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DECENTRALISATION
GRPOUP 9
► TAMANNA
► TANISHA MEENA
► TANIYA MEENA
► TULSI TIWARI
► VUNGTHIANHOIH
► WANCHA NOKBI
► YOGITA
► ZAARA
► ZHIDEY
DECENTRALISATION:
Decentralization is referred to as a form of an organzsational structure
where there is the delegation of authority by the top management to the
middle and lower levels of management in an organization . Delegation
refers to the assigning a portion of work and the associated responsibility
by a superior to a subordinate. In simple words, when delegation is
expanded on an organizational level, it is called decentralization.
Importance of Decentralisation:
>Rapid decision making
>Administrative development
>Development of executive skills
>Promotes growth
APPROACHES OF DECENTRALISATION
DOCTRINAL APPROACH
POLITICAL APPROACH
ADMINISTRATIVE
APPROACH
DUAL ROLE APPROACH
APPROACHES:
► THE DOCTRINAL APPROACH-This approach seeks to treat decentralization as an
end in itself instead of treating it as a means to achieve organizational efficiency
and effectiveness.
► THE POLITICAL APPROACH-The political approach believes that initiatives to
decentralize and willingness to pass on powers and functions to do decentralize
units , and to allow these units to actually operate within a framework of
autonomy, are politically determined.
► THE ADMINISTRATIVE APPROACH-This approach is based on the principle of
efficiency and rationality.
► THE DUAL ROLE APPROACH-This approach seeks to highlight the conflict in field
administration between tradition and change.
TYPES OF DECENTRALISATION
POLITICAL
FISCAL/FINANCIAL
FUNCTIONAL/STRUCTURAL
ADMINISTRATIVE
TYPES OF DECENTRALISATION:
There are different aspects of power, authority, structures, functions and fiscal responsibilities that are
decentralized:
► Structural and Functional Decentralization refers to dividing the hierarchical and centralized structures and
their powers, authorities, and functions both vertically and horizontally (the structure of the organization
changes from tall to flat).
► Political Decentralization signifies a reduction in the authority of national governments over policy making. It
pre-supposes that transfer of functions or authority from central levels of government to local institutions that
are based on local political representations.
► Fiscal Decentralization refers to an approach that disperses control of finances to various points within a
network or operation, rather than centralizing all financial control at a single point. Financial/Fiscal
decentralization aimed at strengthening the financial powers of the local bodies under the ambit of raising
revenue and public expenditure.
► Administrative Decentralization refers to the transfer of responsibility for planning , financing, and
management of fields units of government agencies , subordinate units or levels of government , semi-
autonomous public authorities or corporations.
LOCAL GOVERNANCE:
► The rural local government was mainly an offshoot of the Bengal Village Chowkidari
Act 1870. The Ripon Resolution 1882, Bengal Local Self Government Act 1885,
Bengal Village Self Government Act 1919 were several measures to streamline local
self-government.
► In 1952,government has launched Community Development Programes to address
the issue of rural poverty and development.
► The West Bengal Panchayat Act 1957 reflected constitutional directives of promoting
Panchayati raj, gram panchayat, and gram sabha.
► Lack of involvement of community and bureaucrats being reluctant to share their
power with local government led to poor functioning of the community development
programme.
❑ BALVANR G. RAI MEHTA COMMITTEE
► Talks about 3 – tier Panchayati Raj System.
► Recommend adequate devolution of resource and function to these
bodies to act as self government.
► Ultimately failed due to lack of seriousness.
❑ ASHOK MEHTA COMMITTEE
Recommend replacement of 3-tier System into 2-tier Panchayati Raj
System.
Recommend participation of political parties in Panchayat Election.
❑ LM SINGVI COMMITTEE
Recommend providing constitutional recognition to PRI and also suggest
Gram Sabha should be empowered.
Help function as institution of self government.
PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS:
Article 40 of the Constitution enshrines one of the Directive Principles of
State Policy which lays down that the State shall take steps to organize
village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as
may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.
Therefore the 73rd Amendment Act recommended certain basic and
essential features of Panchayati Raj Institutions . Therefore the 73rd
Amendment Act recommended certain basic and essential features of
Panchayati Raj Institutions to impart certainty, continuity and strength
to them
Features :
>Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages;
constitution of Panchayats at village and other
level or levels
>Direct elections to all seats in Panchayats at the
village and intermediate level, if any, and to the
offices of Chairpersons of Panchayats at such
levels
>Reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes
and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their
population for membership of Panchayats and
office of Chairpersons in Panchayats at each level;
reservation of not less than one-third of the seats
for women
>Fixing tenure of 5 years for Panchayats and
holding elections within a period of 6 months in
the event of supersession of any Panchayat
>Devolution by the State Legislature of powers
and responsibilities upon the Panchayats with
respect to the preparation of plans for economic
developments and social justice and for the
implementation of development schemes
>Sound finance of the Panchayats by securing
authorization from State Legislatures for grants-in-
aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund
of the State
Gram
sabha
Devolution
Tenure
Reservatio
n
Finance
Direct
elections
PRI’S ROLE IN PUBLIC POLICIES:
Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) play a significant role in public policies, particularly at the grassroots level.
Here are some ways they contribute:
1. Local Governance: PRIs are responsible for governing rural areas, making them crucial in implementing and
executing public policies at the local level.
2. Community Representation: PRIs provide a platform for community members to voice their concerns and
needs, ensuring that public policies address local issues effectively.
3. Policy Implementation: PRIs are involved in the implementation of various government schemes and
programs, ensuring that they reach the intended beneficiaries and are implemented efficiently.
4. Resource Allocation: PRIs are involved in budgeting and resource allocation at the local level, ensuring that
resources are distributed equitably and used effectively to address local needs.
5. Monitoring and Evaluation: PRIs play a role in monitoring the implementation of public policies and
evaluating their impact on the community, providing feedback to policymakers for future improvements.
Overall, PRIs serve as a vital link between the government and the grassroots, ensuring that public policies are
responsive to local needs and effectively implemented.
74TH URBAN SELF GOVERNANCE:
The 74th Amendment Act 1992 came in force in 1993 which gives constitutional status to
the Municipalities
Features:
Three types of Municipalities were constituted such as Nagar Panchayats for areas in transition
from a rural area to urban area; Municipal Councils for smaller urban areas; and Municipal
Corporations for larger urban areas
Reservation of seats in every Municipality for SCs and STs in proportion to their population of
which not less than one-third shall be for women
Act fixed the tenure of 5 years for the Municipality and in case it is dissolved before the expiration
of its duration, elections to be held within a period of six months of its dissolution
The State Legislature should dissolve powers and responsibilities upon the Municipalities with
respect to preparation of plans for economic development and social justice, and for the
implementation of the development schemes as may be required to enable them to function as
institutions of self-government
EVALUATION of PRIs:
>The PRIs are overworked due to strong centralized tendencies
>PRIs are not given status of decentralized political institutions
>Scarcity of funds
>Phenomenon of proxy participation is witnessed
>Over politicization of the PRIs
>Subservient culture of the PRIs
Decentralization is an inseparable element of good governance as it integrates
the local government and builds transparency, accountability, responsibility. It
deepens democracy through gender empowerment and social justice and
campaigns for an inclusive society. However, Indian democracy and
development are expected to adjust to the international norms of the free
competitive global market economy. The focus has been on the need to
strengthen institutional/structural and legal dimensions of democracy such as
constitution, rule of law, citizenship rights, and civil society, rather than
working towards structural changes to redistribute economic resources to
democratize democracy. Thus, the values democracies espouse are far from
the ground reality that discriminates, marginalizes, and deprives the vast
majority from the basic resources of livelihood. Therefore, despite the
campaign for inclusive growth and development, the large masses remain
excluded from the mainstream development.

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Decentralisation and local government in India

  • 2. GRPOUP 9 ► TAMANNA ► TANISHA MEENA ► TANIYA MEENA ► TULSI TIWARI ► VUNGTHIANHOIH ► WANCHA NOKBI ► YOGITA ► ZAARA ► ZHIDEY
  • 3. DECENTRALISATION: Decentralization is referred to as a form of an organzsational structure where there is the delegation of authority by the top management to the middle and lower levels of management in an organization . Delegation refers to the assigning a portion of work and the associated responsibility by a superior to a subordinate. In simple words, when delegation is expanded on an organizational level, it is called decentralization. Importance of Decentralisation: >Rapid decision making >Administrative development >Development of executive skills >Promotes growth
  • 4. APPROACHES OF DECENTRALISATION DOCTRINAL APPROACH POLITICAL APPROACH ADMINISTRATIVE APPROACH DUAL ROLE APPROACH
  • 5. APPROACHES: ► THE DOCTRINAL APPROACH-This approach seeks to treat decentralization as an end in itself instead of treating it as a means to achieve organizational efficiency and effectiveness. ► THE POLITICAL APPROACH-The political approach believes that initiatives to decentralize and willingness to pass on powers and functions to do decentralize units , and to allow these units to actually operate within a framework of autonomy, are politically determined. ► THE ADMINISTRATIVE APPROACH-This approach is based on the principle of efficiency and rationality. ► THE DUAL ROLE APPROACH-This approach seeks to highlight the conflict in field administration between tradition and change.
  • 7. TYPES OF DECENTRALISATION: There are different aspects of power, authority, structures, functions and fiscal responsibilities that are decentralized: ► Structural and Functional Decentralization refers to dividing the hierarchical and centralized structures and their powers, authorities, and functions both vertically and horizontally (the structure of the organization changes from tall to flat). ► Political Decentralization signifies a reduction in the authority of national governments over policy making. It pre-supposes that transfer of functions or authority from central levels of government to local institutions that are based on local political representations. ► Fiscal Decentralization refers to an approach that disperses control of finances to various points within a network or operation, rather than centralizing all financial control at a single point. Financial/Fiscal decentralization aimed at strengthening the financial powers of the local bodies under the ambit of raising revenue and public expenditure. ► Administrative Decentralization refers to the transfer of responsibility for planning , financing, and management of fields units of government agencies , subordinate units or levels of government , semi- autonomous public authorities or corporations.
  • 8. LOCAL GOVERNANCE: ► The rural local government was mainly an offshoot of the Bengal Village Chowkidari Act 1870. The Ripon Resolution 1882, Bengal Local Self Government Act 1885, Bengal Village Self Government Act 1919 were several measures to streamline local self-government. ► In 1952,government has launched Community Development Programes to address the issue of rural poverty and development. ► The West Bengal Panchayat Act 1957 reflected constitutional directives of promoting Panchayati raj, gram panchayat, and gram sabha. ► Lack of involvement of community and bureaucrats being reluctant to share their power with local government led to poor functioning of the community development programme.
  • 9. ❑ BALVANR G. RAI MEHTA COMMITTEE ► Talks about 3 – tier Panchayati Raj System. ► Recommend adequate devolution of resource and function to these bodies to act as self government. ► Ultimately failed due to lack of seriousness. ❑ ASHOK MEHTA COMMITTEE Recommend replacement of 3-tier System into 2-tier Panchayati Raj System. Recommend participation of political parties in Panchayat Election. ❑ LM SINGVI COMMITTEE Recommend providing constitutional recognition to PRI and also suggest Gram Sabha should be empowered. Help function as institution of self government.
  • 10. PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS: Article 40 of the Constitution enshrines one of the Directive Principles of State Policy which lays down that the State shall take steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government. Therefore the 73rd Amendment Act recommended certain basic and essential features of Panchayati Raj Institutions . Therefore the 73rd Amendment Act recommended certain basic and essential features of Panchayati Raj Institutions to impart certainty, continuity and strength to them
  • 11. Features : >Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages; constitution of Panchayats at village and other level or levels >Direct elections to all seats in Panchayats at the village and intermediate level, if any, and to the offices of Chairpersons of Panchayats at such levels >Reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population for membership of Panchayats and office of Chairpersons in Panchayats at each level; reservation of not less than one-third of the seats for women >Fixing tenure of 5 years for Panchayats and holding elections within a period of 6 months in the event of supersession of any Panchayat >Devolution by the State Legislature of powers and responsibilities upon the Panchayats with respect to the preparation of plans for economic developments and social justice and for the implementation of development schemes >Sound finance of the Panchayats by securing authorization from State Legislatures for grants-in- aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State Gram sabha Devolution Tenure Reservatio n Finance Direct elections
  • 12. PRI’S ROLE IN PUBLIC POLICIES: Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) play a significant role in public policies, particularly at the grassroots level. Here are some ways they contribute: 1. Local Governance: PRIs are responsible for governing rural areas, making them crucial in implementing and executing public policies at the local level. 2. Community Representation: PRIs provide a platform for community members to voice their concerns and needs, ensuring that public policies address local issues effectively. 3. Policy Implementation: PRIs are involved in the implementation of various government schemes and programs, ensuring that they reach the intended beneficiaries and are implemented efficiently. 4. Resource Allocation: PRIs are involved in budgeting and resource allocation at the local level, ensuring that resources are distributed equitably and used effectively to address local needs. 5. Monitoring and Evaluation: PRIs play a role in monitoring the implementation of public policies and evaluating their impact on the community, providing feedback to policymakers for future improvements. Overall, PRIs serve as a vital link between the government and the grassroots, ensuring that public policies are responsive to local needs and effectively implemented.
  • 13. 74TH URBAN SELF GOVERNANCE: The 74th Amendment Act 1992 came in force in 1993 which gives constitutional status to the Municipalities Features: Three types of Municipalities were constituted such as Nagar Panchayats for areas in transition from a rural area to urban area; Municipal Councils for smaller urban areas; and Municipal Corporations for larger urban areas Reservation of seats in every Municipality for SCs and STs in proportion to their population of which not less than one-third shall be for women Act fixed the tenure of 5 years for the Municipality and in case it is dissolved before the expiration of its duration, elections to be held within a period of six months of its dissolution The State Legislature should dissolve powers and responsibilities upon the Municipalities with respect to preparation of plans for economic development and social justice, and for the implementation of the development schemes as may be required to enable them to function as institutions of self-government
  • 14. EVALUATION of PRIs: >The PRIs are overworked due to strong centralized tendencies >PRIs are not given status of decentralized political institutions >Scarcity of funds >Phenomenon of proxy participation is witnessed >Over politicization of the PRIs >Subservient culture of the PRIs
  • 15. Decentralization is an inseparable element of good governance as it integrates the local government and builds transparency, accountability, responsibility. It deepens democracy through gender empowerment and social justice and campaigns for an inclusive society. However, Indian democracy and development are expected to adjust to the international norms of the free competitive global market economy. The focus has been on the need to strengthen institutional/structural and legal dimensions of democracy such as constitution, rule of law, citizenship rights, and civil society, rather than working towards structural changes to redistribute economic resources to democratize democracy. Thus, the values democracies espouse are far from the ground reality that discriminates, marginalizes, and deprives the vast majority from the basic resources of livelihood. Therefore, despite the campaign for inclusive growth and development, the large masses remain excluded from the mainstream development.