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Developing Software for Future Technologies
               (Tablets and Mobile phones)




              Atul Nene (Atul.Nene@symphonysv.com)
            Symphony Services (www.symphonysv.com)
Target Audience



                • General Users, Students
                • Non developers, non technical persons
                • Beginner to Intermediate level developers and
                  designers
                • Entrepreneurs with Mobile Product/App plans
                • Everyone curious about this whole ‘Mobile’ thing 



                                                  Show of hands 

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About Symphony Services



                •     Part of the Symphony Software Technology Group
                •     Global presence, Engineering concentrated in Bangalore, Pune and
                      Gurgaon
                •     Work on large variety software technologies, have ‘Centers of Excellence’
                •     Work with large number of marquee clients from startups to Fortune 500
                •     Special focus on Innovation: ‘Chairman’s Award for Innovation’ given
                      every year.
                •     Work environment that fosters talent and professionalism and blends
                      with a ‘fun’ culture
                •     Mobile Achievements:
                        –    Intellectual Property owners of cross platform mobile application development platform
                             for enterprise applications
                        –    Hundreds of Native stand-alone apps, cross-platform HTML5 apps, Smartphone frontend
                             for Cloud applications on all mobile platforms
                        –    Worlds First Mobile Client Application for Google Health™ on Android platform published
                             on Android Marketplace


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About Me



                • MCS from University of Pune
                • 15+ years of work experience
                • Work as an Engineering Manager
                • Lead teams that build end (Sensor) to end (Server)
                  products on Android, iPhone and Blackberry
                • Student of Hindustani Classical Music
                • Twitter: @atulnene
                • Personal Blog: www.atulnene.com




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Table of Contents



                •     The Future is Here, Now
                •     Focus on the Users and their Experience
                •     How Mobile is different
                •     Input Methods, Sensors, Security
                •     Quick overview of Developing for Mobile
                •     Case Study – Smart Traveller
                •     Ideas

                • Fun Quiz  and Prizes  to be won along the way !

                • Dwell on some #Gyan  as takeaway …

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Fun Quiz #1




                What is the number of mobile phone users in India 
                •     13.5 million
                •     330 million
                •     865 million
                •     1 billion




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Fun Quiz #1




                What is the number of mobile phone users in India 
                •     13.5 million
                •     330 million
                •     865 million 
                •     1 billion


                As of August 2011: 865 million (Source Wikipedia)   
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The Future is Here, Now



                • Total number of Mobile Subscribers has CAGR 62% during 2004-05
                  and 2009-10 and a forecast of CAGR 28% through 2013-14
                • More growth in Rural areas than Urban:
                        – 100% penetration in urban areas – near saturation
                        – 33% handsets of 108M sold in Rural areas in 2009-10
                • Handset manufacturing strategies have redesigned their
                  distribution strategies with Rural focus
                        – Entry level handsets will continue to drive volumes
                        – Smartphones will outpace the industry growth, as cost go down: color
                          and camera phones cost Rs.1000 today
                • Handset sales in Rural market to grow at CAGR 19% through 2014

                Source : RNCOS Report on “Booming Rural Mobile Market in India” http://www.rncos.com/Market-
                Analysis-Reports/Booming-Rural-Mobile-Market-in-India-IM306.htm


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The Future is Here, Now




           Mobile Subscribers (Million)                                            Handset Sales in Rural Areas
                                                                                            (Million)
  1600
  1400
                                                                              80
  1200
                                                                              70
  1000
                                                                              60
   800                                                                        50
    600                                                                       40
    400                                                  Mobile Subscribers                             Handset Sales in Rural
                                                                              30
    200                                                  (Million)                                      Areas (Million)
                                                                              20
      0                                                                       10
                                                                               0




                Source : RNCOS Report on “Booming Rural Mobile Market in India”
                http://www.rncos.com/Market-Analysis-Reports/Booming-Rural-Mobile-Market-in-
                India-IM306.htm



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The Future is Here, Now

                                                               • the number of people in the world
                      7 billion                                  today

                                                               • the number of people with mobile
                  3.4 billion                                    devices today...

                                                               • globally, the number of mobile internet
                  1.3 billion                                    users today

                "The future is already here – it’s just not evenly
                distributed.“ – William Gibson
                Technology should not only be accessible but inclusive
                and available to everyone...


                                         
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                                                             it’s about people not devices
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The Future is Here, Now




      Source: Morgan Stanley ‘The Mobile Internet Report Key Themes’ www.ms.com/techresearch
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The Future is Here, Now




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Fun Quiz #2



                What was the weight of the world’s first mobile phone
                (DynaTAC 8000x by Motorola in 1973) 

                •     100 grams
                •     500 grams
                •     1 kg
                •     1.2 kg




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Fun Quiz #2



                What was the weight of the world’s first mobile phone
                (DynaTAC 8000x by Motorola in 1973) 

                •     100 grams
                •     500 grams
                •     1 kg 
                •     1.2 kg




                1 kg (Source Wikipedia)                                    14
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Needs & Drivers



            •       People need online, offline, personalized apps
            •       Optimized utilization of mobile device
            •       Large mobile user base
            •       Smartphone (portable devices) has become
                    integrated part of life, diminishing dependence on
                    desktop PC
            •       Perfect confluence of market and technology trends
            •       Innovative apps, solutions around mobile phone to
                    increase ARPU




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#Gyan    


                 {User Experience
                   is everything}

                   If your product doesn’t serve the Users need, its not a
                  product. If your user doesn't love your product, you soon
                                     don’t have a product.

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You have to ask the User



                You think the user
                wants this:




                Source: Modelling
                theMobile
                UserExperience, by bryan rieger



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You have to ask the User



                While the user
                wants this:




                Source: Modelling
                theMobile
                UserExperience, by bryan
                rieger

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Do you know your User ?



                • A private device used in highly different mostly public
                  contexts
                • Usage varies by geography
                • Easily distracted users



                   A very different kind of user
                                          Lets meet a few of them …
                                   And see how they will use their mobiles …

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Huge Market, Diverse Users




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Festival Revellers

       Traffic
       Diversions ?
                                  Tide
                                  Details                    How much
                                                             time-gap       When is the
                                                             between the    procession
                                                             next-in-line   supposed to end
                                                             mandal ?       according to the
               Lyrics                                                       Almanac ?
               of
               Aarti




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Shoppers in Chennai


                                                                               Which shop
                                                        Shopping               has a
                                                        List                   matching
                                                                               stole ?




                                                             Best Deal
                                                             on the
                                                             Road ?




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Sports fans

                                                                    I should
                                                                    SMS-
                                                        When was    Checkin
                                                        his last    into my
                                                        century ?   flight




                       Which is
                       the fastest
                       gate out
                       of this
                       crowd ?



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Democracy participants
                                             Refer a
                                             particular
                                             day’s           Lookup
                                             proceeding      details of a
                                                             particular
                                                             law




                                                                                    Give input to
                                                                                    a VIP security
                                                                                    management
                                                                                    system

      Refer
      leader’s                                File a news
      previous                                report with
      speech                                  video




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Democracy Improvers

                                                             Closer look      Which is the
                                                             at what’s        nearest place
                                                             happening on     to eat ?
                                                             the dais …
          Pledge
          support on
          Anna
          Hazare’s
          website




                   Search for
                   Anna
                   Hazare caps
                   and T-shirts
                   nearby



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Consumers of services

                                                             Order a
                                                             samosa            Which is
                                                             from the          the next
                                                             pantry car        connecting
                                                                               train ?




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Chaandrayaan-1 launch observers

                                                             Live, real-           When’s the
         Live                                                time                  next bus
         update to                                           updates of            back home.
         photo blog                                          the launch.
         from venue




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Art Lovers


                      More                                                  Live-tweet
                      information on                                        the event
                      the Performing                                        updates
                      Artist
                                 Add event to
                                 my calendar                 Book ticket
                                                             for next day




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The Worker Bees


                    Current market                           Weather       USE GPS
                    prices for my                            and safety    information
                    catch ?                                  information   overlaid on
                    Notify the buyer of                                    map to stay
                    catch size, type.                                      close to shore




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The Worker Bees

                                                             Why didn’t      Availability
                                                             the laborers    of fertilizers
                     When is it                              turn up yet ?   in the market
                     going to
                     rain next ?




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#Gyan    


                                   {Mobile =                 7th

                                   Mass Media}

                   The first 6 are 1. Printing Press, 2.Recordings, 3. Cinema,
                              4.Radio, 5.Television, 6.The Internet


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#Gyan    

                     {Mobile Is The ONLY
                    Mass Medium That Can
                     Do EVERYTHING The
                     Previous Six Can Do}

                     Again: 1. Printing Press, 2.Recordings, 3. Cinema, 4.Radio, 5.Television, 6.The
                                                         Internet
                             To connect to users, local language is extremely important.

                Source: Garrett Murray, Web 2.0 Expo — New York, September 16, 2008

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5 UNIQUE BENEFITS



                1.       First truly personal mass media
                        – e.g. Ever heard of a shared individual mobile number ?
                2.       First always-on mass media
                        – Information is always available 24/7, even when idle
                3.       First always-carried mass media
                        – Most people sleep with their phones within reach
                4.       Only mass media with a built-in payment channel
                        – Vote for Indian Idol over SMS (and spend Rs. 10)—many more
                          people have phones than credit cards
                5.       Offers point of thought
                        – Ability to create or consume content whenever the mood strikes

                 Source: Garrett Murray, Web 2.0 Expo — New York, September 16, 2008


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#Gyan   


                 {Mobile != Phone}



                    Mobile presents an opportunity to invent new ways for
                              users to interact with information.

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Urban Mobile Users



                • Mobile users live in a 360°environment
                        –    Short attention span
                        –    Difficult to multi-tasking, easy to get lost (“waste time”)
                        –    Sudden interruptions
                        –    Momentary social context
                        –    Need to Tweet or send directly to Facebook, Digg etc.
                • Mobile users move around a lot – ride a bike, drive a
                  car, walk around a shopping mall, store
                • Mothers use mobile as family device
                        – Entertain, Plan, Share
                        – Apps for Kids
                        – Shopping and other lists


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Urban Mobile Users




                Source: How smartphone owners describe their phones. Pew Internet
                & American Life Project, Jul 11, 2011,
                http://pewinternet.org/Infographics/2011/Smartphones.aspx , accessed
                on Dec 7, 2011.


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Urban Mobile Users




                Source: Generations 2010: What different generations do online. Pew Internet & American Life
                Project, Dec 16, 2010, http://pewinternet.org/Infographics/2010/Generations-2010-Summary.aspx,
                accessed on Dec 7, 2011.

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#Gyan   


                  {Mobile = 30 sec
                  PC/Tab = 30 min}

                      Most people do small unplanned tasks on mobile and
                           planned longer tasks on PCs and Tablets.


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Mobile is different



                                           Complex Multiple Relationships
                                        Source: Rachel Hinman @ Adaptive Path

                     Objects                         Relationships              Objects


                     People                          Semantic                   People



                     Places                          Social                     Places


                     Things                          Spatial                    Things


                                                     Temporal


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Mobile is different



                • The same apps will need to look and work differently on the
                  mobile – the UI takes up the whole screen!
                • Relatively small screen, but varying sizes, resolutions
                        –    Pixel sizes vary, 2 orientations
                        –    Image magnification is a problem – 9 patch
                        –    Limited fonts
                        –    Peculiar problems like sun-blind screen
                • ‘Glanceability’ of data: multiple screens, widgets
                • Bandwidth costs real money
                • Search
                        – take 3 times longer than desktop
                        – Users are more focused on an immediate answer rather than on
                          the breadth of information.


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Mobile is different



                • Relatively low power cpu, memory
                • Many variations, telephony, non-telephony devices
                • No mouse, minimum keyboard – only (instinctive) Touch
                        – Opportunity to design for quick usage
                        – Respect the users time: its precious
                        – Lengthy steps/interactions discourage users
                • Limited battery life
                • Multi-purpose, communications focused
                • Assortment of sensors
                • Multiple, inconsistent connectivity options in addition to
                  Telephony: GPS, 3G, Wifi, BlueTooth, NFC (beware of
                  network lag)
                • You need to have an Over-The-Air strategy
                  (Product/Application Updates, Data updates)

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Fun Quiz #3



                Which is the recently launched device that has a stylus and
                aims to blur the distinction between a tablet and a phone
                
                •     Samsung Galaxy Note
                •     HTC Chacha
                •     iBall ‘Arpan’
                •     None of the Above




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Fun Quiz #3



                Which is the recently launched device that has a stylus and
                aims to blur the distinction between a tablet and a phone
                
                •     Samsung Galaxy Note 
                •     HTC Chacha
                •     iBall ‘Arpan’
                •     None of the Above


                Samsung Galaxy Note                          
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Do This to Win Users



                • Usability Studies are critical success factors: watch people in the
                  real world, paper prototypes, usability testing, user interviews
                • Typical mobile devices cannot present a full desktop experience –
                  strategize a functional split, digestion of content is different for
                  each screen
                • Adapt to device: exploit features where present, work-around
                  problems otherwise
                • Design for network efficiency: zip up data, use structured markup,
                  offload to server, use cache
                • Use interlinking of mobile apps: phone number => call
                • Make use of historical and real-time analytics and feed it back into
                  the product
                • Read public reviews of other products

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Input Methods



                Technology                                   Words Per Minute
                T9                                           32
                Graffiti/Jot                                 18
                Handwriting                                  28
                Swype                                        40
                PC QWERTY Keyboard                           70
                Mobile QWERTY Keyboard (Thumbing) 35
                Voice Recognition                            ??
                Infra Red Beam Projection                    70

     • These numbers are subject to User Habituation and may vary across
       demographies
     • There is scope for more types of input methods, for example application
       specific symbol based data input
     • Local Indian languages need different solutions than for English
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Sensors, Security



                • Sensors and APIs
                        – Interaction Points: Touch, Multi-Touch (custom), Shake
                          (Accelerometer), Vibration, Voice, GPS, Gyro
                        – APIs: BlueTooth, Wifi, Telephony, Open-GL, Location, WAP,
                          SMS, SQLite, Camera, Audio, Video, Input Methods, Map
                • Security
                        – That connected devices will be hacked, attacked and diverted
                          is inevitable. The only truly secure device is an unconnected
                          one. Sadly this is not an option. The only solution is education
                          and vigilance for customers and a robust security strategy for
                          product developers.
                        – O-Auth is highly suited due to its granular approach


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Testing



                • Test on as many different devices as you can
                • Look for Automation opportunities
                • Emulator tests should precede device tests
                • Remote Access services like DeviceAnywhere for testing
                  on larger set
                • Testing costs more on mobile platforms due to carrier
                  charges




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Classes of Applications



                • Carrier
                        – Mobile Money, Call Management
                • Enterprise
                        – Mobile banking, Mobile Data Management
                • End Users
                        –    Personal Productivity
                        –    Music
                        –    Coupons
                        –    Map based




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Classes of Applications



                • Carrier
                        – Mobile Money, Call Management
                • Enterprise
                        – Mobile banking, Mobile Data Management
                • End Users
                        –    Personal Productivity
                        –    Music
                        –    Coupons
                        –    Map based




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Development Platforms



                •     iPhone (Objective C)
                •     Android (Java)
                •     Symbian (J2ME, C++, Qt)
                •     Blackberry (J2ME)
                •     Flash
                •     Windows Phone 7
                •     HTML 5
                •     Bada, BREW, MeeGo
                •     Web OS



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Platform Distribution




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#Gyan    


                                        {Platform =
                                          Stage}

                                       Choose carefully.
                    The platform is a stage that defines an audience you
                  reach. Likely, you will need to choose multiple platforms.

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#Gyan   


                          {Fragmentation
                                  =
                             inability to
                        “write once and run
                           everywhere.”}

                              Choose the platform of the Users of your product/service.

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Design != Development



                Source: Modelling theMobile UserExperience, by bryan rieger




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Typical Development Method



                • Well rounded team of Designers, Engineers, and QA
                        – If you also have ‘Users’ on your team, you have a winning
                          combination
                • Iterative cycle of Design-Develop-Test-Deploy-Revisit
                  for successive feature sets allowing ‘Fail Forward’
                • Use of platform-specific set of development tools,
                  utilities, emulators, and devices
                • Platform specific App-Stores, publishing, distribution
                  and payment methods, revenue share, promotions,
                  analytics and feedback mechanisms
                • Platform specific monetization opportunities, in-app
                  purchases, ads, freemium
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The Pot of Gold at the end of the Rainbow



                1. Wealth Creation / Destruction is Material in New Computing Cycles – Now in Early
                   Innings of Mobile Internet Cycle, the 5th Cycle of Last Half Century.
                2. Mobile Ramping Faster than Desktop Internet Did and Will Be Bigger Than Most
                   Think – 5 Trends Converging (3G + Social Networking + Video + VoIP + Impressive
                   Mobile Devices).
                3. Apple Leading in Mobile Innovation + Impact, for Now – Depth of App Ecosystems +
                   User Experience + Pricing Will Likely Determine Long-Term Winners.
                4. Game-Changing Communications / Commerce Platforms (Social Networking +
                   Mobile) Emerging Very Rapidly.
                5. Growth / Monetization Roadmaps Provided by Japan Mobile + Desktop Internet.
                6. Massive Data Growth Driving Carrier / Equipment Transitions.

                7. Compelling Opportunities in Emerging Markets.
                8. Regulators Can Help Advance / Slow Mobile Internet Evolution.

                Source: The Mobile Internet Report, Morgan Stanley, 2009



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Case Study –
                                             Smart Traveller: Real-Time Tracking System Using GPS


                • Objectives
                        – 1. Assist bus commuters in availing the travelling alternates
                          (prescheduled and real time (if available))
                        – 2. Accept real time updates from the commuters and make this
                          information available to other commuters (if relevant) with
                          appropriate confidence level
                        – 3. Predict the shift in time for arrival of the bus(es) with appropriate
                          confidence level
                • Technologies used
                        – Android, JSON, GWT, GAE (cloud), JDO, HTML, CSS
                        – Database
                        – App Engine datastore
                • Tools Used
                        – Eclipse IDE, Android Emulator

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Smart Traveller – System Overview




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Smart Traveller – Future Possibilities
                                               Ideal project for an NGO that cares about civic issues.

                                             Future: Shortest
                                             route by distance,
                                             time




                                                                                          Future: Pay
                                                                                          for ticket
                                                                                          using NFC




                                                                              Future: Show
                                                                              integrated
                                                                              real-time map


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Smart Traveller – Mobile Client




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Smart Traveller – Mobile Client




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Smart Traveller – Mobile Client




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Smart Traveller – Server



                • ORM
                        – Object Relational Model
                        – Database entities modeled using JDO
                • Database
                        – All the modifications to the database are handled
                        – Triggers, constraints
                        – Convenience methods
                • Queries
                        – For real time updates, the schedule for each update is calculated
                        – Output modeled into objects for JSON serialization
                • Admin GUI
                        – Maintain Routes, Buses, Schedules
                        – Manage Security, Confidence levels,
                        – Monitor uptime and performance
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Ideas



                • Traffic and Transportation
                        – Autorikshaw, Taxi Tariffs
                        – Traffic updates
                        – Bus, Train Routes, Schedules, Real Time information
                • Image analysis – from a photo to information
                        – QRCode applications
                • Data Input Methods for Indic languages
                        –    Font support
                        –    Transliteration
                        –    Dictionary
                        –    Integration into applications like SMS
                        –    Voice recognition
                • Puzzles, Quiz

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WE have a long way to go …



                … to make available, products and services that are highly
                useful in the local context.
                             Can you spot the opportunity (s) ?




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Ideas



                • Information lookup: App + SMS
                        – All subjects: dictionaries, definitions, short answers
                        – Music, films, reviews, ratings, recommendations
                        – Literacy and linguistics
                        – Health: food, calories, glycemic index, lifestyle habits, exercise, first-aid,
                          tele-healthcare with mobile outreach
                        – Government office procedures
                        – NGOs and Social Organizations
                        – Almanac
                • Advice, Counselling, Helplines over SMS,
                • Education
                        – Courseware
                        – Online exams
                • Location-aware computing: GPS, Compass, RFID, NFC
                        – Multiplayer games
                        – Augmented reality
                        – Kinect (See Pranav Mistry’s TED talk)

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NFC



                Near Field Communication: A
                short-range wireless standard
                that allows devices to
                communicate securely and
                perform transactions. Eg.
                Keyless car entry.

                Source: Mobile Trends - June 2011,
                www.space150.com




                                                               68
2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential
 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
The world is still not in your pocket




                        Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/williambrawley/4310319103/

                                                                                                 69
2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential
 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
#Gyan   


   {SMS=Underutilized}


                                         SMS has maximum reach.
                                 Many Apps can be based purely on SMS.
                                 Carriers need to make SMS more reliable.


                                                                                    70
2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential
 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
#Gyan     


            {„search‟ *follows*
               lack of handy
           information source}

                     ‘Google It’ is not the answer to every info need.
             Contents of search results are not always accurate or up-to-date.
                              Search doesn’t work over SMS.
                      Process of searching and finding is sub-optimal

                                                                                 71
2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential
 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
Ideas



                • Community work
                        – Map overlays for various places of interest
                        – Recipes
                • Travel
                        – Real time planning using maps and costs and alternatives off
                          the web
                • Calendaring/Meeting Plans
                • Group Chats
                • Mass Communications
                        – Surveys
                        – Opinion Polls


                                                                                             72
2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential
 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
Global Case Study:
                                                                     Think Mobile, Act Local



                • World Watch | May/June 2010 | www.worldwatch.org
                • ICT4D: information and communication technologies
                  for development: implementation in Africa
                • Application – FrontlineSMS
                        – Farmers co-operative: updates on crop prices
                        – church group sends reminders about prayer services
                        – Medic – health outreach - St. Gabriel’s and health clinics in 10
                          different countries coordinate patient appointments and home
                          visits via SMS.
                        – Earthquake Response – emergency services
                        – Report election-related violence and report their location:
                          ushahidi.com

                                                                                             73
2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential
 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
Resources



                • Book: Made To Stick, by Chip & Dan Heath
                • Book: Simple and Usable Web Mobile and Interaction Design, by
                  Giles Colborne
                • Book: Head First Android Development, by Jonathan Simon
                • Book: Tapworthy, by Josh Clark
                • Book: Android™ Wireless Application Development, by Shane
                  Conder, Lauren Darcey
                • Paper: Mobile App Design Best Practices, For Application
                  Development & Delivery Professionals, published April 2011,
                  Forrester Research
                • mobiledesign.org http://mobiledesign.org/
                • WURFL http://wurfl.sourceforge.net
                • The Mobile Internet Report www.ms.com/techresearch
                • mobiForge: Mobile Web Development Community
                  http://mobiforge.com/
                • Respective platform developer guides


                                                                                     74
2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential
 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
I have the answer to all your questions: “It Depends” 




                                                             Q&A

                 If you have questions with longer answers, send me email

                                                             
                                                                                                 75
2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential
 2009© Symphony Services Corp.

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Developing softwareformobilesandtablets

  • 1. Developing Software for Future Technologies (Tablets and Mobile phones) Atul Nene (Atul.Nene@symphonysv.com) Symphony Services (www.symphonysv.com)
  • 2. Target Audience • General Users, Students • Non developers, non technical persons • Beginner to Intermediate level developers and designers • Entrepreneurs with Mobile Product/App plans • Everyone curious about this whole ‘Mobile’ thing  Show of hands  2 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 3. About Symphony Services • Part of the Symphony Software Technology Group • Global presence, Engineering concentrated in Bangalore, Pune and Gurgaon • Work on large variety software technologies, have ‘Centers of Excellence’ • Work with large number of marquee clients from startups to Fortune 500 • Special focus on Innovation: ‘Chairman’s Award for Innovation’ given every year. • Work environment that fosters talent and professionalism and blends with a ‘fun’ culture • Mobile Achievements: – Intellectual Property owners of cross platform mobile application development platform for enterprise applications – Hundreds of Native stand-alone apps, cross-platform HTML5 apps, Smartphone frontend for Cloud applications on all mobile platforms – Worlds First Mobile Client Application for Google Health™ on Android platform published on Android Marketplace 3 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 4. About Me • MCS from University of Pune • 15+ years of work experience • Work as an Engineering Manager • Lead teams that build end (Sensor) to end (Server) products on Android, iPhone and Blackberry • Student of Hindustani Classical Music • Twitter: @atulnene • Personal Blog: www.atulnene.com 4 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 5. Table of Contents • The Future is Here, Now • Focus on the Users and their Experience • How Mobile is different • Input Methods, Sensors, Security • Quick overview of Developing for Mobile • Case Study – Smart Traveller • Ideas • Fun Quiz  and Prizes  to be won along the way ! • Dwell on some #Gyan  as takeaway … 5 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 6. Fun Quiz #1 What is the number of mobile phone users in India  • 13.5 million • 330 million • 865 million • 1 billion 6 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 7. Fun Quiz #1 What is the number of mobile phone users in India  • 13.5 million • 330 million • 865 million  • 1 billion As of August 2011: 865 million (Source Wikipedia)  7 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 8. The Future is Here, Now • Total number of Mobile Subscribers has CAGR 62% during 2004-05 and 2009-10 and a forecast of CAGR 28% through 2013-14 • More growth in Rural areas than Urban: – 100% penetration in urban areas – near saturation – 33% handsets of 108M sold in Rural areas in 2009-10 • Handset manufacturing strategies have redesigned their distribution strategies with Rural focus – Entry level handsets will continue to drive volumes – Smartphones will outpace the industry growth, as cost go down: color and camera phones cost Rs.1000 today • Handset sales in Rural market to grow at CAGR 19% through 2014 Source : RNCOS Report on “Booming Rural Mobile Market in India” http://www.rncos.com/Market- Analysis-Reports/Booming-Rural-Mobile-Market-in-India-IM306.htm 8 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 9. The Future is Here, Now Mobile Subscribers (Million) Handset Sales in Rural Areas (Million) 1600 1400 80 1200 70 1000 60 800 50 600 40 400 Mobile Subscribers Handset Sales in Rural 30 200 (Million) Areas (Million) 20 0 10 0 Source : RNCOS Report on “Booming Rural Mobile Market in India” http://www.rncos.com/Market-Analysis-Reports/Booming-Rural-Mobile-Market-in- India-IM306.htm 9 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 10. The Future is Here, Now • the number of people in the world 7 billion today • the number of people with mobile 3.4 billion devices today... • globally, the number of mobile internet 1.3 billion users today "The future is already here – it’s just not evenly distributed.“ – William Gibson Technology should not only be accessible but inclusive and available to everyone...  2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp. it’s about people not devices 10
  • 11. The Future is Here, Now Source: Morgan Stanley ‘The Mobile Internet Report Key Themes’ www.ms.com/techresearch 11 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 12. The Future is Here, Now 12 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 13. Fun Quiz #2 What was the weight of the world’s first mobile phone (DynaTAC 8000x by Motorola in 1973)  • 100 grams • 500 grams • 1 kg • 1.2 kg 13 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 14. Fun Quiz #2 What was the weight of the world’s first mobile phone (DynaTAC 8000x by Motorola in 1973)  • 100 grams • 500 grams • 1 kg  • 1.2 kg 1 kg (Source Wikipedia)  14 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 15. Needs & Drivers • People need online, offline, personalized apps • Optimized utilization of mobile device • Large mobile user base • Smartphone (portable devices) has become integrated part of life, diminishing dependence on desktop PC • Perfect confluence of market and technology trends • Innovative apps, solutions around mobile phone to increase ARPU 15 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 16. #Gyan  {User Experience is everything} If your product doesn’t serve the Users need, its not a product. If your user doesn't love your product, you soon don’t have a product. 16 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 17. You have to ask the User You think the user wants this: Source: Modelling theMobile UserExperience, by bryan rieger 17 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 18. You have to ask the User While the user wants this: Source: Modelling theMobile UserExperience, by bryan rieger 18 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 19. Do you know your User ? • A private device used in highly different mostly public contexts • Usage varies by geography • Easily distracted users A very different kind of user Lets meet a few of them … And see how they will use their mobiles … 19 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 20. Huge Market, Diverse Users 20 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 21. Festival Revellers Traffic Diversions ? Tide Details How much time-gap When is the between the procession next-in-line supposed to end mandal ? according to the Lyrics Almanac ? of Aarti 21 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 22. Shoppers in Chennai Which shop Shopping has a List matching stole ? Best Deal on the Road ? 22 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 23. Sports fans I should SMS- When was Checkin his last into my century ? flight Which is the fastest gate out of this crowd ? 23 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 24. Democracy participants Refer a particular day’s Lookup proceeding details of a particular law Give input to a VIP security management system Refer leader’s File a news previous report with speech video 24 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 25. Democracy Improvers Closer look Which is the at what’s nearest place happening on to eat ? the dais … Pledge support on Anna Hazare’s website Search for Anna Hazare caps and T-shirts nearby 25 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 26. Consumers of services Order a samosa Which is from the the next pantry car connecting train ? 26 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 27. Chaandrayaan-1 launch observers Live, real- When’s the Live time next bus update to updates of back home. photo blog the launch. from venue 27 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 28. Art Lovers More Live-tweet information on the event the Performing updates Artist Add event to my calendar Book ticket for next day 28 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 29. The Worker Bees Current market Weather USE GPS prices for my and safety information catch ? information overlaid on Notify the buyer of map to stay catch size, type. close to shore 29 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 30. The Worker Bees Why didn’t Availability the laborers of fertilizers When is it turn up yet ? in the market going to rain next ? 30 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 31. #Gyan  {Mobile = 7th Mass Media} The first 6 are 1. Printing Press, 2.Recordings, 3. Cinema, 4.Radio, 5.Television, 6.The Internet 31 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 32. #Gyan  {Mobile Is The ONLY Mass Medium That Can Do EVERYTHING The Previous Six Can Do} Again: 1. Printing Press, 2.Recordings, 3. Cinema, 4.Radio, 5.Television, 6.The Internet To connect to users, local language is extremely important. Source: Garrett Murray, Web 2.0 Expo — New York, September 16, 2008 32 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 33. 5 UNIQUE BENEFITS 1. First truly personal mass media – e.g. Ever heard of a shared individual mobile number ? 2. First always-on mass media – Information is always available 24/7, even when idle 3. First always-carried mass media – Most people sleep with their phones within reach 4. Only mass media with a built-in payment channel – Vote for Indian Idol over SMS (and spend Rs. 10)—many more people have phones than credit cards 5. Offers point of thought – Ability to create or consume content whenever the mood strikes Source: Garrett Murray, Web 2.0 Expo — New York, September 16, 2008 33 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 34. #Gyan  {Mobile != Phone} Mobile presents an opportunity to invent new ways for users to interact with information. 34 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 35. Urban Mobile Users • Mobile users live in a 360°environment – Short attention span – Difficult to multi-tasking, easy to get lost (“waste time”) – Sudden interruptions – Momentary social context – Need to Tweet or send directly to Facebook, Digg etc. • Mobile users move around a lot – ride a bike, drive a car, walk around a shopping mall, store • Mothers use mobile as family device – Entertain, Plan, Share – Apps for Kids – Shopping and other lists 35 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 36. Urban Mobile Users Source: How smartphone owners describe their phones. Pew Internet & American Life Project, Jul 11, 2011, http://pewinternet.org/Infographics/2011/Smartphones.aspx , accessed on Dec 7, 2011. 36 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 37. Urban Mobile Users Source: Generations 2010: What different generations do online. Pew Internet & American Life Project, Dec 16, 2010, http://pewinternet.org/Infographics/2010/Generations-2010-Summary.aspx, accessed on Dec 7, 2011. 37 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 38. #Gyan  {Mobile = 30 sec PC/Tab = 30 min} Most people do small unplanned tasks on mobile and planned longer tasks on PCs and Tablets. 38 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 39. Mobile is different Complex Multiple Relationships Source: Rachel Hinman @ Adaptive Path Objects Relationships Objects People Semantic People Places Social Places Things Spatial Things Temporal 39 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 40. Mobile is different • The same apps will need to look and work differently on the mobile – the UI takes up the whole screen! • Relatively small screen, but varying sizes, resolutions – Pixel sizes vary, 2 orientations – Image magnification is a problem – 9 patch – Limited fonts – Peculiar problems like sun-blind screen • ‘Glanceability’ of data: multiple screens, widgets • Bandwidth costs real money • Search – take 3 times longer than desktop – Users are more focused on an immediate answer rather than on the breadth of information. 40 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 41. Mobile is different • Relatively low power cpu, memory • Many variations, telephony, non-telephony devices • No mouse, minimum keyboard – only (instinctive) Touch – Opportunity to design for quick usage – Respect the users time: its precious – Lengthy steps/interactions discourage users • Limited battery life • Multi-purpose, communications focused • Assortment of sensors • Multiple, inconsistent connectivity options in addition to Telephony: GPS, 3G, Wifi, BlueTooth, NFC (beware of network lag) • You need to have an Over-The-Air strategy (Product/Application Updates, Data updates) 41 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 42. 42 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 43. Fun Quiz #3 Which is the recently launched device that has a stylus and aims to blur the distinction between a tablet and a phone  • Samsung Galaxy Note • HTC Chacha • iBall ‘Arpan’ • None of the Above 43 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 44. Fun Quiz #3 Which is the recently launched device that has a stylus and aims to blur the distinction between a tablet and a phone  • Samsung Galaxy Note  • HTC Chacha • iBall ‘Arpan’ • None of the Above Samsung Galaxy Note  44 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 45. Do This to Win Users • Usability Studies are critical success factors: watch people in the real world, paper prototypes, usability testing, user interviews • Typical mobile devices cannot present a full desktop experience – strategize a functional split, digestion of content is different for each screen • Adapt to device: exploit features where present, work-around problems otherwise • Design for network efficiency: zip up data, use structured markup, offload to server, use cache • Use interlinking of mobile apps: phone number => call • Make use of historical and real-time analytics and feed it back into the product • Read public reviews of other products 45 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 46. Input Methods Technology Words Per Minute T9 32 Graffiti/Jot 18 Handwriting 28 Swype 40 PC QWERTY Keyboard 70 Mobile QWERTY Keyboard (Thumbing) 35 Voice Recognition ?? Infra Red Beam Projection 70 • These numbers are subject to User Habituation and may vary across demographies • There is scope for more types of input methods, for example application specific symbol based data input • Local Indian languages need different solutions than for English 46 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 47. Sensors, Security • Sensors and APIs – Interaction Points: Touch, Multi-Touch (custom), Shake (Accelerometer), Vibration, Voice, GPS, Gyro – APIs: BlueTooth, Wifi, Telephony, Open-GL, Location, WAP, SMS, SQLite, Camera, Audio, Video, Input Methods, Map • Security – That connected devices will be hacked, attacked and diverted is inevitable. The only truly secure device is an unconnected one. Sadly this is not an option. The only solution is education and vigilance for customers and a robust security strategy for product developers. – O-Auth is highly suited due to its granular approach 47 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 48. Testing • Test on as many different devices as you can • Look for Automation opportunities • Emulator tests should precede device tests • Remote Access services like DeviceAnywhere for testing on larger set • Testing costs more on mobile platforms due to carrier charges 48 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 49. Classes of Applications • Carrier – Mobile Money, Call Management • Enterprise – Mobile banking, Mobile Data Management • End Users – Personal Productivity – Music – Coupons – Map based 49 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 50. Classes of Applications • Carrier – Mobile Money, Call Management • Enterprise – Mobile banking, Mobile Data Management • End Users – Personal Productivity – Music – Coupons – Map based 50 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 51. Development Platforms • iPhone (Objective C) • Android (Java) • Symbian (J2ME, C++, Qt) • Blackberry (J2ME) • Flash • Windows Phone 7 • HTML 5 • Bada, BREW, MeeGo • Web OS 51 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 52. Platform Distribution 52 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 53. #Gyan  {Platform = Stage} Choose carefully. The platform is a stage that defines an audience you reach. Likely, you will need to choose multiple platforms. 53 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 54. #Gyan  {Fragmentation = inability to “write once and run everywhere.”} Choose the platform of the Users of your product/service. 54 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 55. Design != Development Source: Modelling theMobile UserExperience, by bryan rieger 55 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 56. Typical Development Method • Well rounded team of Designers, Engineers, and QA – If you also have ‘Users’ on your team, you have a winning combination • Iterative cycle of Design-Develop-Test-Deploy-Revisit for successive feature sets allowing ‘Fail Forward’ • Use of platform-specific set of development tools, utilities, emulators, and devices • Platform specific App-Stores, publishing, distribution and payment methods, revenue share, promotions, analytics and feedback mechanisms • Platform specific monetization opportunities, in-app purchases, ads, freemium 56 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 57. The Pot of Gold at the end of the Rainbow 1. Wealth Creation / Destruction is Material in New Computing Cycles – Now in Early Innings of Mobile Internet Cycle, the 5th Cycle of Last Half Century. 2. Mobile Ramping Faster than Desktop Internet Did and Will Be Bigger Than Most Think – 5 Trends Converging (3G + Social Networking + Video + VoIP + Impressive Mobile Devices). 3. Apple Leading in Mobile Innovation + Impact, for Now – Depth of App Ecosystems + User Experience + Pricing Will Likely Determine Long-Term Winners. 4. Game-Changing Communications / Commerce Platforms (Social Networking + Mobile) Emerging Very Rapidly. 5. Growth / Monetization Roadmaps Provided by Japan Mobile + Desktop Internet. 6. Massive Data Growth Driving Carrier / Equipment Transitions. 7. Compelling Opportunities in Emerging Markets. 8. Regulators Can Help Advance / Slow Mobile Internet Evolution. Source: The Mobile Internet Report, Morgan Stanley, 2009 57 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 58. Case Study – Smart Traveller: Real-Time Tracking System Using GPS • Objectives – 1. Assist bus commuters in availing the travelling alternates (prescheduled and real time (if available)) – 2. Accept real time updates from the commuters and make this information available to other commuters (if relevant) with appropriate confidence level – 3. Predict the shift in time for arrival of the bus(es) with appropriate confidence level • Technologies used – Android, JSON, GWT, GAE (cloud), JDO, HTML, CSS – Database – App Engine datastore • Tools Used – Eclipse IDE, Android Emulator 58 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 59. Smart Traveller – System Overview 59 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 60. Smart Traveller – Future Possibilities Ideal project for an NGO that cares about civic issues. Future: Shortest route by distance, time Future: Pay for ticket using NFC Future: Show integrated real-time map 60 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 61. Smart Traveller – Mobile Client 61 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 62. Smart Traveller – Mobile Client 62 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 63. Smart Traveller – Mobile Client 63 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 64. Smart Traveller – Server • ORM – Object Relational Model – Database entities modeled using JDO • Database – All the modifications to the database are handled – Triggers, constraints – Convenience methods • Queries – For real time updates, the schedule for each update is calculated – Output modeled into objects for JSON serialization • Admin GUI – Maintain Routes, Buses, Schedules – Manage Security, Confidence levels, – Monitor uptime and performance 64 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 65. Ideas • Traffic and Transportation – Autorikshaw, Taxi Tariffs – Traffic updates – Bus, Train Routes, Schedules, Real Time information • Image analysis – from a photo to information – QRCode applications • Data Input Methods for Indic languages – Font support – Transliteration – Dictionary – Integration into applications like SMS – Voice recognition • Puzzles, Quiz 65 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 66. WE have a long way to go … … to make available, products and services that are highly useful in the local context. Can you spot the opportunity (s) ? 66 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 67. Ideas • Information lookup: App + SMS – All subjects: dictionaries, definitions, short answers – Music, films, reviews, ratings, recommendations – Literacy and linguistics – Health: food, calories, glycemic index, lifestyle habits, exercise, first-aid, tele-healthcare with mobile outreach – Government office procedures – NGOs and Social Organizations – Almanac • Advice, Counselling, Helplines over SMS, • Education – Courseware – Online exams • Location-aware computing: GPS, Compass, RFID, NFC – Multiplayer games – Augmented reality – Kinect (See Pranav Mistry’s TED talk) 67 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 68. NFC Near Field Communication: A short-range wireless standard that allows devices to communicate securely and perform transactions. Eg. Keyless car entry. Source: Mobile Trends - June 2011, www.space150.com 68 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 69. The world is still not in your pocket Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/williambrawley/4310319103/ 69 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 70. #Gyan  {SMS=Underutilized} SMS has maximum reach. Many Apps can be based purely on SMS. Carriers need to make SMS more reliable. 70 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 71. #Gyan  {„search‟ *follows* lack of handy information source} ‘Google It’ is not the answer to every info need. Contents of search results are not always accurate or up-to-date. Search doesn’t work over SMS. Process of searching and finding is sub-optimal 71 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 72. Ideas • Community work – Map overlays for various places of interest – Recipes • Travel – Real time planning using maps and costs and alternatives off the web • Calendaring/Meeting Plans • Group Chats • Mass Communications – Surveys – Opinion Polls 72 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 73. Global Case Study: Think Mobile, Act Local • World Watch | May/June 2010 | www.worldwatch.org • ICT4D: information and communication technologies for development: implementation in Africa • Application – FrontlineSMS – Farmers co-operative: updates on crop prices – church group sends reminders about prayer services – Medic – health outreach - St. Gabriel’s and health clinics in 10 different countries coordinate patient appointments and home visits via SMS. – Earthquake Response – emergency services – Report election-related violence and report their location: ushahidi.com 73 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 74. Resources • Book: Made To Stick, by Chip & Dan Heath • Book: Simple and Usable Web Mobile and Interaction Design, by Giles Colborne • Book: Head First Android Development, by Jonathan Simon • Book: Tapworthy, by Josh Clark • Book: Android™ Wireless Application Development, by Shane Conder, Lauren Darcey • Paper: Mobile App Design Best Practices, For Application Development & Delivery Professionals, published April 2011, Forrester Research • mobiledesign.org http://mobiledesign.org/ • WURFL http://wurfl.sourceforge.net • The Mobile Internet Report www.ms.com/techresearch • mobiForge: Mobile Web Development Community http://mobiforge.com/ • Respective platform developer guides 74 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.
  • 75. I have the answer to all your questions: “It Depends”  Q&A If you have questions with longer answers, send me email  75 2011© Symphony Services Corp. | Proprietary & Confidential 2009© Symphony Services Corp.