emotional development. Additionally, creating opportunities for children to practice emotional regulation skills and teaching coping strategies can further support their socio-emotional growth. 23
  • 24. The development of emotional expression understanding and regulation in infants and young children is a crucial aspect of their socio-emotional development. Young children express emotions in various ways as they are still developing their emotional understanding and regulation skills. Here are some common ways in which young children express their emotions: • Facial Expressions : Young children mostly convey their feelings through their facial expressions. When they are happy or joyful, they would smile; when they are unhappy or sad, they might frown or cry; and when they are angry or frustrated, they might scowl or wrinkle their brows. • Vocalizations :Young children and infants convey their feelings through a variety of noises and vocalizations. When they are joyful, they may coo, talk, or giggle; when they are unhappy or frustrated, they may cry, wail, or scream. 24
  • 25. • Gestures: Children may use gestures to express their emotions. For example, they might reach out their arms to indicate they want to be held or hug tightly when they feel affectionate. They may also use pointing or waving to communicate their desires or share their excitement • Play and Imaginative Expression: Play provides young children with a medium to express and explore their emotions. They may engage in pretend play, acting out different emotions and scenarios. They might use toys or dolls to role-play and express a range of emotions. • Individual Differences: Each child is unique, and their emotional experiences can vary. Factors such as temperament, personality, and past experiences influence how children perceive and express emotions. Caregivers should be mindful of these individual differences and provide support that is tailored to each child's needs. It's important to note that young children's ability to express emotions can vary based on their age, temperament, and individual development. As they grow older and their emotional understanding and regulation skills improve, they may become more adept at verbally expressing their emotions and using language to communicate their feelings. 25