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You can run SQL Server
on AWS?
John McCormack | DATA:Scotland | Sep 2019
Hello!
▪ John McCormack
▪ DBA since 2012
▪ MCSE Data Management and Analytics
▪ AWS Certified Cloud Solutions Architect
▪ https://johnmccormack.it
▪ @actualjohn
2
Terminology
▪ AWS – Amazon Web Services (Cloud computing company)
▪ Region – A geographic area comprising of 2 or more AZs
▪ Availability Zone (AZ) – A data centre within a region, providing
options for HA/DR
▪ EC2 – VM within AWS (Windows or Linux)
▪ EBS – Block storage in AWS
▪ S3 – Object storage based in AWS (think dropbox)
▪ Bucket – Folder within S3. Name is globally unique
▪ RDS – Relational Database Service.
e.g. SQL Server, MySQL, Postgressql, Oracle, MariaDB and
Aurora
3
▪ RDS
□ Managed instance
□ Less admin, less control
▪ EC2
□ VM in the cloud
□ More admin, more control
2 ways to run SQL Server in AWS
4
Administration Effort
Control
RDS
Azure MI
Azure SQL
DB
EC2
Azure VM
RDS vs EC2
FEATURE EC2 RDS
Use SSMS ✔ ✔
Use database as source or
target for SSIS
✔ ✔
Full control over the instance ✔
Automated Backups ✔
Automated Patching ✔
Always On Availability
Groups
✔ (Kind of)
5
RDS vs EC2 (continued)
FEATURE EC2 RDS
AWS Managed Multi-AZ ✔
Log Shipping ✔
Replication ✔
Database Mail ✔
Bulk Insert ✔
FILESTREAM ✔
6
Shared responsibility model
AWS EC2 RDS
HA/DR YOU 👉 AWS
Database Backups YOU 👉 AWS
SQL Server Patching YOU 👉 AWS
Installing SQL Server YOU 👉 AWS
OS Patching YOU 👉 AWS
Network AWS AWS
Power AWS AWS
Physical Security AWS AWS
7
Lets talk licensing
8
RDS
• Express edition is the only license free edition
• License included in instance cost
- Standard, Enterprise, Web
EC2
• You can use developer edition for non prod workloads
• BYOL or License included
• No software assurance = Dedicated host
Backup / Restore - RDS
9
• Automated backups
– Set your own retention period
• Take ad-hoc snapshots
– Kept in your S3 bucket until deleted by user
• Snapshots can be shared between accounts (prod to dev)
– Accounts is similar to subscriptions in Azure
• Point in time restores (within 5 minutes)
• You can restore to a new RDS instance
Backup / Restore – EC2
10
S3 offers cross-region bucket
replication and versioning !
You pay for all versions so look at setting a ‘lifecycle
policy’
Back up to S3 to save money
Directly with 3rd party tools
Copy from EBS to S3
Backup directly to file system EBS offers automatic redundancy and encryption
Responsible for your own backups
and restores
Just like on-premises
Monitoring
CloudWatch
▪ Near real time info
▪ View multiple instances at once
▪ Trigger alerts
3rd party tools
▪ sp_whoisactive
▪ Sentry One
▪ Grafana
11
Deep dive into
RDS
Versions and Editions
Instance types
Storage types
HA/DR
Security
Encryption
Parameter groups
RDS – Versions & Editions
13
▪ Express
▪ Web
▪ Standard
▪ Enterprise
▪ 2012 – 2017
▪ SQL Server 2008 R2 was removed from options on 1st June 2019.
▪ Customers who didn’t act were automatically upgraded 🤦♂️
RDS – Instance Types
14
▪ T2
□ Lowest Cost
□ Burstable Performance
□ t2.micro = 1vCPU | 1 GiB RAM
▪ M4/M5
□ General Purpose
□ M5 is latest Generation
□ m5.xlarge = 4vCPU | 16 GiB RAM
▪ R4/R5
□ Memory optimized
□ R4 latest generation
□ r4.xlarge = 4vCPU | 32 GiB RAM
$200 more but no
increased licensing $$
RDS – Storage
15
ALL EDITIONS
Magnetic *
Min: 200 GiB Enterprise/Standard editions, 20 GiB
Web/Express
Max: 1 TiB all editions
General Purpose
(SSD)
Min: 200 GiB Enterprise/Standard editions, 20 GiB
Web/Express
Max: 16 TiB all editions
Provisioned IOPS
(SSD)
Min: 200 GiB Enterprise/Standard editions, 100 GiB
Web/Express
Max: 16 TiB all editions
• No manual intervention needed to fix original primary in
case of failover
• Automatically chosen depending on version / edition
• No readable secondary with AGs
Automatic Multi-AZ
deployment
Manual failovers
Any fault with original
primary is fixed for you
Mirroring or
Always On Availability
Groups
• Just tell AWS you want to go Multi-AZ
RDS – Multi AZ
16
• Pick a time to test that suits your business
RDS – Security
17
▪ Network Security
□ VPC
□ Security Groups
□ Choose your port
▪ Database security
□ SQL Logins
▫ Master user & others
□ Active Directory
RDS – Parameter Groups
18
▪ Parameter groups allow you to change settings above and
beyond your level of access to the instance.
□ i.e Something requiring sysadmin or securityadmin role
▪ Examples
□ Some trace flags e.g. 1204, 1222
□ Cost threshold for parallelism
□ Optimize for ad hoc workloads
▪ Changes to parameter groups apply to all instances using the
group
RDS – CLI & PowerShell
19
▪ Cloud computing at scale requires automation
▪ AWS supports CLI and Powershell to save you from too many clunky
manual process
▪ Examples
□ aws rds restore-db-instance-from-db-snapshot
□ Restore-RDSDBInstanceFromDBSnapshot
We will cover scripting in detail during the demo – learn at least 1
DEMO
20
21
Thanks!
If you want to find out more
You can find me at
▪ @actualjohn
▪ johnmccormack.it (Slides plus bonus content)
22
End
23
Bonus Content
Migration Planning
24
Direct ConnectSnowball / Edge S3 Accelerated Transfer
50 / 80 / 100 TB per device
Can use multiple
Transfers in 1 week
PB Scale
Dedicated connection
1Gbps – 10 Gbps
TB / GB Scale
Cloudfront Edge Locations
Distance ∝ improvement
GB / MB Scale
CloudFront Edge Locations
25
© https://aws.amazon.com/cloudfront/features/#Amazon_CloudFront_Infrastructure
Snowmobile
26 Petabyte Scale
Pre Migration Planning
TASK
Create full inventory
Identify features used (What version / edition do we need)
Do you have licenses to take to the cloud?
What are your high availability / disaster recovery requirements
Can you purge unwanted data
What are your team’s capabilities
27
Migration strategies and tools
METHOD EC2 RDS
BACKUP / RESTORE ✔ ✔
Database Migration Service /
Schema Conversion Tool
✔ ✔
Log Shipping ✔
Transactional Replication ✔
Snowball ✔ ✔
28
29
Really the end
Credits
Special thanks to all the people who made
and released these awesome resources for
free:
▪ Presentation template by SlidesCarnival
▪ Photographs by Unsplash
30

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Data Scotland 2019: You can run SQL Server on AWS

  • 1. You can run SQL Server on AWS? John McCormack | DATA:Scotland | Sep 2019
  • 2. Hello! ▪ John McCormack ▪ DBA since 2012 ▪ MCSE Data Management and Analytics ▪ AWS Certified Cloud Solutions Architect ▪ https://johnmccormack.it ▪ @actualjohn 2
  • 3. Terminology ▪ AWS – Amazon Web Services (Cloud computing company) ▪ Region – A geographic area comprising of 2 or more AZs ▪ Availability Zone (AZ) – A data centre within a region, providing options for HA/DR ▪ EC2 – VM within AWS (Windows or Linux) ▪ EBS – Block storage in AWS ▪ S3 – Object storage based in AWS (think dropbox) ▪ Bucket – Folder within S3. Name is globally unique ▪ RDS – Relational Database Service. e.g. SQL Server, MySQL, Postgressql, Oracle, MariaDB and Aurora 3
  • 4. ▪ RDS □ Managed instance □ Less admin, less control ▪ EC2 □ VM in the cloud □ More admin, more control 2 ways to run SQL Server in AWS 4 Administration Effort Control RDS Azure MI Azure SQL DB EC2 Azure VM
  • 5. RDS vs EC2 FEATURE EC2 RDS Use SSMS ✔ ✔ Use database as source or target for SSIS ✔ ✔ Full control over the instance ✔ Automated Backups ✔ Automated Patching ✔ Always On Availability Groups ✔ (Kind of) 5
  • 6. RDS vs EC2 (continued) FEATURE EC2 RDS AWS Managed Multi-AZ ✔ Log Shipping ✔ Replication ✔ Database Mail ✔ Bulk Insert ✔ FILESTREAM ✔ 6
  • 7. Shared responsibility model AWS EC2 RDS HA/DR YOU 👉 AWS Database Backups YOU 👉 AWS SQL Server Patching YOU 👉 AWS Installing SQL Server YOU 👉 AWS OS Patching YOU 👉 AWS Network AWS AWS Power AWS AWS Physical Security AWS AWS 7
  • 8. Lets talk licensing 8 RDS • Express edition is the only license free edition • License included in instance cost - Standard, Enterprise, Web EC2 • You can use developer edition for non prod workloads • BYOL or License included • No software assurance = Dedicated host
  • 9. Backup / Restore - RDS 9 • Automated backups – Set your own retention period • Take ad-hoc snapshots – Kept in your S3 bucket until deleted by user • Snapshots can be shared between accounts (prod to dev) – Accounts is similar to subscriptions in Azure • Point in time restores (within 5 minutes) • You can restore to a new RDS instance
  • 10. Backup / Restore – EC2 10 S3 offers cross-region bucket replication and versioning ! You pay for all versions so look at setting a ‘lifecycle policy’ Back up to S3 to save money Directly with 3rd party tools Copy from EBS to S3 Backup directly to file system EBS offers automatic redundancy and encryption Responsible for your own backups and restores Just like on-premises
  • 11. Monitoring CloudWatch ▪ Near real time info ▪ View multiple instances at once ▪ Trigger alerts 3rd party tools ▪ sp_whoisactive ▪ Sentry One ▪ Grafana 11
  • 12. Deep dive into RDS Versions and Editions Instance types Storage types HA/DR Security Encryption Parameter groups
  • 13. RDS – Versions & Editions 13 ▪ Express ▪ Web ▪ Standard ▪ Enterprise ▪ 2012 – 2017 ▪ SQL Server 2008 R2 was removed from options on 1st June 2019. ▪ Customers who didn’t act were automatically upgraded 🤦♂️
  • 14. RDS – Instance Types 14 ▪ T2 □ Lowest Cost □ Burstable Performance □ t2.micro = 1vCPU | 1 GiB RAM ▪ M4/M5 □ General Purpose □ M5 is latest Generation □ m5.xlarge = 4vCPU | 16 GiB RAM ▪ R4/R5 □ Memory optimized □ R4 latest generation □ r4.xlarge = 4vCPU | 32 GiB RAM $200 more but no increased licensing $$
  • 15. RDS – Storage 15 ALL EDITIONS Magnetic * Min: 200 GiB Enterprise/Standard editions, 20 GiB Web/Express Max: 1 TiB all editions General Purpose (SSD) Min: 200 GiB Enterprise/Standard editions, 20 GiB Web/Express Max: 16 TiB all editions Provisioned IOPS (SSD) Min: 200 GiB Enterprise/Standard editions, 100 GiB Web/Express Max: 16 TiB all editions
  • 16. • No manual intervention needed to fix original primary in case of failover • Automatically chosen depending on version / edition • No readable secondary with AGs Automatic Multi-AZ deployment Manual failovers Any fault with original primary is fixed for you Mirroring or Always On Availability Groups • Just tell AWS you want to go Multi-AZ RDS – Multi AZ 16 • Pick a time to test that suits your business
  • 17. RDS – Security 17 ▪ Network Security □ VPC □ Security Groups □ Choose your port ▪ Database security □ SQL Logins ▫ Master user & others □ Active Directory
  • 18. RDS – Parameter Groups 18 ▪ Parameter groups allow you to change settings above and beyond your level of access to the instance. □ i.e Something requiring sysadmin or securityadmin role ▪ Examples □ Some trace flags e.g. 1204, 1222 □ Cost threshold for parallelism □ Optimize for ad hoc workloads ▪ Changes to parameter groups apply to all instances using the group
  • 19. RDS – CLI & PowerShell 19 ▪ Cloud computing at scale requires automation ▪ AWS supports CLI and Powershell to save you from too many clunky manual process ▪ Examples □ aws rds restore-db-instance-from-db-snapshot □ Restore-RDSDBInstanceFromDBSnapshot We will cover scripting in detail during the demo – learn at least 1
  • 21. 21 Thanks! If you want to find out more You can find me at ▪ @actualjohn ▪ johnmccormack.it (Slides plus bonus content)
  • 24. Migration Planning 24 Direct ConnectSnowball / Edge S3 Accelerated Transfer 50 / 80 / 100 TB per device Can use multiple Transfers in 1 week PB Scale Dedicated connection 1Gbps – 10 Gbps TB / GB Scale Cloudfront Edge Locations Distance ∝ improvement GB / MB Scale
  • 25. CloudFront Edge Locations 25 © https://aws.amazon.com/cloudfront/features/#Amazon_CloudFront_Infrastructure
  • 27. Pre Migration Planning TASK Create full inventory Identify features used (What version / edition do we need) Do you have licenses to take to the cloud? What are your high availability / disaster recovery requirements Can you purge unwanted data What are your team’s capabilities 27
  • 28. Migration strategies and tools METHOD EC2 RDS BACKUP / RESTORE ✔ ✔ Database Migration Service / Schema Conversion Tool ✔ ✔ Log Shipping ✔ Transactional Replication ✔ Snowball ✔ ✔ 28
  • 30. Credits Special thanks to all the people who made and released these awesome resources for free: ▪ Presentation template by SlidesCarnival ▪ Photographs by Unsplash 30