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DIGITAL MARKETING & ESSENTIALS
DIGITAL
MARKETING
DIGITAL
CONSUMER
DIGITAL
LANDSCAPE
DIGITAL
TOOLKIT
DIGITALIN
ACTION
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4
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DIGITAL
MARKETING
Module 1: Fundamentals of Digital Marketing
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Digital Marketing Concepts
Data, Information and Systems
Digital Media Channels
Marketing in the New Economy
Marketing Strategies
Branding
Digital Marketing
D E F I N I T I O N
"Digital marketing can be described as actively promoting products and services using
digital distribution channels as an alternative to the more traditional mediums such as
television, print and radio” Business Dictionary
“Digital Marketing is the application of the Internet and related technologies in conjunction with
traditional communications to achieve the marketing objectives.” (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick,
2012).
Caddell (2013) defines „Digital‟ as “a participatory layer of all media that allows users to self-
select their own experiences, and affords marketers the ability to bridge media, gain feedback,
iterate their message, and collect relationships.”
In other words, digital is a new way of exploring content (for users) and connecting with
customers (for marketers).
CHARACTERISTICS OF DIGITAL
A key principle of digital marketing is to create an easy, seamless and convenient user
experience for target audiences. It establishes an ongoing, automated relationship
between brands and their audience, thereby, reducing the consumer‟seffort needed to act
on digital content.
GLOBAL REACH
The Internet being a global
network, digital marketing can
be practiced across the world.
24/7/365
services exist only at the time
Most
of their production and they
provide temporary possession or
access instead of ownership.
Services cannot be stored.
INTERACTIVITY
Unlike some of the traditional
marketing channels, digital
marketing communications are
interactive and real-time.
FLEXIBILITY
Digital marketing enables
communication through multiple
channels, variety of formats and
can be personalised to each user
.
TYPES OF DATA
%
Master (Customer data, price list, product data,
employee, bank account)
Transaction (Sales invoice, bank payment,
customer orders, rail ticket)
Discrete (number of customers, units sold),
Continuous (price of product, Internet speed)
Nominal (Gender, Hair Colour, Ethnic group),
Ordinal (income, airline class, exam grades)
DIGITAL
Structured Data
FORMATS
Semi structured Data
Audio Visual Data
Documents and
Records
Unstructured Data.
Textual Data
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
BIG DA
TA
The information assets characterised by
high volume, velocity and variety to require
specific technology and analytical methods
for its transformation into value.
Expert
Systems
(Dashboards,AI) Online Analytical
Processing (OLAP)
DA
TA WAREHOUSE
A central repository of integrateddata
from one or more disparate sources
used for reporting and data analysis.
Reports,Analytical Systems
(BI, Analytics, DSS)
Online Transaction
Processing (OLTP)
DA
TABASE
An organised collection of data,
generally stored and accessed
electronically in an IT system.
Transaction Processing Systems
(ERP
, PoS)
DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Architecture
Most modern firms use a 3-tier architecture for their
systems with Servers, Database and Applications. Web
services have compelled systems architects to adopt a
Service-oriented Architecture (SOA).
Networks
• Local Area Network (LAN) connecting devices to data
servers through hubs, switches and routers.
• Internet backbone includes optic fibre networks, last
mile connectivity is provided through DSL, VPN.
Mobile services 4G LTE, Wi-Max and Satellite
communication technology fulfil wide area networking.
Data Management
• Cloud and data management services have enabled
outsourcing of data storage.
• Servers that are commonly hosted in cloud are Web
Servers, Application Servers, Mail Servers.
ERP
~
CM
S Customer Analytics
0
Web Development
OoO
~
i [7~
Database Servers
Customer
Access
Network
Digital Marketing
Databas
···-
CHANNELS
MARKETING IN A NEW ECONOMY
Digitalisation
Customisation
Connectivity
New Realities
of Marketing
Environment
Social Networking find people with similar interests has resulted in
Target Segments
Convergence
Influencers
People who are online activists, have impact
due to large following, have new thoughts and
can set trends to benefit a campaign.
Industries such as information technology,
communications, media and entertainment are
overlapping.
Modern companies are organising themselves
on the basis meeting the needs of different
customer groups instead of product lines.
The use of websites and apps to interact and
find people with similar interests has resulted i
creation of virtual communities.
Advancements in communications technology
has increased connectivity with a wider reach
and thicker density
.
Products, including services are being modified
to suit the unique needs of customers rather
than providing standard products.
Data in text, pictures, or sound are getting
converted into a digital form that can be
processed by a computing device.
MARKETING TRIANGLE
CUSTOMER
Customer Service,
Call centres, CRM,
Social Media
Advertising, Media
Campaign, Publicity
COMPANY or
MARKETER
EMPLOYEE or
SALESPERSON
Internal Communication
Standard Processes,
Training, Reporting
Source:Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner, Christian Gronroos, & Philip Kotler
MARKET SEGMENTATION
Geographic segments can be
countries, regions, continents, urban-
rural, sub-cultural zones.
Demographic segmentation can be
made on the basis of age, gender,
family, income.
Psychographic/ Behavioral
segments are based on personality,
motives, attitude, lifestyles, benefits.
MARKET
SIZE SEGMENT T
ARGET MARKET
SHARE
1.
2.
3.
Identify customer segment.
Develop measures for attractiveness.
Develop profile of customers.
Steps in Segmentation Process
FIVE FORCES OF DIGITAL
The intensity of the rivalry depends on the
market structure and competitive environment
Bargaining
Power of
Customer
Threat of
Substitutes New entrants disrupt the market with innovation
and pricing strategies, that can be a threat to the
incumbent players.
Substitute businesses can be a threat since they
may sway away the customers with products
from a different industry
.
Rivals
Bargaining
Power of
Suppliers
Threat of
New
entrants
Industries in which customers have the
bargaining power will be difficult to compete on
price. Differentiation strategy is necessary
.
Markets with strong suppliers with bargaining
power will put constraints on costs, thereby
squeezing profit margins.
MARKETING MIX - 7Ps
Product
Strategy depends on the
Product Lifecycle, design,
brand and packaging.
Price
Economy or premium pricing
for the long-term. Penetrative
or skimming for short-term.
Product
Physical Price
Promotion
Choosing an ideal mix from
advertising, discounts, PR,
direct and personal selling.
Place
Distribution channel and
location determine access to
the customers. Marketing
Strategy
People
In marketing of services, the
persons delivering provide
tangibility and experience.
Process
Design and delivery of the
services will determine
customer satisfaction.
Process Place
Physical
Customer perceptions are
fulfilled best with physical
evidence of the experience
of intangible services.
People Promo
PUSH vs. PULL MARKETING
PUSH PULL
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Multiple segments, mass audience. •
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Targeted niche segments
Customers are actively seeking marketing
content.
Classified as inbound marketing.
Search engines, blogs, informative websites
and community forums are primary sources.
Subscriber based online services can pull
niche traffic to marketing content.
Permission marketing is used as pull strategy.
Customers are not actively seeking content, but
find material placed by marketers.
Classified as outbound marketing.
Requires large networks platforms.
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Email spams, display ads and pop-up ads.
Social media campaigns designed to attract
wide audiences to trends and hypes.
Interruption marketing is a push strategy.
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BRAND
D E F I N I T I O N
"Brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's
good or service as distinct from those of other sellers” American Marketing Association
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish
a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the
minds of customers.
“Brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from
products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.” - Ghodeswar B.,
(2008)
CONSUMER BASED BRAND EQUITY
Relationships
What about you and me?
Brand Loyalty
, Fan
RESONANCE
Response
What about you?
Brand preferences
JUDGMENT FEELINGS
Points of Parity and Points of
Difference, Brand Consideration
Meaning
What are you?
IMAGERY
PERFORMANCE
Identity
Who are you?
Awareness
SALIENCE
Source: "Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity" by Kevin Lane Keller.
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DIGITAL
CONSUMER
Module 2: Digital Consumer
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Digital Consumer
Online Consumption Patterns
User Experience (UX)
Expectations, Perceptions and Concerns
Customer Journey, AIDA, 6 Cs
Online Presence - tribes, personas, communities
DIGITAL CONSUMER
or a service” Cambridge Academic Content
D E F I N I T I O N
"Customer is a person who buys goods
Dictionary
If the customer uses an electronic medium to buy goods and services, they will be
classified as digital customers. Digital Consumer, however includes all those
persons who use Internet-based resources to search, interact, transact and
create content.
In simple words, people who use information technology to buy products and
services are known as digital consumers.
ROLE OF DIGITAL CONSUMER
Create and capture new demand
Success of digital marketing depends on the level of
consumer readiness to accept the product/ service,
promotion strategy (push or pull) and financial resources.
Active digital consumers can play a role in demand
generation at almost no cost to the marketer.
Co-create
While searching for content, digital consumers
become aware of information about products,
services and brands.
Inform
Online consumers use digital platforms to highlight
the benefits and demerits of the offerings by
influencing their online groups and communities..
As and when users are exposed to more digital
content, they create new content as a response,
thereby playing a part in improving relationships with
brands and increasing loyalty/ repeat sales.
Influence
ONLINE BEHAVIOUR
TIME POVERTY
INFORMA
TION
OVERLOAD
SHORT
A
TTENTION SPAN
INTERACTIVE
COMMUNICA
TION
Consumers tend to
multitask while using the
internet and therefore
have less attention to
content that is not a
necessity for them.
With proliferation of
social networks, brands
rely on users to
communicate with other
homogenous target
segments.
Due to the rapid rise of
apps and unlimited
wireless access,
overload is experienced
when processing of
information becomes
unmanageable.
Due to excessive user
generated content, the
average time spent on
Internet has increased
substantially, leading to
little time for other
activities.
Constant updates on
social networks and
email spams create a
clutter for digital
consumers.
Viral and addictive
content like gaming
and live chatting leads
to more time spent
online.
Due to multi screen
tasking, creators have
shortened their online
content.Ads can be
skipped and blocked.
Interactive
communications allow
for quick customer
response, feedback
and corrections.
CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE
CX or customer experience is the product
of an interaction between an organisation
and a customer over the duration of their
relationship.
Components of CX
• Customer journey and the interactions
over a period.
Brand touchpoints, where customers
come in contact with the marketer‟s
communication.
Digital environment or interface.
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USER GENERATED CONTENT
User Generated Content is a two-way communications, in which customised marketing
communications elicit a measurable response from individual customers. It is also known as
interactive or direct response marketing.
78%
Users likely share
good brand
interaction on
social media
88%
Users are likely to
trust peers over
brands
Source:
SproutSocial
36%
Only trust
corporate media
houses
Source: Nielsen 2015
Source: Ipsos 2014
Features of UGC
• User-generated content acts as social proof to
promote a brand‟s message
• UGC helps in expanding social followers
• Strengthens relationships with clients
• Instils trust in the target audience
• Builds SEO value resulting in sales boost.
Effective UGC Tools
• Product Reviews on 3rd Party review sites (Y
elp)
• Hashtag contests on microblogs (Twitter)
• Video content to grow following (Y
ouTube)
• Gamification tasks that reward users (Nike+, Uber)
CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS
HIGH
It is the service expectation of what
customers feel that a service provider can
offer and should offer. Customers are
delighted when service performance
exceeds their desired expectations.
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Personal Needs
Word of Mouth
Past Experience
Promises by service provider
Customer‟s philosophy
Expectations of dependants
DESIRED
SERVICE
•Predicted Service, leads to
ZONE OF
TOLERANCE customer satisfaction
It is the minimal level of service that a
customer is willing to accept from a
service provider. Leads to dissatisfaction
if the adequate service level expectations
are not met.
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Perceived Alternatives
Emergencies
First-time failure to meet
expectations
ADEQUA
TE
SERVICE
LOW
CUSTOMER PERCEPTIONS
STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING
PERCEPTION
Perception is the process of making a meaningful picture by
selectively organising a set of stimuli.
• Enhance customer satisfaction
through Service Encounters.
Reflect evidence of quality..
Communicate and create
realistic image.
Enhance value of the product
through pricing.
In the context of marketing, perception can be defined as a
customer‟s judgment about the service experience and
pertains to the aspects of value of service delivery, service
quality and customer satisfaction.
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Customer perceptions change over time, differ from person to
person, and from one culture to another.
CUSTOMER LOYALTY
Personalized content is an excellent way to maintain a connection with your
customers. Presenting content to users based on their own unique preferences
is an effective way to show that you know your customers and provide them
with a positive experience. By offering tailored service, you are much more
likely to increase loyalty to your brand
Build a community around your brand, Make them a part of your content
Keep them engaged – Provide exclusivity to your community, Connect them
through Social Media
Integrate other channels to communicate, Use the best digital marketing
channels
Offer something relevant, Reward your Customers, Celebrate Y
our Customers
CONCERNS
PHISH
CRIME A
TT
ACK HACK IDENTITY SURVEILLANCE E-P
A
Y FRAUD LEGAL
SECURITY
Consumers are concerned about
the integrity of the systems and
the networks while accessing
digital content. Firewalls and
encryption provide security.
PRIVACY
Online users are concerned
about loss of their identity,
access to their private
information and where the data is
stored and how it is used.
₹
SERVICE
The terms of service guarantee
and their fulfilment is a concern.
Users are often left unaware of
legal recourse and remedies to
their online transactions.
CUSTOMER JOURNEY
Digital Touch points
EMAIL EMAIL
MOBILE
APP
COMMUNITY
PPC
SEARCH
COUPON
CODES
LANDING
PAGE
CHA
T
WEBSITE
DISPLAY SOCIAL SURVEY
Awareness Consideration Purchase Service Expand Loyalty
DIRECT
MAIL
CALL
CENTRE
WoM
MAILERS
AGENT
PR OFFERS IN
INVOICE
MASS
MEDIA
STORE /
BRANCH
Physical Touch points
A customer journey map is a visual representation of every experience the customers has with the brand. It
tells the story of a customer's experience with the brand from original engagement to a long-term relationship.
AIDA SALES FUNNEL
Attention
The consumer becomes aware of a
category, product or brand (usually
through advertising)
A
Interest
The consumer becomes interested by
learning about brand benefits & how
the brand fits with lifestyle
I
Desire
The consumer develops a favourable
disposition towards the brand
D
Action
The consumer forms a purchase
intention, shops around, engages in
trial or makes a purchase
A
CHAFFEY’S 6Cs FRAMEWORK
CUSTOMISA
TION
Enable personalisation of content
or products to individuals through
user account login.
CHOICE
Catalog with broad range of
products or services with flexible
payment and delivery methods.
Factors that
motivate
COST
Website must create a
perception of exclusive
low pricing.
CONTENT
Good mix of information,
design, easy to search
content with interactive
tools.
customers
CONVENIENCE
Easy navigation, 24/7 availability,
clear policy on refunds, returns
and guarantees.
COMMUNITY
Provide a forum for customer
feedback, troubleshooting, chatting
or exchanging tips
online
ONLINE COMMUNITIES
TRIBES - Personalisation and connectivity has resulted in people holding common
interest and beliefs evolving into digital tribes. Members of digital tribes are defined
by who they hang out with on the web or via their mobile devices. Marketers have the
opportunity to target them as a segment and relay marketing message in a one-to-
many communication.
Forums are online communities that discuss common interest topics through threads of
conversations. Members of the forums may or may not use their true identities. The forums act
as message boards, with posts that are longer than messages on chatrooms. Forums can be
private or open for public, with members either sharing content from other websites or creating
their own. Forums often have moderators and administrators to manage the discussions, impose
penalties for unwanted posts (by trolls).
Avatars are artistic pictures or symbols used by online consumers to depict their profile. Also
known as DP or display picture in modern social networking sites.
PERSONA
PERSONA - a fictional character created to
represent a user type that might use a site,
brand, or product in a similar way. Personas
provide common behaviours, outlooks, and
potential objections of people inherent to a
given persona.
Personas are used by marketers in Scenarios
that are storyboarded onto a script/copy of a
promotional campaign.
3
DIGITAL
LANDSCAPE
Module 3: Digital Landscape
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Digital Disruption
Big Data, Automation,AI, Blockchain, IoT
Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality
Crowdsourcing, Micro work, Co-creation
Real Time Marketing and Location-based
Search Cost and Speed
E-commerce
Revenue models
Marketing
Digital Disruption
D E F I N I T I O N
"Digital disruption is an effect that changes the fundamental expectations and
behaviours in a culture, market, industry or process that is caused by, or expressed
through, digital capabilities, channels or assets.” - Gartner IT Glossary
Change enabled by
digital technologies
that occur at a pace
and magnitude that
disrupt established
ways of value
creation, social
interactions, doing
business and more
generally our thinking
“Digital disruption is a transformation that is caused by
emerging digital technologies and business models that
can impact the value proposition of existing products and
services offered in the industry.” - Oxford College of Marketing
Digital disruption is the result of a rising class of disruptors
who exploit digital tools and platforms to offer new value to
customers.
As a consequence of
technological adoption/
innovation or as a need which
becomes pressing.
Bitcoin using Blockchain to avoid
institutional banking.
Leverage/ adoption of
technologies by customers,
workers, new entrants.
Android & iOS with smartphones.
Trigger for
Disruption
Changes in
economy, partner ecosystems,
regulations, geopolitics.
PayTM during demonetisation,
Aadhar as digital id verIfication,
GDPR for protecting privacy.
Innovations and
inventions with a profound
impact on society
Solar batteries replacing
traditional energy sources from
cars to electronic devices.
Innovation induced
Ecosystem induced
Customer induced
Technology induced
CONSEQUENCES OF
Opportunities
DISRUPTION
Challenges
• New unmet market needs can be
fulfilled with a disruptive technology.
Industries with a high entry barrier
can be breached with disruption.
• Existing industries and market leaders
will resist the disruption.
Very few innovative technologies find
commercial success.
Disruptive environment attracts more
new disrupters to the market, thereby
creating a clutter.
Funding untested ideas involve high
risk. Financing through debt is a major
challenge, while private equity
selection process comes with a lot of
due diligence effort.
• •
• Disruptions inspire and become
incentive for breakthrough
innovation.
Other advantages with digital
disruption include : Improved
quality of life, empowerment of
individuals, good for society and
adds value for customers.
an •
• •
DISRUPTION IS ALREADY HERE...
One of the most popular
media does not have
reporters or editors
World’s top
accommodation
provider owns no
real estate
The biggest software
The largest movie
distributor owns
no cinemas
vendor writes only
1% of its apps.
The most widely used
phone provider has
no telecom
infrastructure
World’s largest taxi The fastest growing
payment bank has
no capital
reserves
company doesn’t
own its vehicles
MARKETING
The Gartner Hype Cycle
tracks the emerging
technology trends. It is
published every quarter.
Each technology trends
passes through different
stages of adoption, before
it finds a disruptive
business model.
TECHNOLOGIES
Stages:
1. Trigger
2. Expectations
3. Disillusionment
4.Enlightenment
5.Productivity
BIG DATA ANALYTICS
BIG DA
TA usually includes data sets with sizes beyond the ability of commonly used
software tools to capture, curate, manage and process data within a tolerable elapsed
time. Some of the systems that support Big Data environment are as below:
DASHBOARD - These analytical systems provide business users with an intuitive, easy-to-read,
easy-to-use tool for monitoring their affairs. When a digital dashboard is created properly users
are treated to a highly visual overview of their business results.
ANALYTICS - T
ools that help in discovering, interpreting and communication of meaningful insights
from unstructured as well as structured Data from multiple sources. Analytics may be of predictive,
prescriptive or decision supporting type. Business functions like logistics, marketing and finance
have their own analytics systems.
BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE - It refers to technologies, applications and practices for the collection,
integration, analysis, reporting and presentation of business information. The purpose of Business
Intelligence is to support better business decision making. Crystal Reports, Cognos, Hyperion,
Business Objects, SAS were pioneer BI software brands
DA
TAWAREHOUSING - also known as an enterprise data warehouse, is a system used for
reporting and data analysis, and is considered a core component of business intelligence. DWs are
central repositories of integrated data from one or more disparate sources. IBM, Oracle, Microsoft
SQL are leaders in DW software.
AUTOMATION
Marketing Automation is a technology that focuses on the definition,
segmentation, scheduling and tracking of marketing campaigns.
Use of marketing automation
• It makes processes that would otherwise have been performed manually much
more efficient
New processes can be added to marketing function without requiring much
training.
T
oautomate several repetitive tasks that are undertaken on a regular basis in a
marketing campaign.
It allows an individual to design, execute and automate a time-bound marketing
workflow can be called a MarketingAutomation platform
Automated lead generation and sales funnel analysis is possible using
marketing automation tools.
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EMERGING DISRUPTIVE TECH
INTERNET OF THINGS - is a system of interrelated computing devices,
mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with
unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring
human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
BLOCKCHAIN - blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public[ digital ledger
that is used to record transactions across many computers so that any involved
record cannot be altered retroactively, without the alteration of all subsequent
blocks
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - is often used to describe machines (or computers)
that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such
as "learning" and "problem solving". AI can be classified into three different types
of systems: analytical, human-inspired, and humanised artificial intelligence.
Source: Margaret Rouse (2019); StephenArmstrong (2016) ; Russell & Norvig, (2009)
IMMERSIVE TECHNOLOGIES
Immersive technology refers to technology that attempts to emulate a physical world
through the means of a digital or simulated world, thereby creating a sense of immersion
AR is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the
objects that reside in the real-world are enhanced by computer-generated
perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities,
including visual, auditory and olfactory. It can be applied in marketing during
client presentations, Publicity events, demonstration of complex products.
AUGMENTED
REALIT
Y
VR is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different
from the real world. Applications of virtual reality can include entertainment,
gaming, education or military training. In marketing, the Vr technology can
be used to demonstrate a service experience of another location like in a
resort or tourism experience, airline experience, where the customer cannot
physically be present, but can experience the offering.
VIRTUA
L
REALIT
Y
CROWDSOURCING
Crowdsourcing is the act of outsourcing tasks, traditionally performed by an employee or
contractor, to an undefined, large group of people or community, through an open call. The
process of crowdsourcing is triggered when a problem is broadcasted and the „crowd‟
responds with solutions (funding, information, ideas, content), the crowd vets the solution and
rewards the solvers even as everyone benefits from the solution.
Crowd funding describes the collective effort of individuals who network and pool their money,
usually via the Internet, to support efforts initiated by other people or organisations. This
includes disaster relief, startup company funding, free software or scientific research.
MICROWORK
Microwork or microtasking is a
process of breaking down a large task
like a software project into small tasks
that can be assigned and completed by
many people (crowd) over the Internet.
Source:Australian Journal of Emergency Management
LOCATION-BASED MARKETING
Location-based marketing or geo-targeted marketing delivers messages to customers and
potential customers when they are physically close to the location of the business.
It relies on
• smartphones and other mobile devices that allow users to access rich internet features
wherever they are.
• GPS (global positioning system) technology that enables mapping services to pinpoint the
locations of mobile devices and businesses in live real time.
FOURSQUARE FACEBOOK Places GOOGLE My Business
REAL TIME MARKETING
Real Time Marketing is marketing performed "on-the-fly" to determine
approach to a particular customer at a particular time and place.
When does it make sense?
• During major national news stories,
an appropriate or optimal
• During events in which the brand is actively participating in.
How
•
•
•
to measure the results?
Make sure the response is BrandRelevantand not justnoise.
Through Social Engagement and placing the story in appropriate media
When thee is a positive Share of Voice or favourable news coverage
T
ools like Instagram Stories can be used to post images that have the
potential of going viral and being shared on news and other social
media platforms.
COMPARISON MARKETING
Comparison Marketing is when marketers use
website platforms that offer product and price
comparisons. Catalogues are linked to these third
party sites and users can get a broad choice and
range of products and information online before they
make a purchasing decision.
What are the benefits?
• Customers can get a transparent price and
product information,
Being a third party site, there is no bias in the
promotions.
Heavily search websites often return on top of
search results.
Item availability information is shared with links
to e-Commerce sites.
Review and ratings are visible in interactive
modes.
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Top Comparison sites in India
DYNAMIC SEARCH ENVIRONMENT
INTERNETSEARCH
Reduced Search Costs
With each passing year, the costs for
marketing through search engines are
Speed and Quality
With paid search and other
services offered by leading
related
players
reducing. With organic content
searches, the cost is minimum.
Marketers looking to create
based like Google Adwords, the quality of
the search results have become more
relevant. Intelligent tools using
cookies and past search behaviours
provide an easy and fast access to
search results.
awareness and inform their audience
now have an inexpensive option to
use search engines for marketing.
E-COMMERCE
E-Commerce is the business of buying and selling things over the Internet. There are
pure E-Commerce businesses that do not have any physical retail presence, as well as
„click-and-mortar‟ companies that have a physical presence along with e-Commerce.
Market leaders in India areAmazon and Flipkart.
Types of E-Commerce: Business-to-Consumer (B2C), B2B or Business to Business,
Peer to Peer, Government to Citizens (G2C).
What role does E-Commerce play in the Supply Chain ?
• Intermediaries or brokers/agents provide value added services to buyers and
sellers. Wholesalers, retailers, stockists, shippers, warehouses, customs clearance
are examples of Merchant intermediaries..
Disintermediation is a situation when one or more of the intermediaries is eliminated
or becomes redundant due to e-commerce.
Info mediation happens when electronic intermediaries that control information flow
in cyberspace, often aggregating information and selling it to others.
•
•
REVENUE MODELS
Subscription Model (Netflix, Dollar Shave Club, Apple Music) Disrupts through
“lock-in” by taking a product or service that is traditionally purchased on an ad hoc
basis, and locking-in repeat custom by charging a subscription fee for continued
access to the product/service
Freemium Model (Spotify, LinkedIn, Dropbox) Disrupts through digital sampling,
where users pay for a basic service or product with their data or „eyeballs‟, rather
than money, and then charging to upgrade to the full offer. Works where marginal
cost for extra units and distribution are lower than advertising revenue or the sale of
personal data
Free Model (Google, Facebook) Disrupts with an „if-you‟re-not-paying-for-the-
product-you-are-the-product‟ model that involves selling personal data or „advertising
eyeballs‟ harvested by offering consumers a „free‟ product or service that captures
their data/attention
Marketplace Model (eBay, iTunes,App Store, Uber, AirBnB) Disrupts with the
provision of a digital marketplace that brings together buyers and sellers directly, in
return for a transaction or placement fee or commission
REVENUE MODELS
Access-over-Ownership Model (Zipcar, Peerbuy,AirBnB) Disrupts by providing temporary
access to goods and services traditionally only available through purchase. Includes
„Sharing Economy‟ disruptors, which takes a commission from people monetising their
assets (home, car, capital) by lending them to „borrowers‟
Hypermarket Model (Amazon,Apple) Disrupts by „brand bombing‟ using sheer market
power and scale to crush competition, often by selling below cost price
Experience Model (T
esla,Apple) Disrupts by providing a superior experience, for which
people are prepared to pay
Pyramid Model (Amazon, Microsoft, Dropbox) Disrupts by recruiting an army of resellers
and affiliates who are often paid on a commission-only model
On-Demand Model (Uber, Operator, T
askrabbit) Disrupts by monetising time and selling
instant-access at a premium. Includes taking a commission from people with money but no
time who pay for goods and services delivered or fulfilled by people with time but no money
Ecosystem Model (Apple, Google) Disrupts by selling an interlocking and interdependent
suite of products and services that increase in value as more are purchased. Creates
consumer dependency
4
DIGITAL
MARKETING
TOOLKIT
Module 2: Digital Marketing T
oolkit
•
•
•
•
•
•
Search Engine Marketing
Display Advertising
Content Marketing
Permission Marketing
Collaboration
Analytics and Metrics
INTERNET MARKETING
The most widely used digital formats for
internet marketing are textual, visual or a
combination.
FORMATS
Increasingly, audio/voice is becoming a preferred
format due to proliferation of digital assistants.
Textual - Traditional corporate websites, news and
informational sites, blogs use heavy textual formats.
Feature mobile phones and kiosks (like ATMs) use
textual formats.
Visual - With shorter attention span of the audience, it
has become imperative to use images and graphics
with visual effects to attract them through banners,
pop-up ads, etc.
SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING
Search Engine Marketing (SEM) comprises of two categories, the SEO or search engine
optimisation efforts and the PPC or Pay-per-click.
SEO is designed to attract organic search by creating good
and relevant content that is widely shared and attracts natural
traffic flow. Awell designed website with headers, URL, site
maps and constantly updated content can attract search
engine crawlers. The website analytics can help in monitoring
the effectiveness of this unpaid marketing method.
PPC is a paid tool that uses the purchase of keywords that
may potentially drive traffic to the intended website or content
page. This is done through search engine platforms like
Google Adwords. T
ools like SpyFu and SEMRush are
available to track the performance of competitor‟s keywords.
DISPLAY ADVERTISING
Display advertising on websites or apps or social media through banners or other ad
formats made of text, images, flash, video, and audio. The main purpose of display
advertising is to deliver general advertisements and brand messages to site visitors.
INTERSTITIAL DISPLAYS are
advertisements that appear while a
chosen website or page is
downloading.
POP UP DISPLA
YS are small graphic
displays that appear usually in a small
window suddenly in the foreground of
the visual interface.
Source: Internet Advertising Bureau, 2014
DISPLAY BANNERS
BANNERS are a form of advertising on
the www delivered by an ad server by
embedding an advertisement into a web
page.
It is intended to attract traffic to a
website by linking to the website of the
advertiser.
The tall shaped banners are called
Skyscraper Ads, which are suitable
since they do not obstruct the main
content of the webpage.
PROGRAMMATIC ADVERTISING
PROGRAMMATICADVERTISING or ad buying, put simply, is the use of software to buy
digital advertising. Whereas the traditional method includes requests for proposals, tenders,
quotes and human negotiation, programmatic buying uses machines and algorithms to
purchase display space. Real-time bidding is a means by which advertising inventory is
bought and sold on a per-impression basis, via programmatic instantaneous auction, similar to
financial markets.
Source: Digital Marketing Institute
SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING
SOCIAL MEDIA marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to
promote a product or service. It is a form of internet marketing that involves creating
and sharing content on social media networks in order to achieve your marketing and
branding goals.
Features of Social Media Marketing
• Unlike some of the traditional marketing channels, social marketing communications are
interactive and real-time.
• Social media marketing enables communication through multiple channels, variety of
formats and can be personalised to each user.
• Internet being a global network, social media marketing can be practiced across the world
• Low cost, high reach method, requires technological skills along with marketing acumen
VIRAL MARKETING
VIRAL MARKETING is a business strategy that uses existing social networks to promote a
product. Its name „viral‟ refers to how consumers spread information about a product with
other people in their social networks.
EXAMPLE
Selfie on your iPhone X campaign encouraged customers to take a selfie and share it on
social media platforms like Snapchat, Instagram and Twitter to make it trend.
MEASURING VIRAL TRENDS
The viral nature can be measured using the Social K-factor, which is an indicator of how viral
a website is when content is shared from the website onto social media. It is a function of the
Social Coefficient, which determines how fast content is spreading through social sharing,
and the Sharing Ratio, a measure of how often your content is likely to be shared.
The formula is roughly as follows:
i = number of invites sent by each customer (e.g. if each new customer invites five friends, i = 5)
c = percent conversion of each invite (e.g. if one in five invitees convert to new users, c = .2)
k = i x c = 5 x 2 = 10
CONTENT MARKETING
CONTENT MARKETING is a type of marketing that involves the creation and
sharing of online material (such as videos, blogs, and social media posts)
that does not explicitly promote a brand but is intended to stimulate interest in
its products or services.
INTERACTIVE
INTERACTIVE RICH MEDIA normally
refers to products and services on digital
computer-based systems which respond to
the user's actions by presenting content
such as text, moving image, animation,
video, audio, and video games
MARKETING
AD SERVER is a technology that is used
by publishers, advertisers, ad agencies,
and ad networks to manage and run online
advertising campaigns. Ad servers are
responsible for making instantaneous
decisions about what ads to show on a
website, then serving them.
Chatbots or lingubots are automated robots
that can initiate an online chat discussion with
the user.
These bots can be
used for providing real
time online sales
support.
PERMISSION MARKETING
PERMISSION MARKETING is “a non-traditional marketing technique that advertises goods
and services when advance consent is given” Seth Godin (1999)
Contrasted with traditional marketing, permission marketing does not interrupt the audience
while introducing the marketing communication to them.
Opt-in Email
Several websites seek permission
from user to allow them to send
emails, thereby reducing spams.
Users who give permission can in the
future opt to stop receiving emails and
e-newsletters.
YouTube subscription
Y
ouTube allows users the option to get content
regularly from a channel they like and want to
follow. Once the user subscribes to the channel,
they would get constant alerts about any new
content and will show up in the listing when they
launch Y
ouTube.
RSS Feed &Aggregation
is a web application which
aggregates syndicated web content
such as online news, blogs,
podcasts, and video blogs in one
location for easy viewing
Facebook friend request
Social networking giant Facebook allows for
access to content only with permission of the
user. Once the friend request is accepted,
users may access content of the pages they
follow.
EXAMPLES OF DIGITAL PERMISSION MARKETING
GAMING AND IMMERSIVE TECH
In-game marketing is a strategy that is used almost exclusively by major
corporations. The global reach of video games means that international brands have
the most to gain from having their image show up in game
Gaming sites and apps have installed advertising space within
their interface to enable advertisers reach specific target
segments. This tool is very useful since it constantly engages the
audience and have a long-stay impact.
Popular games like PUBG, Cricket betting apps have monetised
their user base through in-game marketing.
Immersive technologies like virtual and augmented reality also
offer the same user experience to marketing content as the in-
game marketing.
MOBILE ADVERTISING
MOBILE MARKETING is a type of advertising that appears on mobile
devices such as smartphones and tablets that have wireless connection.
The value of mobile advertising revenues is expected to near $7 billion in
2019.
Types of mobile ads:
• Click-to-download ads: The user will be directed to the Appstore or
Google Play
Click-to-call ads: The user will call to a phone number after clicking the
button.
Click-to-message ads: The user will be directed to an SMS application
to message the advertiser.
Image text and banner ads: A click opens your browser and re-directs
you to a page.
Push notification: A personalised list of alerts and notifications triggered
on the mobile device that can be accessed by the user without logging
in to the application.
•
•
•
•
COLLABORATION WORKFLOW
COLLABORATION is increasingly becoming the secret ingredient in
helping digital marketing teams deliver efficient, high quality results.
Marketers work as a team to gain new insights, so adopting and
championing a centralised collaboration application will not only improve
the department‟s efficiency but ultimately boost how the company does
business.
WORKFLOW consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of
activity, enabled by the systematic organization of resources into
processes that transform materials, provide services, or process
information. For digital marketing, workflows can be set in automated
systems to enable lead generation, follow up with customers, sending
alerts and notifications.
eCRM or Electronic Customer Relationship Management is a business
software system that is implemented across the enterprise. It contains
the customer database, linked to the transaction systems like ERP and
has facilities to track and monitor the leads and sales funnel. Call centre
operations use eCRM systems extensively.
DIGITAL PLATFORMS
DIGITAL PLATFORMS consist of multiple services, representing a unique combination
of software and hardware services of a company used to deliver its digital strategy.
Digital platforms enable a data-driven world rather than a process-driven world. The
digital platform handles an end-to-end business process necessary to achieve the
improved experience for customers, employees, and partners.
The big social media
players like Facebook,
Wechat, Twitter,
Y
ouTube have emerged
as platforms for digital
content due to their
phenomenal growth in
user base.
ANALYTICS AND METRICS
DIGITAL MARKETINGANAL
YTICS is the translation of customer behaviour into actionable
business data. T
oday's marketers can use digital analytics tools to examine the many online
channels their buyers might interact with and identify new revenue opportunities from existing
campaigns.
The data from digital marketing campaigns can help a business to not just understand their
•
•
customer but also improve how they market to them. The analysis of data behind a campaign can
help to pinpoint the successfulness of it, why and how the audience interacted with it.
• METRICS is the measurement of key
performance indicators of a digital marketing
campaign.
Dashboards showing charts, graphs and
scorecards of how many hits, clicks and visitors to a
website or to a catalogue of an e-commerce page
can be used for measuring online activity.
Feedback ratings, positive/negative trends on
social networks, number of likes, retweets,
subscribers, followers can track impressions.
•
•
Source: Hubspot
5
DIGITAL IN ACTION
Module 3: Digital in Action
•
•
•
•
•
Marketing Campaign
Integrated Marketing
Optimization and Engagement
Measuring Success
Market Research & Analysis
Marketing
D E F I N I T I O N
Campaign
"A marketing campaign is a set of coordinated, specific activities that are based on a
common theme and are designed to promote a product, service or business through
different media”. Common Language Marketing Dictionary (2016)
A campaign approach is used by marketing managers to:
•
•
•
•
Determine the best combination of marketing communication mix to use,
Manage the triple constraints of cost, time and quality as in a project.
Design step-by-step actions beforehand to enable evaluation,
Break the clutter and stand out amongst competitors.
MARKETING PLAN
Decide who the message should get to, what their
Identify Target Audience
Define Campaign Objectives
Design Communication Message
IMC Plan Select Channels of Communication
Prepare Budget and Schedule
Decide Media Mix
Measure Results
Collect feedback. For example, carry out market
research to find out how successful the message
was.
Decide which newspaper, TV station or radio
station the audience uses and which ones fit the
budget.
Plan the work and allocate resources
Choose the channel that can reach the audience
at a time and place best suited for receiving the
message.
Write the copy, or produce an appropriate visual.
Select the source‟s attributes. Decide what is the
USP that needs to be communicated.
Determine the response sought. What would the
marketer like members of the audience to do after
they get the message?
Decide who the message should get to, what the
profile is and how would they decode the
message.
SETTING CAMPAIGN OBJECTIVES
Take a View
Thesis or Traditional Anti-
thesis or Heretic Synthesis
or Accountability
•
•
•
PESTEL
SWOT
5 Forces
7 Ps
S-T-P PLC
S M A R T
PROCESS
INPUT
OBJECTIVES
Gap
Service Triangle
Select a Model
Ansoff
Response Alternative
•
•
•
•
•
•
AIDA
HofE
Innovation-
Adoption
A
TR
Involvement
Dissonance
BCG Matrix
Constraints
OBJECTIVE SETTING APPROACHES
Traditional View
(Thesis)
Heretical View
(Antithesis)
Accountability View
(Synthesis)
• Companies and their executives are demanding greater
accountability from marcom programs.
• The measurement of effects of a program should not stop short of
measuring the effect on sales.
• Marcom objectives should always be stated in terms of sales or
market share gains and that failure to do so is a cop-out.
• Marcom’s purpose is to generate sales.
• Sales measures are “vaguely right”
Using sales response as the objective for a marcom effort is unsuitable
for two reasons:
• A host of factors like promotions, competition, demand-supply,
pricing, etc can affect sales.
• Marcom’s effect on sales is typically delayed or lagged.
PLANNING THE CAMPAIGN
Known as triple constraints of any project
or time bound activity. The shortage of time,
limitation of funds and pressure from
customers to deliver high quality are major
challenges that effect a campaign.
TIME
By clearly defining and managing the
scope, the campaign/project manager can
overcome the triple constraints. Finding a
balance between the sponsor, team and
customer is a cross-functional skill.
Defining what is out of scope and change
control are methods to manage the scope.
SCOPE
QUALITY COST
Scheduling, Budgeting and Creative (Message & Media) Strategy are tools used to
manage the triple constraints of a marketing communication program or campaign.
“IMC is a planning process
designed to assure that all
brand contacts received by a
customer or prospect for a
product, service, or
organisation are relevant to
that person and consistent
over time.”
- American Marketing
Association
INTEGRATION
D E F I N I TI O N
Clow and Baack, 2004
••integration of all marketing communications tools, avenues, and
sources
Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) is the coordination and
within a company into a seamless program that maximises the impact on
consumer and other end users at a minimal cost
''
IMPORTANCE OF IMC
Advertising
Creativ•
e Consistency
Basic campaign themes
can be reinforced by
increasing the number of
times prospects see or
hear the same consistent
message.
₹
₹
Overall Cost Savings
IMC
Personal
Sales
PR
Publicity
MaximumImpact
Since the pros and cons of
all available promotion
tools are evaluated before
selecting the IMC mix, the
results will be optimised to
give maximum value to the
receiver.
Same copy can be used
for different media. Single
agency that offers IMC
services can be hired
instead of several
specialists, thereby
reducing costs.
Sales
Promotion
IMC MIX DECISION
Agility and Change
ADVERTISING SALES PROMO PERSONAL SALES PUBLIC RELATIONS DIRECTMKTG
TargetAudience Mass Undifferentiated Customised Niche Differentiated
Type of Services B2C B2C B2B Premium Services Economy
Cost Very High Moderate High No direct cost Low
Reach Large Medium Few Small T
argeted Medium
Messaging Creative Persuasive Persuasive Subtle Reminding
Delivery Interrupts Baits Permits On Invitation Interrupts
Medium High Medium Low High
MULTI-CHANNEL MEDIA
Mass Media Interactive Media
exposure
- Poor image (junk
mail)
content
+ Opportunities for
+ User highly involved - SEO clutter
+ Directselling access)
+ Flexiblemessage measurement tools
+ Personal touch - Limited accessdue
+ Interactive relation - Language and
potential - Limited creativity,
Email, SMS
+ High selectivity
+ Reader controls - High cost/contact
+ High information
- Clutter
repeat exposures
Internet marketing
+ User selects info
+ Interactive relations - Web-snarl (crowded
potential - Limited
platform
Voice, Call Centre
- Low credibility
+ Lead follow-up to DND
+ Directselling accent issues
robotic behaviour
T
elevision
+ Mass coverage
+ High reach - Low selectivity
+ Sight, sound & motion - Short message life
- High absolute cost
+ High prestige
- High production costs
+ Low cost per exposure
+ Attention getting - Clutter
Radio
+ Local coverage
+ Low cost - Audio only
+ High frequency - Clutter
+ Flexible - Low attention getting
+ Low production costs - Fleeting message
+ Well-segmented
Print
+ High coverage
+ Low cost
+ Short lead time - Short life
+ Ads can be placedin - Clutter
interest sections - Low attention-getting
+ Readercontrols - Poor reproduction quality
exposure - Selective reader exposure
+ Can be usedfor
coupons
OPTIMIZATION
optimization (CRO) is a system for increasing the percentage of visitors
Conversion rate
to a website
webpage.
that convert into customers, or more generally, take any desired action on a
CRO is a direct response
marketing approach that
seeks to improve website
design to determine which
content (text, images, etc.)
elements perform the best.
CRO techniques include
statistical models,
hypothesis, A/B split tests
and audience screens.
Source: Ash, Tim and Page, Rich and Ginty, Maura (2012)
AFFILIATE MARKETING
Affiliate marketing is a type of performance-based marketing in which a business
rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought in by the affiliate's own
marketing efforts.
THE PLA
YERS
Publisher - The one who creates content
with large following and promotes the
products.
Customers - The ones who click the links
and ads on the publishers content.
Merchant - The seller of products and
services online, usually e-commerce
websites. Merchants pay fees to the
publisher.
AUDIENCE ENGAGEMENT
Retention
The customers of the service or business tend to return to,
continue to buy or in some other way not defect to another
brand, or to non-use entirely.
Usability
Method by which users are asked to
perform certain tasks in an effort to
measure the ease-of-use, task time,
and the user's perception of the
experience.
Scalability
The property of the system to handle the
growing number of users and content by
adding resources to the system.
Personalisation
It is the optimising of experiences and
messages to individuals themselves
and not the group they belong to.
Examples: Wishlist, playlists.
Longevity
Sharing and updating content by
providing a boost through
advertising and reposting old
popular content again.
CONTROL & MONITORING
“The Monitoring and Controlling process consists of those processes required to track, review, and orchestrate
the progress and performance of a project; identify any areas in which
initiate the corresponding changes.” - PMBOK.
changes to the plan are required; and
MESSAGE CONTROL
POST- TEST
Continuous tracking
Longitudinal studies.
Recall, recognition,
association tests.
Split runs - test many
the same time
PRE- TEST
Editing of the
copywriting and script.
Rough test, theatre test
Checklists,
Focus groups, consumer
juries
Physiographic - eye
movement
Dummy media vehicle
• •
•
•
•
•
• • ads at
•
•
MANAGEMENT CONTROL
• Schedule Control: Critical Path
Method (tracking the dependent
tasks), Fast tracking (performance of
activities in parallel) and crashing
(adding more resources).
• Budget can be controlled through
funds/ commitment management,
variance analysis and auditing.
• Communication controls like
notifications, alerts, review meetings,
committees and dashboards are
used by campaign managers and
their teams
MEASURING EFFECTIVENESS
KPIs for measuring communication on different media:
•
•
•
•
•
•
TRP
,GRP Media ratings used forTV
.
ROI, L
TVfor measuring financial case.
Conversion Rate = Sales per audience reached.
Cost per thousand Impressions
Visits, clicks, hits are used for website marketing Social
media metrics include followers, subscribers, trending #,
shares (Favourites, Likes, Forwards, Retweets) Reach,
Exposure, Coverage are used to measure number of
audience who received the marketing message.
Circulation, Subscriptions are used for print media.
Awards to measure quality/ creativity like Cannes Lions
•
•
•
MARKET RESEARCH
TYPES OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING
ROLE OF
RESEARCH IN
MARKETING
PRIMARY
Research conducted by
marketers through their
own data collection and
consumption.
E.g: Surveys, questionnaires,
interviews, focus groups
SECONDARY
Using data that has been
published by other
researchers or available for
public use
E.g: Census reports, white
papers, publications.
• Understanding customer
needs and wants.
Have data to make
business decisions.
•
• T
oidentify problems
causes and effects.
T
o prove or disprove
theoretical concept.
or
OFFLINE
Traditional methods that
involve manpower, high
costs, difficulty in
collection, delayed
analysis and interpretation.
ONLINE
Modern methods that use
digital technology to gather
real-time data, automated
reporting and clear and
quick presentation of
research outcomes.
• a
• T
overify and reconfirm
known results.
Learn about the market,
competitors and trends.
•
CUSTOMER ANALYSIS
Customer Analysis (or customer profile) is a critical section of a company's business plan
or marketing plan. It identifies target customers, ascertains the needs of these customers,
and then specifies how the product satisfies these needs.
Demographic Profiling
Customers can be profiled,
segmented and categorised by
BehaviourAnalysis
T h e p a t t e r n s o f w h a t
customers do can be analysed
to understand what they are
thinking and how they make
purchase decisions.
co llect ing da ta on age /
cohort
generation, gender,
groups, income
cultural identities.
levels and
Digital behaviour ofcustomers
Digital platforms allow for easy ca n be track ed thro ugh
inp ut and p roc essing of
of
of
cookies, permission marketing
and database dump of online
actions
customer data, creation
grouping
personas and
similar profiles.
CUSTOMER
THE END

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Digital Marketing All Module Sunil Kumar.pptx

  • 1. DIGITAL MARKETING & ESSENTIALS DIGITAL MARKETING DIGITAL CONSUMER DIGITAL LANDSCAPE DIGITAL TOOLKIT DIGITALIN ACTION 5 4 3 2 1
  • 3. Module 1: Fundamentals of Digital Marketing • • • • • • Digital Marketing Concepts Data, Information and Systems Digital Media Channels Marketing in the New Economy Marketing Strategies Branding
  • 4. Digital Marketing D E F I N I T I O N "Digital marketing can be described as actively promoting products and services using digital distribution channels as an alternative to the more traditional mediums such as television, print and radio” Business Dictionary “Digital Marketing is the application of the Internet and related technologies in conjunction with traditional communications to achieve the marketing objectives.” (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012). Caddell (2013) defines „Digital‟ as “a participatory layer of all media that allows users to self- select their own experiences, and affords marketers the ability to bridge media, gain feedback, iterate their message, and collect relationships.” In other words, digital is a new way of exploring content (for users) and connecting with customers (for marketers).
  • 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF DIGITAL A key principle of digital marketing is to create an easy, seamless and convenient user experience for target audiences. It establishes an ongoing, automated relationship between brands and their audience, thereby, reducing the consumer‟seffort needed to act on digital content. GLOBAL REACH The Internet being a global network, digital marketing can be practiced across the world. 24/7/365 services exist only at the time Most of their production and they provide temporary possession or access instead of ownership. Services cannot be stored. INTERACTIVITY Unlike some of the traditional marketing channels, digital marketing communications are interactive and real-time. FLEXIBILITY Digital marketing enables communication through multiple channels, variety of formats and can be personalised to each user .
  • 6. TYPES OF DATA % Master (Customer data, price list, product data, employee, bank account) Transaction (Sales invoice, bank payment, customer orders, rail ticket) Discrete (number of customers, units sold), Continuous (price of product, Internet speed) Nominal (Gender, Hair Colour, Ethnic group), Ordinal (income, airline class, exam grades)
  • 7. DIGITAL Structured Data FORMATS Semi structured Data Audio Visual Data Documents and Records Unstructured Data. Textual Data
  • 8. INFORMATION SYSTEMS BIG DA TA The information assets characterised by high volume, velocity and variety to require specific technology and analytical methods for its transformation into value. Expert Systems (Dashboards,AI) Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) DA TA WAREHOUSE A central repository of integrateddata from one or more disparate sources used for reporting and data analysis. Reports,Analytical Systems (BI, Analytics, DSS) Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) DA TABASE An organised collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically in an IT system. Transaction Processing Systems (ERP , PoS)
  • 9. DIGITAL INFRASTRUCTURE Architecture Most modern firms use a 3-tier architecture for their systems with Servers, Database and Applications. Web services have compelled systems architects to adopt a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA). Networks • Local Area Network (LAN) connecting devices to data servers through hubs, switches and routers. • Internet backbone includes optic fibre networks, last mile connectivity is provided through DSL, VPN. Mobile services 4G LTE, Wi-Max and Satellite communication technology fulfil wide area networking. Data Management • Cloud and data management services have enabled outsourcing of data storage. • Servers that are commonly hosted in cloud are Web Servers, Application Servers, Mail Servers.
  • 10. ERP ~ CM S Customer Analytics 0 Web Development OoO ~ i [7~ Database Servers Customer Access Network Digital Marketing Databas ···-
  • 12. MARKETING IN A NEW ECONOMY Digitalisation Customisation Connectivity New Realities of Marketing Environment Social Networking find people with similar interests has resulted in Target Segments Convergence Influencers People who are online activists, have impact due to large following, have new thoughts and can set trends to benefit a campaign. Industries such as information technology, communications, media and entertainment are overlapping. Modern companies are organising themselves on the basis meeting the needs of different customer groups instead of product lines. The use of websites and apps to interact and find people with similar interests has resulted i creation of virtual communities. Advancements in communications technology has increased connectivity with a wider reach and thicker density . Products, including services are being modified to suit the unique needs of customers rather than providing standard products. Data in text, pictures, or sound are getting converted into a digital form that can be processed by a computing device.
  • 13. MARKETING TRIANGLE CUSTOMER Customer Service, Call centres, CRM, Social Media Advertising, Media Campaign, Publicity COMPANY or MARKETER EMPLOYEE or SALESPERSON Internal Communication Standard Processes, Training, Reporting Source:Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner, Christian Gronroos, & Philip Kotler
  • 14. MARKET SEGMENTATION Geographic segments can be countries, regions, continents, urban- rural, sub-cultural zones. Demographic segmentation can be made on the basis of age, gender, family, income. Psychographic/ Behavioral segments are based on personality, motives, attitude, lifestyles, benefits. MARKET SIZE SEGMENT T ARGET MARKET SHARE 1. 2. 3. Identify customer segment. Develop measures for attractiveness. Develop profile of customers. Steps in Segmentation Process
  • 15. FIVE FORCES OF DIGITAL The intensity of the rivalry depends on the market structure and competitive environment Bargaining Power of Customer Threat of Substitutes New entrants disrupt the market with innovation and pricing strategies, that can be a threat to the incumbent players. Substitute businesses can be a threat since they may sway away the customers with products from a different industry . Rivals Bargaining Power of Suppliers Threat of New entrants Industries in which customers have the bargaining power will be difficult to compete on price. Differentiation strategy is necessary . Markets with strong suppliers with bargaining power will put constraints on costs, thereby squeezing profit margins.
  • 16. MARKETING MIX - 7Ps Product Strategy depends on the Product Lifecycle, design, brand and packaging. Price Economy or premium pricing for the long-term. Penetrative or skimming for short-term. Product Physical Price Promotion Choosing an ideal mix from advertising, discounts, PR, direct and personal selling. Place Distribution channel and location determine access to the customers. Marketing Strategy People In marketing of services, the persons delivering provide tangibility and experience. Process Design and delivery of the services will determine customer satisfaction. Process Place Physical Customer perceptions are fulfilled best with physical evidence of the experience of intangible services. People Promo
  • 17. PUSH vs. PULL MARKETING PUSH PULL • • Multiple segments, mass audience. • • Targeted niche segments Customers are actively seeking marketing content. Classified as inbound marketing. Search engines, blogs, informative websites and community forums are primary sources. Subscriber based online services can pull niche traffic to marketing content. Permission marketing is used as pull strategy. Customers are not actively seeking content, but find material placed by marketers. Classified as outbound marketing. Requires large networks platforms. • • • • • • Email spams, display ads and pop-up ads. Social media campaigns designed to attract wide audiences to trends and hypes. Interruption marketing is a push strategy. • • •
  • 18. BRAND D E F I N I T I O N "Brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers” American Marketing Association Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. “Brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.” - Ghodeswar B., (2008)
  • 19. CONSUMER BASED BRAND EQUITY Relationships What about you and me? Brand Loyalty , Fan RESONANCE Response What about you? Brand preferences JUDGMENT FEELINGS Points of Parity and Points of Difference, Brand Consideration Meaning What are you? IMAGERY PERFORMANCE Identity Who are you? Awareness SALIENCE Source: "Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity" by Kevin Lane Keller.
  • 21. Module 2: Digital Consumer • • • • • • Digital Consumer Online Consumption Patterns User Experience (UX) Expectations, Perceptions and Concerns Customer Journey, AIDA, 6 Cs Online Presence - tribes, personas, communities
  • 22. DIGITAL CONSUMER or a service” Cambridge Academic Content D E F I N I T I O N "Customer is a person who buys goods Dictionary If the customer uses an electronic medium to buy goods and services, they will be classified as digital customers. Digital Consumer, however includes all those persons who use Internet-based resources to search, interact, transact and create content. In simple words, people who use information technology to buy products and services are known as digital consumers.
  • 23. ROLE OF DIGITAL CONSUMER Create and capture new demand Success of digital marketing depends on the level of consumer readiness to accept the product/ service, promotion strategy (push or pull) and financial resources. Active digital consumers can play a role in demand generation at almost no cost to the marketer. Co-create While searching for content, digital consumers become aware of information about products, services and brands. Inform Online consumers use digital platforms to highlight the benefits and demerits of the offerings by influencing their online groups and communities.. As and when users are exposed to more digital content, they create new content as a response, thereby playing a part in improving relationships with brands and increasing loyalty/ repeat sales. Influence
  • 24. ONLINE BEHAVIOUR TIME POVERTY INFORMA TION OVERLOAD SHORT A TTENTION SPAN INTERACTIVE COMMUNICA TION Consumers tend to multitask while using the internet and therefore have less attention to content that is not a necessity for them. With proliferation of social networks, brands rely on users to communicate with other homogenous target segments. Due to the rapid rise of apps and unlimited wireless access, overload is experienced when processing of information becomes unmanageable. Due to excessive user generated content, the average time spent on Internet has increased substantially, leading to little time for other activities. Constant updates on social networks and email spams create a clutter for digital consumers. Viral and addictive content like gaming and live chatting leads to more time spent online. Due to multi screen tasking, creators have shortened their online content.Ads can be skipped and blocked. Interactive communications allow for quick customer response, feedback and corrections.
  • 25. CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE CX or customer experience is the product of an interaction between an organisation and a customer over the duration of their relationship. Components of CX • Customer journey and the interactions over a period. Brand touchpoints, where customers come in contact with the marketer‟s communication. Digital environment or interface. • •
  • 26. USER GENERATED CONTENT User Generated Content is a two-way communications, in which customised marketing communications elicit a measurable response from individual customers. It is also known as interactive or direct response marketing. 78% Users likely share good brand interaction on social media 88% Users are likely to trust peers over brands Source: SproutSocial 36% Only trust corporate media houses Source: Nielsen 2015 Source: Ipsos 2014 Features of UGC • User-generated content acts as social proof to promote a brand‟s message • UGC helps in expanding social followers • Strengthens relationships with clients • Instils trust in the target audience • Builds SEO value resulting in sales boost. Effective UGC Tools • Product Reviews on 3rd Party review sites (Y elp) • Hashtag contests on microblogs (Twitter) • Video content to grow following (Y ouTube) • Gamification tasks that reward users (Nike+, Uber)
  • 27. CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS HIGH It is the service expectation of what customers feel that a service provider can offer and should offer. Customers are delighted when service performance exceeds their desired expectations. • • • • • • Personal Needs Word of Mouth Past Experience Promises by service provider Customer‟s philosophy Expectations of dependants DESIRED SERVICE •Predicted Service, leads to ZONE OF TOLERANCE customer satisfaction It is the minimal level of service that a customer is willing to accept from a service provider. Leads to dissatisfaction if the adequate service level expectations are not met. • • • Perceived Alternatives Emergencies First-time failure to meet expectations ADEQUA TE SERVICE LOW
  • 28. CUSTOMER PERCEPTIONS STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING PERCEPTION Perception is the process of making a meaningful picture by selectively organising a set of stimuli. • Enhance customer satisfaction through Service Encounters. Reflect evidence of quality.. Communicate and create realistic image. Enhance value of the product through pricing. In the context of marketing, perception can be defined as a customer‟s judgment about the service experience and pertains to the aspects of value of service delivery, service quality and customer satisfaction. • • • Customer perceptions change over time, differ from person to person, and from one culture to another.
  • 29. CUSTOMER LOYALTY Personalized content is an excellent way to maintain a connection with your customers. Presenting content to users based on their own unique preferences is an effective way to show that you know your customers and provide them with a positive experience. By offering tailored service, you are much more likely to increase loyalty to your brand Build a community around your brand, Make them a part of your content Keep them engaged – Provide exclusivity to your community, Connect them through Social Media Integrate other channels to communicate, Use the best digital marketing channels Offer something relevant, Reward your Customers, Celebrate Y our Customers
  • 30. CONCERNS PHISH CRIME A TT ACK HACK IDENTITY SURVEILLANCE E-P A Y FRAUD LEGAL SECURITY Consumers are concerned about the integrity of the systems and the networks while accessing digital content. Firewalls and encryption provide security. PRIVACY Online users are concerned about loss of their identity, access to their private information and where the data is stored and how it is used. ₹ SERVICE The terms of service guarantee and their fulfilment is a concern. Users are often left unaware of legal recourse and remedies to their online transactions.
  • 31. CUSTOMER JOURNEY Digital Touch points EMAIL EMAIL MOBILE APP COMMUNITY PPC SEARCH COUPON CODES LANDING PAGE CHA T WEBSITE DISPLAY SOCIAL SURVEY Awareness Consideration Purchase Service Expand Loyalty DIRECT MAIL CALL CENTRE WoM MAILERS AGENT PR OFFERS IN INVOICE MASS MEDIA STORE / BRANCH Physical Touch points A customer journey map is a visual representation of every experience the customers has with the brand. It tells the story of a customer's experience with the brand from original engagement to a long-term relationship.
  • 32. AIDA SALES FUNNEL Attention The consumer becomes aware of a category, product or brand (usually through advertising) A Interest The consumer becomes interested by learning about brand benefits & how the brand fits with lifestyle I Desire The consumer develops a favourable disposition towards the brand D Action The consumer forms a purchase intention, shops around, engages in trial or makes a purchase A
  • 33. CHAFFEY’S 6Cs FRAMEWORK CUSTOMISA TION Enable personalisation of content or products to individuals through user account login. CHOICE Catalog with broad range of products or services with flexible payment and delivery methods. Factors that motivate COST Website must create a perception of exclusive low pricing. CONTENT Good mix of information, design, easy to search content with interactive tools. customers CONVENIENCE Easy navigation, 24/7 availability, clear policy on refunds, returns and guarantees. COMMUNITY Provide a forum for customer feedback, troubleshooting, chatting or exchanging tips online
  • 34. ONLINE COMMUNITIES TRIBES - Personalisation and connectivity has resulted in people holding common interest and beliefs evolving into digital tribes. Members of digital tribes are defined by who they hang out with on the web or via their mobile devices. Marketers have the opportunity to target them as a segment and relay marketing message in a one-to- many communication. Forums are online communities that discuss common interest topics through threads of conversations. Members of the forums may or may not use their true identities. The forums act as message boards, with posts that are longer than messages on chatrooms. Forums can be private or open for public, with members either sharing content from other websites or creating their own. Forums often have moderators and administrators to manage the discussions, impose penalties for unwanted posts (by trolls). Avatars are artistic pictures or symbols used by online consumers to depict their profile. Also known as DP or display picture in modern social networking sites.
  • 35. PERSONA PERSONA - a fictional character created to represent a user type that might use a site, brand, or product in a similar way. Personas provide common behaviours, outlooks, and potential objections of people inherent to a given persona. Personas are used by marketers in Scenarios that are storyboarded onto a script/copy of a promotional campaign.
  • 37. Module 3: Digital Landscape • • • • • • • • Digital Disruption Big Data, Automation,AI, Blockchain, IoT Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Crowdsourcing, Micro work, Co-creation Real Time Marketing and Location-based Search Cost and Speed E-commerce Revenue models Marketing
  • 38. Digital Disruption D E F I N I T I O N "Digital disruption is an effect that changes the fundamental expectations and behaviours in a culture, market, industry or process that is caused by, or expressed through, digital capabilities, channels or assets.” - Gartner IT Glossary Change enabled by digital technologies that occur at a pace and magnitude that disrupt established ways of value creation, social interactions, doing business and more generally our thinking “Digital disruption is a transformation that is caused by emerging digital technologies and business models that can impact the value proposition of existing products and services offered in the industry.” - Oxford College of Marketing Digital disruption is the result of a rising class of disruptors who exploit digital tools and platforms to offer new value to customers.
  • 39. As a consequence of technological adoption/ innovation or as a need which becomes pressing. Bitcoin using Blockchain to avoid institutional banking. Leverage/ adoption of technologies by customers, workers, new entrants. Android & iOS with smartphones. Trigger for Disruption Changes in economy, partner ecosystems, regulations, geopolitics. PayTM during demonetisation, Aadhar as digital id verIfication, GDPR for protecting privacy. Innovations and inventions with a profound impact on society Solar batteries replacing traditional energy sources from cars to electronic devices. Innovation induced Ecosystem induced Customer induced Technology induced
  • 40. CONSEQUENCES OF Opportunities DISRUPTION Challenges • New unmet market needs can be fulfilled with a disruptive technology. Industries with a high entry barrier can be breached with disruption. • Existing industries and market leaders will resist the disruption. Very few innovative technologies find commercial success. Disruptive environment attracts more new disrupters to the market, thereby creating a clutter. Funding untested ideas involve high risk. Financing through debt is a major challenge, while private equity selection process comes with a lot of due diligence effort. • • • Disruptions inspire and become incentive for breakthrough innovation. Other advantages with digital disruption include : Improved quality of life, empowerment of individuals, good for society and adds value for customers. an • • •
  • 41. DISRUPTION IS ALREADY HERE... One of the most popular media does not have reporters or editors World’s top accommodation provider owns no real estate The biggest software The largest movie distributor owns no cinemas vendor writes only 1% of its apps. The most widely used phone provider has no telecom infrastructure World’s largest taxi The fastest growing payment bank has no capital reserves company doesn’t own its vehicles
  • 42. MARKETING The Gartner Hype Cycle tracks the emerging technology trends. It is published every quarter. Each technology trends passes through different stages of adoption, before it finds a disruptive business model. TECHNOLOGIES Stages: 1. Trigger 2. Expectations 3. Disillusionment 4.Enlightenment 5.Productivity
  • 43. BIG DATA ANALYTICS BIG DA TA usually includes data sets with sizes beyond the ability of commonly used software tools to capture, curate, manage and process data within a tolerable elapsed time. Some of the systems that support Big Data environment are as below: DASHBOARD - These analytical systems provide business users with an intuitive, easy-to-read, easy-to-use tool for monitoring their affairs. When a digital dashboard is created properly users are treated to a highly visual overview of their business results. ANALYTICS - T ools that help in discovering, interpreting and communication of meaningful insights from unstructured as well as structured Data from multiple sources. Analytics may be of predictive, prescriptive or decision supporting type. Business functions like logistics, marketing and finance have their own analytics systems. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE - It refers to technologies, applications and practices for the collection, integration, analysis, reporting and presentation of business information. The purpose of Business Intelligence is to support better business decision making. Crystal Reports, Cognos, Hyperion, Business Objects, SAS were pioneer BI software brands DA TAWAREHOUSING - also known as an enterprise data warehouse, is a system used for reporting and data analysis, and is considered a core component of business intelligence. DWs are central repositories of integrated data from one or more disparate sources. IBM, Oracle, Microsoft SQL are leaders in DW software.
  • 44. AUTOMATION Marketing Automation is a technology that focuses on the definition, segmentation, scheduling and tracking of marketing campaigns. Use of marketing automation • It makes processes that would otherwise have been performed manually much more efficient New processes can be added to marketing function without requiring much training. T oautomate several repetitive tasks that are undertaken on a regular basis in a marketing campaign. It allows an individual to design, execute and automate a time-bound marketing workflow can be called a MarketingAutomation platform Automated lead generation and sales funnel analysis is possible using marketing automation tools. • • • •
  • 45. EMERGING DISRUPTIVE TECH INTERNET OF THINGS - is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. BLOCKCHAIN - blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public[ digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that any involved record cannot be altered retroactively, without the alteration of all subsequent blocks ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - is often used to describe machines (or computers) that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving". AI can be classified into three different types of systems: analytical, human-inspired, and humanised artificial intelligence. Source: Margaret Rouse (2019); StephenArmstrong (2016) ; Russell & Norvig, (2009)
  • 46. IMMERSIVE TECHNOLOGIES Immersive technology refers to technology that attempts to emulate a physical world through the means of a digital or simulated world, thereby creating a sense of immersion AR is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real-world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory and olfactory. It can be applied in marketing during client presentations, Publicity events, demonstration of complex products. AUGMENTED REALIT Y VR is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality can include entertainment, gaming, education or military training. In marketing, the Vr technology can be used to demonstrate a service experience of another location like in a resort or tourism experience, airline experience, where the customer cannot physically be present, but can experience the offering. VIRTUA L REALIT Y
  • 47. CROWDSOURCING Crowdsourcing is the act of outsourcing tasks, traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, to an undefined, large group of people or community, through an open call. The process of crowdsourcing is triggered when a problem is broadcasted and the „crowd‟ responds with solutions (funding, information, ideas, content), the crowd vets the solution and rewards the solvers even as everyone benefits from the solution. Crowd funding describes the collective effort of individuals who network and pool their money, usually via the Internet, to support efforts initiated by other people or organisations. This includes disaster relief, startup company funding, free software or scientific research.
  • 48. MICROWORK Microwork or microtasking is a process of breaking down a large task like a software project into small tasks that can be assigned and completed by many people (crowd) over the Internet. Source:Australian Journal of Emergency Management
  • 49. LOCATION-BASED MARKETING Location-based marketing or geo-targeted marketing delivers messages to customers and potential customers when they are physically close to the location of the business. It relies on • smartphones and other mobile devices that allow users to access rich internet features wherever they are. • GPS (global positioning system) technology that enables mapping services to pinpoint the locations of mobile devices and businesses in live real time. FOURSQUARE FACEBOOK Places GOOGLE My Business
  • 50. REAL TIME MARKETING Real Time Marketing is marketing performed "on-the-fly" to determine approach to a particular customer at a particular time and place. When does it make sense? • During major national news stories, an appropriate or optimal • During events in which the brand is actively participating in. How • • • to measure the results? Make sure the response is BrandRelevantand not justnoise. Through Social Engagement and placing the story in appropriate media When thee is a positive Share of Voice or favourable news coverage T ools like Instagram Stories can be used to post images that have the potential of going viral and being shared on news and other social media platforms.
  • 51. COMPARISON MARKETING Comparison Marketing is when marketers use website platforms that offer product and price comparisons. Catalogues are linked to these third party sites and users can get a broad choice and range of products and information online before they make a purchasing decision. What are the benefits? • Customers can get a transparent price and product information, Being a third party site, there is no bias in the promotions. Heavily search websites often return on top of search results. Item availability information is shared with links to e-Commerce sites. Review and ratings are visible in interactive modes. • • • • Top Comparison sites in India
  • 52. DYNAMIC SEARCH ENVIRONMENT INTERNETSEARCH Reduced Search Costs With each passing year, the costs for marketing through search engines are Speed and Quality With paid search and other services offered by leading related players reducing. With organic content searches, the cost is minimum. Marketers looking to create based like Google Adwords, the quality of the search results have become more relevant. Intelligent tools using cookies and past search behaviours provide an easy and fast access to search results. awareness and inform their audience now have an inexpensive option to use search engines for marketing.
  • 53. E-COMMERCE E-Commerce is the business of buying and selling things over the Internet. There are pure E-Commerce businesses that do not have any physical retail presence, as well as „click-and-mortar‟ companies that have a physical presence along with e-Commerce. Market leaders in India areAmazon and Flipkart. Types of E-Commerce: Business-to-Consumer (B2C), B2B or Business to Business, Peer to Peer, Government to Citizens (G2C). What role does E-Commerce play in the Supply Chain ? • Intermediaries or brokers/agents provide value added services to buyers and sellers. Wholesalers, retailers, stockists, shippers, warehouses, customs clearance are examples of Merchant intermediaries.. Disintermediation is a situation when one or more of the intermediaries is eliminated or becomes redundant due to e-commerce. Info mediation happens when electronic intermediaries that control information flow in cyberspace, often aggregating information and selling it to others. • •
  • 54. REVENUE MODELS Subscription Model (Netflix, Dollar Shave Club, Apple Music) Disrupts through “lock-in” by taking a product or service that is traditionally purchased on an ad hoc basis, and locking-in repeat custom by charging a subscription fee for continued access to the product/service Freemium Model (Spotify, LinkedIn, Dropbox) Disrupts through digital sampling, where users pay for a basic service or product with their data or „eyeballs‟, rather than money, and then charging to upgrade to the full offer. Works where marginal cost for extra units and distribution are lower than advertising revenue or the sale of personal data Free Model (Google, Facebook) Disrupts with an „if-you‟re-not-paying-for-the- product-you-are-the-product‟ model that involves selling personal data or „advertising eyeballs‟ harvested by offering consumers a „free‟ product or service that captures their data/attention Marketplace Model (eBay, iTunes,App Store, Uber, AirBnB) Disrupts with the provision of a digital marketplace that brings together buyers and sellers directly, in return for a transaction or placement fee or commission
  • 55. REVENUE MODELS Access-over-Ownership Model (Zipcar, Peerbuy,AirBnB) Disrupts by providing temporary access to goods and services traditionally only available through purchase. Includes „Sharing Economy‟ disruptors, which takes a commission from people monetising their assets (home, car, capital) by lending them to „borrowers‟ Hypermarket Model (Amazon,Apple) Disrupts by „brand bombing‟ using sheer market power and scale to crush competition, often by selling below cost price Experience Model (T esla,Apple) Disrupts by providing a superior experience, for which people are prepared to pay Pyramid Model (Amazon, Microsoft, Dropbox) Disrupts by recruiting an army of resellers and affiliates who are often paid on a commission-only model On-Demand Model (Uber, Operator, T askrabbit) Disrupts by monetising time and selling instant-access at a premium. Includes taking a commission from people with money but no time who pay for goods and services delivered or fulfilled by people with time but no money Ecosystem Model (Apple, Google) Disrupts by selling an interlocking and interdependent suite of products and services that increase in value as more are purchased. Creates consumer dependency
  • 57. Module 2: Digital Marketing T oolkit • • • • • • Search Engine Marketing Display Advertising Content Marketing Permission Marketing Collaboration Analytics and Metrics
  • 58. INTERNET MARKETING The most widely used digital formats for internet marketing are textual, visual or a combination. FORMATS Increasingly, audio/voice is becoming a preferred format due to proliferation of digital assistants. Textual - Traditional corporate websites, news and informational sites, blogs use heavy textual formats. Feature mobile phones and kiosks (like ATMs) use textual formats. Visual - With shorter attention span of the audience, it has become imperative to use images and graphics with visual effects to attract them through banners, pop-up ads, etc.
  • 59. SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING Search Engine Marketing (SEM) comprises of two categories, the SEO or search engine optimisation efforts and the PPC or Pay-per-click. SEO is designed to attract organic search by creating good and relevant content that is widely shared and attracts natural traffic flow. Awell designed website with headers, URL, site maps and constantly updated content can attract search engine crawlers. The website analytics can help in monitoring the effectiveness of this unpaid marketing method. PPC is a paid tool that uses the purchase of keywords that may potentially drive traffic to the intended website or content page. This is done through search engine platforms like Google Adwords. T ools like SpyFu and SEMRush are available to track the performance of competitor‟s keywords.
  • 60. DISPLAY ADVERTISING Display advertising on websites or apps or social media through banners or other ad formats made of text, images, flash, video, and audio. The main purpose of display advertising is to deliver general advertisements and brand messages to site visitors. INTERSTITIAL DISPLAYS are advertisements that appear while a chosen website or page is downloading. POP UP DISPLA YS are small graphic displays that appear usually in a small window suddenly in the foreground of the visual interface. Source: Internet Advertising Bureau, 2014
  • 61. DISPLAY BANNERS BANNERS are a form of advertising on the www delivered by an ad server by embedding an advertisement into a web page. It is intended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of the advertiser. The tall shaped banners are called Skyscraper Ads, which are suitable since they do not obstruct the main content of the webpage.
  • 62. PROGRAMMATIC ADVERTISING PROGRAMMATICADVERTISING or ad buying, put simply, is the use of software to buy digital advertising. Whereas the traditional method includes requests for proposals, tenders, quotes and human negotiation, programmatic buying uses machines and algorithms to purchase display space. Real-time bidding is a means by which advertising inventory is bought and sold on a per-impression basis, via programmatic instantaneous auction, similar to financial markets. Source: Digital Marketing Institute
  • 63. SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING SOCIAL MEDIA marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service. It is a form of internet marketing that involves creating and sharing content on social media networks in order to achieve your marketing and branding goals. Features of Social Media Marketing • Unlike some of the traditional marketing channels, social marketing communications are interactive and real-time. • Social media marketing enables communication through multiple channels, variety of formats and can be personalised to each user. • Internet being a global network, social media marketing can be practiced across the world • Low cost, high reach method, requires technological skills along with marketing acumen
  • 64. VIRAL MARKETING VIRAL MARKETING is a business strategy that uses existing social networks to promote a product. Its name „viral‟ refers to how consumers spread information about a product with other people in their social networks. EXAMPLE Selfie on your iPhone X campaign encouraged customers to take a selfie and share it on social media platforms like Snapchat, Instagram and Twitter to make it trend. MEASURING VIRAL TRENDS The viral nature can be measured using the Social K-factor, which is an indicator of how viral a website is when content is shared from the website onto social media. It is a function of the Social Coefficient, which determines how fast content is spreading through social sharing, and the Sharing Ratio, a measure of how often your content is likely to be shared. The formula is roughly as follows: i = number of invites sent by each customer (e.g. if each new customer invites five friends, i = 5) c = percent conversion of each invite (e.g. if one in five invitees convert to new users, c = .2) k = i x c = 5 x 2 = 10
  • 65. CONTENT MARKETING CONTENT MARKETING is a type of marketing that involves the creation and sharing of online material (such as videos, blogs, and social media posts) that does not explicitly promote a brand but is intended to stimulate interest in its products or services.
  • 66. INTERACTIVE INTERACTIVE RICH MEDIA normally refers to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user's actions by presenting content such as text, moving image, animation, video, audio, and video games MARKETING AD SERVER is a technology that is used by publishers, advertisers, ad agencies, and ad networks to manage and run online advertising campaigns. Ad servers are responsible for making instantaneous decisions about what ads to show on a website, then serving them. Chatbots or lingubots are automated robots that can initiate an online chat discussion with the user. These bots can be used for providing real time online sales support.
  • 67. PERMISSION MARKETING PERMISSION MARKETING is “a non-traditional marketing technique that advertises goods and services when advance consent is given” Seth Godin (1999) Contrasted with traditional marketing, permission marketing does not interrupt the audience while introducing the marketing communication to them. Opt-in Email Several websites seek permission from user to allow them to send emails, thereby reducing spams. Users who give permission can in the future opt to stop receiving emails and e-newsletters. YouTube subscription Y ouTube allows users the option to get content regularly from a channel they like and want to follow. Once the user subscribes to the channel, they would get constant alerts about any new content and will show up in the listing when they launch Y ouTube. RSS Feed &Aggregation is a web application which aggregates syndicated web content such as online news, blogs, podcasts, and video blogs in one location for easy viewing Facebook friend request Social networking giant Facebook allows for access to content only with permission of the user. Once the friend request is accepted, users may access content of the pages they follow. EXAMPLES OF DIGITAL PERMISSION MARKETING
  • 68. GAMING AND IMMERSIVE TECH In-game marketing is a strategy that is used almost exclusively by major corporations. The global reach of video games means that international brands have the most to gain from having their image show up in game Gaming sites and apps have installed advertising space within their interface to enable advertisers reach specific target segments. This tool is very useful since it constantly engages the audience and have a long-stay impact. Popular games like PUBG, Cricket betting apps have monetised their user base through in-game marketing. Immersive technologies like virtual and augmented reality also offer the same user experience to marketing content as the in- game marketing.
  • 69. MOBILE ADVERTISING MOBILE MARKETING is a type of advertising that appears on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets that have wireless connection. The value of mobile advertising revenues is expected to near $7 billion in 2019. Types of mobile ads: • Click-to-download ads: The user will be directed to the Appstore or Google Play Click-to-call ads: The user will call to a phone number after clicking the button. Click-to-message ads: The user will be directed to an SMS application to message the advertiser. Image text and banner ads: A click opens your browser and re-directs you to a page. Push notification: A personalised list of alerts and notifications triggered on the mobile device that can be accessed by the user without logging in to the application. • • • •
  • 70. COLLABORATION WORKFLOW COLLABORATION is increasingly becoming the secret ingredient in helping digital marketing teams deliver efficient, high quality results. Marketers work as a team to gain new insights, so adopting and championing a centralised collaboration application will not only improve the department‟s efficiency but ultimately boost how the company does business. WORKFLOW consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of activity, enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information. For digital marketing, workflows can be set in automated systems to enable lead generation, follow up with customers, sending alerts and notifications. eCRM or Electronic Customer Relationship Management is a business software system that is implemented across the enterprise. It contains the customer database, linked to the transaction systems like ERP and has facilities to track and monitor the leads and sales funnel. Call centre operations use eCRM systems extensively.
  • 71. DIGITAL PLATFORMS DIGITAL PLATFORMS consist of multiple services, representing a unique combination of software and hardware services of a company used to deliver its digital strategy. Digital platforms enable a data-driven world rather than a process-driven world. The digital platform handles an end-to-end business process necessary to achieve the improved experience for customers, employees, and partners. The big social media players like Facebook, Wechat, Twitter, Y ouTube have emerged as platforms for digital content due to their phenomenal growth in user base.
  • 72. ANALYTICS AND METRICS DIGITAL MARKETINGANAL YTICS is the translation of customer behaviour into actionable business data. T oday's marketers can use digital analytics tools to examine the many online channels their buyers might interact with and identify new revenue opportunities from existing campaigns. The data from digital marketing campaigns can help a business to not just understand their • • customer but also improve how they market to them. The analysis of data behind a campaign can help to pinpoint the successfulness of it, why and how the audience interacted with it. • METRICS is the measurement of key performance indicators of a digital marketing campaign. Dashboards showing charts, graphs and scorecards of how many hits, clicks and visitors to a website or to a catalogue of an e-commerce page can be used for measuring online activity. Feedback ratings, positive/negative trends on social networks, number of likes, retweets, subscribers, followers can track impressions. • • Source: Hubspot
  • 74. Module 3: Digital in Action • • • • • Marketing Campaign Integrated Marketing Optimization and Engagement Measuring Success Market Research & Analysis
  • 75. Marketing D E F I N I T I O N Campaign "A marketing campaign is a set of coordinated, specific activities that are based on a common theme and are designed to promote a product, service or business through different media”. Common Language Marketing Dictionary (2016) A campaign approach is used by marketing managers to: • • • • Determine the best combination of marketing communication mix to use, Manage the triple constraints of cost, time and quality as in a project. Design step-by-step actions beforehand to enable evaluation, Break the clutter and stand out amongst competitors.
  • 76. MARKETING PLAN Decide who the message should get to, what their Identify Target Audience Define Campaign Objectives Design Communication Message IMC Plan Select Channels of Communication Prepare Budget and Schedule Decide Media Mix Measure Results Collect feedback. For example, carry out market research to find out how successful the message was. Decide which newspaper, TV station or radio station the audience uses and which ones fit the budget. Plan the work and allocate resources Choose the channel that can reach the audience at a time and place best suited for receiving the message. Write the copy, or produce an appropriate visual. Select the source‟s attributes. Decide what is the USP that needs to be communicated. Determine the response sought. What would the marketer like members of the audience to do after they get the message? Decide who the message should get to, what the profile is and how would they decode the message.
  • 77. SETTING CAMPAIGN OBJECTIVES Take a View Thesis or Traditional Anti- thesis or Heretic Synthesis or Accountability • • • PESTEL SWOT 5 Forces 7 Ps S-T-P PLC S M A R T PROCESS INPUT OBJECTIVES Gap Service Triangle Select a Model Ansoff Response Alternative • • • • • • AIDA HofE Innovation- Adoption A TR Involvement Dissonance BCG Matrix Constraints
  • 78. OBJECTIVE SETTING APPROACHES Traditional View (Thesis) Heretical View (Antithesis) Accountability View (Synthesis) • Companies and their executives are demanding greater accountability from marcom programs. • The measurement of effects of a program should not stop short of measuring the effect on sales. • Marcom objectives should always be stated in terms of sales or market share gains and that failure to do so is a cop-out. • Marcom’s purpose is to generate sales. • Sales measures are “vaguely right” Using sales response as the objective for a marcom effort is unsuitable for two reasons: • A host of factors like promotions, competition, demand-supply, pricing, etc can affect sales. • Marcom’s effect on sales is typically delayed or lagged.
  • 79. PLANNING THE CAMPAIGN Known as triple constraints of any project or time bound activity. The shortage of time, limitation of funds and pressure from customers to deliver high quality are major challenges that effect a campaign. TIME By clearly defining and managing the scope, the campaign/project manager can overcome the triple constraints. Finding a balance between the sponsor, team and customer is a cross-functional skill. Defining what is out of scope and change control are methods to manage the scope. SCOPE QUALITY COST Scheduling, Budgeting and Creative (Message & Media) Strategy are tools used to manage the triple constraints of a marketing communication program or campaign.
  • 80. “IMC is a planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organisation are relevant to that person and consistent over time.” - American Marketing Association INTEGRATION D E F I N I TI O N Clow and Baack, 2004 ••integration of all marketing communications tools, avenues, and sources Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) is the coordination and within a company into a seamless program that maximises the impact on consumer and other end users at a minimal cost '' IMPORTANCE OF IMC Advertising Creativ• e Consistency Basic campaign themes can be reinforced by increasing the number of times prospects see or hear the same consistent message. ₹ ₹ Overall Cost Savings IMC Personal Sales PR Publicity MaximumImpact Since the pros and cons of all available promotion tools are evaluated before selecting the IMC mix, the results will be optimised to give maximum value to the receiver. Same copy can be used for different media. Single agency that offers IMC services can be hired instead of several specialists, thereby reducing costs. Sales Promotion
  • 81. IMC MIX DECISION Agility and Change ADVERTISING SALES PROMO PERSONAL SALES PUBLIC RELATIONS DIRECTMKTG TargetAudience Mass Undifferentiated Customised Niche Differentiated Type of Services B2C B2C B2B Premium Services Economy Cost Very High Moderate High No direct cost Low Reach Large Medium Few Small T argeted Medium Messaging Creative Persuasive Persuasive Subtle Reminding Delivery Interrupts Baits Permits On Invitation Interrupts Medium High Medium Low High
  • 82. MULTI-CHANNEL MEDIA Mass Media Interactive Media exposure - Poor image (junk mail) content + Opportunities for + User highly involved - SEO clutter + Directselling access) + Flexiblemessage measurement tools + Personal touch - Limited accessdue + Interactive relation - Language and potential - Limited creativity, Email, SMS + High selectivity + Reader controls - High cost/contact + High information - Clutter repeat exposures Internet marketing + User selects info + Interactive relations - Web-snarl (crowded potential - Limited platform Voice, Call Centre - Low credibility + Lead follow-up to DND + Directselling accent issues robotic behaviour T elevision + Mass coverage + High reach - Low selectivity + Sight, sound & motion - Short message life - High absolute cost + High prestige - High production costs + Low cost per exposure + Attention getting - Clutter Radio + Local coverage + Low cost - Audio only + High frequency - Clutter + Flexible - Low attention getting + Low production costs - Fleeting message + Well-segmented Print + High coverage + Low cost + Short lead time - Short life + Ads can be placedin - Clutter interest sections - Low attention-getting + Readercontrols - Poor reproduction quality exposure - Selective reader exposure + Can be usedfor coupons
  • 83. OPTIMIZATION optimization (CRO) is a system for increasing the percentage of visitors Conversion rate to a website webpage. that convert into customers, or more generally, take any desired action on a CRO is a direct response marketing approach that seeks to improve website design to determine which content (text, images, etc.) elements perform the best. CRO techniques include statistical models, hypothesis, A/B split tests and audience screens. Source: Ash, Tim and Page, Rich and Ginty, Maura (2012)
  • 84. AFFILIATE MARKETING Affiliate marketing is a type of performance-based marketing in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought in by the affiliate's own marketing efforts. THE PLA YERS Publisher - The one who creates content with large following and promotes the products. Customers - The ones who click the links and ads on the publishers content. Merchant - The seller of products and services online, usually e-commerce websites. Merchants pay fees to the publisher.
  • 85. AUDIENCE ENGAGEMENT Retention The customers of the service or business tend to return to, continue to buy or in some other way not defect to another brand, or to non-use entirely. Usability Method by which users are asked to perform certain tasks in an effort to measure the ease-of-use, task time, and the user's perception of the experience. Scalability The property of the system to handle the growing number of users and content by adding resources to the system. Personalisation It is the optimising of experiences and messages to individuals themselves and not the group they belong to. Examples: Wishlist, playlists. Longevity Sharing and updating content by providing a boost through advertising and reposting old popular content again.
  • 86. CONTROL & MONITORING “The Monitoring and Controlling process consists of those processes required to track, review, and orchestrate the progress and performance of a project; identify any areas in which initiate the corresponding changes.” - PMBOK. changes to the plan are required; and MESSAGE CONTROL POST- TEST Continuous tracking Longitudinal studies. Recall, recognition, association tests. Split runs - test many the same time PRE- TEST Editing of the copywriting and script. Rough test, theatre test Checklists, Focus groups, consumer juries Physiographic - eye movement Dummy media vehicle • • • • • • • • ads at • • MANAGEMENT CONTROL • Schedule Control: Critical Path Method (tracking the dependent tasks), Fast tracking (performance of activities in parallel) and crashing (adding more resources). • Budget can be controlled through funds/ commitment management, variance analysis and auditing. • Communication controls like notifications, alerts, review meetings, committees and dashboards are used by campaign managers and their teams
  • 87. MEASURING EFFECTIVENESS KPIs for measuring communication on different media: • • • • • • TRP ,GRP Media ratings used forTV . ROI, L TVfor measuring financial case. Conversion Rate = Sales per audience reached. Cost per thousand Impressions Visits, clicks, hits are used for website marketing Social media metrics include followers, subscribers, trending #, shares (Favourites, Likes, Forwards, Retweets) Reach, Exposure, Coverage are used to measure number of audience who received the marketing message. Circulation, Subscriptions are used for print media. Awards to measure quality/ creativity like Cannes Lions • • •
  • 88. MARKET RESEARCH TYPES OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING ROLE OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING PRIMARY Research conducted by marketers through their own data collection and consumption. E.g: Surveys, questionnaires, interviews, focus groups SECONDARY Using data that has been published by other researchers or available for public use E.g: Census reports, white papers, publications. • Understanding customer needs and wants. Have data to make business decisions. • • T oidentify problems causes and effects. T o prove or disprove theoretical concept. or OFFLINE Traditional methods that involve manpower, high costs, difficulty in collection, delayed analysis and interpretation. ONLINE Modern methods that use digital technology to gather real-time data, automated reporting and clear and quick presentation of research outcomes. • a • T overify and reconfirm known results. Learn about the market, competitors and trends. •
  • 89. CUSTOMER ANALYSIS Customer Analysis (or customer profile) is a critical section of a company's business plan or marketing plan. It identifies target customers, ascertains the needs of these customers, and then specifies how the product satisfies these needs. Demographic Profiling Customers can be profiled, segmented and categorised by BehaviourAnalysis T h e p a t t e r n s o f w h a t customers do can be analysed to understand what they are thinking and how they make purchase decisions. co llect ing da ta on age / cohort generation, gender, groups, income cultural identities. levels and Digital behaviour ofcustomers Digital platforms allow for easy ca n be track ed thro ugh inp ut and p roc essing of of of cookies, permission marketing and database dump of online actions customer data, creation grouping personas and similar profiles. CUSTOMER