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Crosby quality management
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I. Contents of crosby quality management
==================
Quality Guru Philip Crosby has developed 14 steps for an organization to follow in building an
effectivequality program:
1. Management is committed to quality – and this is clear to all: Clarify where management
stands on quality. It is necessary to consistently produce conforming products and services at the
optimum price. The device to accomplish this is the use of defect prevention techniques in the
operating departments:
- Engineering
- Manufacturing
- Quality Control
- Purchasing
- Sales and others.
2. Create quality improvement teams – with representatives from all workgroups and
functions: These teams run the quality improvement program. Since every function of an
operation contributes to defect levels, every function must participate in the quality improvement
effort. The degree of participation is best determined by the particular situation that exists.
However, everyone has the opportunity to improve.
3. Measure processes to determine current and potential quality issues: Communicate current and
potential nonconformance problems in a manner that permits objective evaluation and corrective
action. Basic qualitymeasurement data is obtained from the inspection and test reports, which are
broken down by operating areas of the plant. By comparing the rejection data with the input data,
it is possible to know the rejection rates. Since most companies have such systems, it is not
necessary to go into them in detail. It should be mentioned that unless this data is reported
properly, it is useless. After all, their only purpose is to warn management of serious situations.
They should be used to identify specific problems needing corrective action, and the quality
department should report them.
4. Calculate the cost of (poor) quality: Define the ingredients of the COQ and explain its use as a
management tool.
5. Raise quality awareness of all employees: Provide a method of raising the personal concern
felt by all personnel in the company toward the conformance of the product or service and the
quality reputation of the company. By the time a company is ready for the quality awareness
step, they should have a good idea of the types and expense of the problems being faced.
The quality measurement and COQ steps will have revealed them.
6. Take actions to correct quality issues: Provide a systematic method of permanently resolving
the problems that are identified through previous action steps. Problems that are identified during
the acceptance operation or by some other means must be documented and then resolved
formally.
7. Monitor progress of quality improvement – establish a zero defects committee: Examine the
various activities that must be conducted in preparation for formally launching the Zero Defects
program - The quality improvementtask team should list all the individual action steps that build
up to Zero Defects day in order to make the most meaningful presentation of the concept and
action plan to personnel of the company. These steps, placed on a schedule and assigned to
members of the team for execution, will provide a clean energy flow into an organization-
wide Zero Defectscommitment.
Since it is a natural step, it is not difficult, but because of the significance of it, management
must make sure it is conducted properly.
8. Train supervisors in quality improvement: Define the type of training supervisors need in
order to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program. The supervisor, from
the board chairman down, is the key to achieving improvement goals. The supervisor gives the
individual employees their attitudes and work standards, whether in engineering, sales, computer
programming, or wherever.
Therefore, the supervisor must be given primary consideration when laying out the program. The
departmental representatives on the task team will be able to communicate much of the planning
and concepts to the supervisors, but individual classes are essential to make sure that they
properly understand and can implement the program.
9. Hold zero defects days: Create an event that will let all employees realize through personal
experience, that there has been a change. Zero Defects is a revelation to all involved that they are
embarking on a new way of corporate life. Working under this discipline requires personal
commitments and understanding. Therefore, it is necessary that all members of the company
participate in an experience that will make them aware of this change.
10. Encourage employees to create their own quality improvement goals: Turn pledges and
commitments into action by encouraging individuals to establish improvement goals for
themselves and their groups. About a week afterZero Defects day, individual supervisors should
ask their people what kind of goals they should set for themselves. Try to get two goals from
each area. These goals should be specific and measurable.
11. Encourage employee communication with management about obstacles to quality (Error-
Cause Removal): Give the individual employee a method of communicating to management the
situations that make it difficult for the employee to fulfill the pledge to improve. One of the most
difficult problems employees face is their inability to communicate problems to management.
Sometimes they just put up with problems because they do not consider them important enough
to bother the supervisor. Sometimes supervisors don’t listen anyway. Suggestion programs are
some help, but in a suggestion program the worker is required to know the problem and also
propose a solution. Error-cause removal (ECR) is set up on the basis that the worker need only
recognize the problem. When the worker has stated the problem, the proper department in the
plant can look into it. Studies of ECR programs show that over 90% of the items submitted are
acted upon, and fully 75% can be handled at the first level of supervision. The number of ECRs
that save money is extremely high, since the worker generates savings every time the job is done
better or quicker.
12. Recognise participants’ effort: Appreciate those who participate. People really don’t work for
money. They go to work for it, but once the salary has been established, their concern is
appreciation. Recognize their contribution publicly and noisily, but don’t demean them by
applying a price tag to everything.
13. Create quality councils: Bring together the professional quality people for planned
communication on a regular basis. It is vital for the professional quality people of an
organization to meet regularly just to share their problems, feelings, and experiences, with each
other. Primarily concerned with measurement and reporting, isolated even in the midst of many
fellow workers, it is easy for them to become influenced by the urgency of activity in their work
areas. Consistency of attitude and purpose is the essential personal characteristic of one who
evaluates another’s work. This is not only because of the importance of the work itself but
because those who submit work unconsciously draw a great deal of their performance standard
from the professional evaluator.
14. Do it all over again – quality improvement does not end: Emphasize that the quality
improvement program never ends. There is always a great sign of relief when goals are reached.
If care is not taken, the entire program will end at that moment. It is necessary to construct a new
quality improvement team, and to let them begin again and create their own communications.
From the above 14 points Philip Crosby communicated that management should take prime
responsibility for quality, and workers only follow their managers’ example. Crosby defined the
Four Absolutes of Quality Management:
- Quality is conformance to requirements
- Quality prevention is preferable to quality inspection
- Zero defects is the quality performance standard
- Quality is measured in monetary terms – the price of non-conformance
According to Crosby, five characteristics of an highly successful organisations are:
- People routinely do things right first time
- Change is anticipated and used to advantage
- Growth is consistent and profitable
- New products and services appear when needed
- Everyone is happy to work there
==================
III. Quality management tools
1. Check sheet
The check sheet is a form (document) used to collect data
in real time at the location where the data is generated.
The data it captures can be quantitative or qualitative.
When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is
sometimes called a tally sheet.
The defining characteristic of a check sheet is that data
are recorded by making marks ("checks") on it. A typical
check sheet is divided into regions, and marks made in
different regions have different significance. Data are
read by observing the location and number of marks on
the sheet.
Check sheets typically employ a heading that answers the
Five Ws:
 Who filled out the check sheet
 What was collected (what each check represents,
an identifying batch or lot number)
 Where the collection took place (facility, room,
apparatus)
 When the collection took place (hour, shift, day
of the week)
 Why the data were collected
2. Control chart
Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts
(after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior
charts, in statistical process control are tools used
to determine if a manufacturing or business
process is in a state of statistical control.
If analysis of the control chart indicates that the
process is currently under control (i.e., is stable,
with variation only coming from sources common
to the process), then no corrections or changes to
process control parameters are needed or desired.
In addition, data from the process can be used to
predict the future performance of the process. If
the chart indicates that the monitored process is
not in control, analysis of the chart can help
determine the sources of variation, as this will
result in degraded process performance.[1] A
process that is stable but operating outside of
desired (specification) limits (e.g., scrap rates
may be in statistical control but above desired
limits) needs to be improved through a deliberate
effort to understand the causes of current
performance and fundamentally improve the
process.
The control chart is one of the seven basic tools of
quality control.[3] Typically control charts are
used for time-series data, though they can be used
for data that have logical comparability (i.e. you
want to compare samples that were taken all at
the same time, or the performance of different
individuals), however the type of chart used to do
this requires consideration.
3. Pareto chart
A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type
of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where
individual values are represented in descending order
by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the
line.
The left vertical axis is the frequency of occurrence,
but it can alternatively represent cost or another
important unit of measure. The right vertical axis is
the cumulative percentage of the total number of
occurrences, total cost, or total of the particular unit of
measure. Because the reasons are in decreasing order,
the cumulative function is a concave function. To take
the example above, in order to lower the amount of
late arrivals by 78%, it is sufficient to solve the first
three issues.
The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the
most important among a (typically large) set of
factors. In quality control, it often represents the most
common sources of defects, the highest occurring type
of defect, or the most frequent reasons for customer
complaints, and so on. Wilkinson (2006) devised an
algorithm for producing statistically based acceptance
limits (similar to confidence intervals) for each bar in
the Pareto chart.
4. Scatter plot Method
A scatter plot, scatterplot, or scattergraph is a type of
mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to
display values for two variables for a set of data.
The data is displayed as a collection of points, each
having the value of one variable determining the position
on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable
determining the position on the vertical axis.[2] This kind
of plot is also called a scatter chart, scattergram, scatter
diagram,[3] or scatter graph.
A scatter plot is used when a variable exists that is under
the control of the experimenter. If a parameter exists that
is systematically incremented and/or decremented by the
other, it is called the control parameter or independent
variable and is customarily plotted along the horizontal
axis. The measured or dependent variable is customarily
plotted along the vertical axis. If no dependent variable
exists, either type of variable can be plotted on either axis
and a scatter plot will illustrate only the degree of
correlation (not causation) between two variables.
A scatter plot can suggest various kinds of correlations
between variables with a certain confidence interval. For
example, weight and height, weight would be on x axis
and height would be on the y axis. Correlations may be
positive (rising), negative (falling), or null (uncorrelated).
If the pattern of dots slopes from lower left to upper right,
it suggests a positive correlation between the variables
being studied. If the pattern of dots slopes from upper left
to lower right, it suggests a negative correlation. A line of
best fit (alternatively called 'trendline') can be drawn in
order to study the correlation between the variables. An
equation for the correlation between the variables can be
determined by established best-fit procedures. For a linear
correlation, the best-fit procedure is known as linear
regression and is guaranteed to generate a correct solution
in a finite time. No universal best-fit procedure is
guaranteed to generate a correct solution for arbitrary
relationships. A scatter plot is also very useful when we
wish to see how two comparable data sets agree with each
other. In this case, an identity line, i.e., a y=x line, or an
1:1 line, is often drawn as a reference. The more the two
data sets agree, the more the scatters tend to concentrate in
the vicinity of the identity line; if the two data sets are
numerically identical, the scatters fall on the identity line
exactly.
5.Ishikawa diagram
Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams,
herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, or
Fishikawa) are causal diagrams created by Kaoru
Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific
event.[1][2] Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are
product design and quality defect prevention, to identify
potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or
reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes
are usually grouped into major categories to identify these
sources of variation. The categories typically include
 People: Anyone involved with the process
 Methods: How the process is performed and the
specific requirements for doing it, such as policies,
procedures, rules, regulations and laws
 Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools, etc.
required to accomplish the job
 Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc.
used to produce the final product
 Measurements: Data generated from the process
that are used to evaluate its quality
 Environment: The conditions, such as location,
time, temperature, and culture in which the process
operates
6. Histogram method
A histogram is a graphical representation of the
distribution of data. It is an estimate of the probability
distribution of a continuous variable (quantitative
variable) and was first introduced by Karl Pearson.[1] To
construct a histogram, the first step is to "bin" the range of
values -- that is, divide the entire range of values into a
series of small intervals -- and then count how many
values fall into each interval. A rectangle is drawn with
height proportional to the count and width equal to the bin
size, so that rectangles abut each other. A histogram may
also be normalized displaying relative frequencies. It then
shows the proportion of cases that fall into each of several
categories, with the sum of the heights equaling 1. The
bins are usually specified as consecutive, non-overlapping
intervals of a variable. The bins (intervals) must be
adjacent, and usually equal size.[2] The rectangles of a
histogram are drawn so that they touch each other to
indicate that the original variable is continuous.[3]
III. Other topics related to Crosby quality management (pdf download)
quality management systems
quality management courses
quality management tools
iso 9001 quality management system
quality management process
quality management system example
quality system management
quality management techniques
quality management standards
quality management policy
quality management strategy
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Crosby quality management

  • 1. Crosby quality management In this file, you can ref useful information about crosby quality management such as crosby quality managementforms, tools for crosby quality management, crosby quality managementstrategies … If you need more assistant for crosby quality management, please leave your comment at the end of file. Other useful material for crosby quality management: • qualitymanagement123.com/23-free-ebooks-for-quality-management • qualitymanagement123.com/185-free-quality-management-forms • qualitymanagement123.com/free-98-ISO-9001-templates-and-forms • qualitymanagement123.com/top-84-quality-management-KPIs • qualitymanagement123.com/top-18-quality-management-job-descriptions • qualitymanagement123.com/86-quality-management-interview-questions-and-answers I. Contents of crosby quality management ================== Quality Guru Philip Crosby has developed 14 steps for an organization to follow in building an effectivequality program: 1. Management is committed to quality – and this is clear to all: Clarify where management stands on quality. It is necessary to consistently produce conforming products and services at the optimum price. The device to accomplish this is the use of defect prevention techniques in the operating departments: - Engineering - Manufacturing - Quality Control - Purchasing - Sales and others. 2. Create quality improvement teams – with representatives from all workgroups and functions: These teams run the quality improvement program. Since every function of an operation contributes to defect levels, every function must participate in the quality improvement effort. The degree of participation is best determined by the particular situation that exists. However, everyone has the opportunity to improve. 3. Measure processes to determine current and potential quality issues: Communicate current and potential nonconformance problems in a manner that permits objective evaluation and corrective action. Basic qualitymeasurement data is obtained from the inspection and test reports, which are broken down by operating areas of the plant. By comparing the rejection data with the input data, it is possible to know the rejection rates. Since most companies have such systems, it is not necessary to go into them in detail. It should be mentioned that unless this data is reported
  • 2. properly, it is useless. After all, their only purpose is to warn management of serious situations. They should be used to identify specific problems needing corrective action, and the quality department should report them. 4. Calculate the cost of (poor) quality: Define the ingredients of the COQ and explain its use as a management tool. 5. Raise quality awareness of all employees: Provide a method of raising the personal concern felt by all personnel in the company toward the conformance of the product or service and the quality reputation of the company. By the time a company is ready for the quality awareness step, they should have a good idea of the types and expense of the problems being faced. The quality measurement and COQ steps will have revealed them. 6. Take actions to correct quality issues: Provide a systematic method of permanently resolving the problems that are identified through previous action steps. Problems that are identified during the acceptance operation or by some other means must be documented and then resolved formally. 7. Monitor progress of quality improvement – establish a zero defects committee: Examine the various activities that must be conducted in preparation for formally launching the Zero Defects program - The quality improvementtask team should list all the individual action steps that build up to Zero Defects day in order to make the most meaningful presentation of the concept and action plan to personnel of the company. These steps, placed on a schedule and assigned to members of the team for execution, will provide a clean energy flow into an organization- wide Zero Defectscommitment. Since it is a natural step, it is not difficult, but because of the significance of it, management must make sure it is conducted properly. 8. Train supervisors in quality improvement: Define the type of training supervisors need in order to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program. The supervisor, from the board chairman down, is the key to achieving improvement goals. The supervisor gives the individual employees their attitudes and work standards, whether in engineering, sales, computer programming, or wherever. Therefore, the supervisor must be given primary consideration when laying out the program. The departmental representatives on the task team will be able to communicate much of the planning and concepts to the supervisors, but individual classes are essential to make sure that they properly understand and can implement the program. 9. Hold zero defects days: Create an event that will let all employees realize through personal experience, that there has been a change. Zero Defects is a revelation to all involved that they are embarking on a new way of corporate life. Working under this discipline requires personal commitments and understanding. Therefore, it is necessary that all members of the company participate in an experience that will make them aware of this change. 10. Encourage employees to create their own quality improvement goals: Turn pledges and commitments into action by encouraging individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups. About a week afterZero Defects day, individual supervisors should ask their people what kind of goals they should set for themselves. Try to get two goals from each area. These goals should be specific and measurable.
  • 3. 11. Encourage employee communication with management about obstacles to quality (Error- Cause Removal): Give the individual employee a method of communicating to management the situations that make it difficult for the employee to fulfill the pledge to improve. One of the most difficult problems employees face is their inability to communicate problems to management. Sometimes they just put up with problems because they do not consider them important enough to bother the supervisor. Sometimes supervisors don’t listen anyway. Suggestion programs are some help, but in a suggestion program the worker is required to know the problem and also propose a solution. Error-cause removal (ECR) is set up on the basis that the worker need only recognize the problem. When the worker has stated the problem, the proper department in the plant can look into it. Studies of ECR programs show that over 90% of the items submitted are acted upon, and fully 75% can be handled at the first level of supervision. The number of ECRs that save money is extremely high, since the worker generates savings every time the job is done better or quicker. 12. Recognise participants’ effort: Appreciate those who participate. People really don’t work for money. They go to work for it, but once the salary has been established, their concern is appreciation. Recognize their contribution publicly and noisily, but don’t demean them by applying a price tag to everything. 13. Create quality councils: Bring together the professional quality people for planned communication on a regular basis. It is vital for the professional quality people of an organization to meet regularly just to share their problems, feelings, and experiences, with each other. Primarily concerned with measurement and reporting, isolated even in the midst of many fellow workers, it is easy for them to become influenced by the urgency of activity in their work areas. Consistency of attitude and purpose is the essential personal characteristic of one who evaluates another’s work. This is not only because of the importance of the work itself but because those who submit work unconsciously draw a great deal of their performance standard from the professional evaluator. 14. Do it all over again – quality improvement does not end: Emphasize that the quality improvement program never ends. There is always a great sign of relief when goals are reached. If care is not taken, the entire program will end at that moment. It is necessary to construct a new quality improvement team, and to let them begin again and create their own communications. From the above 14 points Philip Crosby communicated that management should take prime responsibility for quality, and workers only follow their managers’ example. Crosby defined the Four Absolutes of Quality Management: - Quality is conformance to requirements - Quality prevention is preferable to quality inspection - Zero defects is the quality performance standard - Quality is measured in monetary terms – the price of non-conformance According to Crosby, five characteristics of an highly successful organisations are: - People routinely do things right first time - Change is anticipated and used to advantage - Growth is consistent and profitable - New products and services appear when needed - Everyone is happy to work there
  • 4. ================== III. Quality management tools 1. Check sheet The check sheet is a form (document) used to collect data in real time at the location where the data is generated. The data it captures can be quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet. The defining characteristic of a check sheet is that data are recorded by making marks ("checks") on it. A typical check sheet is divided into regions, and marks made in different regions have different significance. Data are read by observing the location and number of marks on the sheet. Check sheets typically employ a heading that answers the Five Ws:  Who filled out the check sheet  What was collected (what each check represents, an identifying batch or lot number)  Where the collection took place (facility, room, apparatus)  When the collection took place (hour, shift, day of the week)  Why the data were collected 2. Control chart
  • 5. Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts (after Walter A. Shewhart) or process-behavior charts, in statistical process control are tools used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control. If analysis of the control chart indicates that the process is currently under control (i.e., is stable, with variation only coming from sources common to the process), then no corrections or changes to process control parameters are needed or desired. In addition, data from the process can be used to predict the future performance of the process. If the chart indicates that the monitored process is not in control, analysis of the chart can help determine the sources of variation, as this will result in degraded process performance.[1] A process that is stable but operating outside of desired (specification) limits (e.g., scrap rates may be in statistical control but above desired limits) needs to be improved through a deliberate effort to understand the causes of current performance and fundamentally improve the process. The control chart is one of the seven basic tools of quality control.[3] Typically control charts are used for time-series data, though they can be used for data that have logical comparability (i.e. you want to compare samples that were taken all at the same time, or the performance of different individuals), however the type of chart used to do this requires consideration. 3. Pareto chart
  • 6. A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line. The left vertical axis is the frequency of occurrence, but it can alternatively represent cost or another important unit of measure. The right vertical axis is the cumulative percentage of the total number of occurrences, total cost, or total of the particular unit of measure. Because the reasons are in decreasing order, the cumulative function is a concave function. To take the example above, in order to lower the amount of late arrivals by 78%, it is sufficient to solve the first three issues. The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a (typically large) set of factors. In quality control, it often represents the most common sources of defects, the highest occurring type of defect, or the most frequent reasons for customer complaints, and so on. Wilkinson (2006) devised an algorithm for producing statistically based acceptance limits (similar to confidence intervals) for each bar in the Pareto chart. 4. Scatter plot Method A scatter plot, scatterplot, or scattergraph is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.[2] This kind of plot is also called a scatter chart, scattergram, scatter diagram,[3] or scatter graph. A scatter plot is used when a variable exists that is under the control of the experimenter. If a parameter exists that
  • 7. is systematically incremented and/or decremented by the other, it is called the control parameter or independent variable and is customarily plotted along the horizontal axis. The measured or dependent variable is customarily plotted along the vertical axis. If no dependent variable exists, either type of variable can be plotted on either axis and a scatter plot will illustrate only the degree of correlation (not causation) between two variables. A scatter plot can suggest various kinds of correlations between variables with a certain confidence interval. For example, weight and height, weight would be on x axis and height would be on the y axis. Correlations may be positive (rising), negative (falling), or null (uncorrelated). If the pattern of dots slopes from lower left to upper right, it suggests a positive correlation between the variables being studied. If the pattern of dots slopes from upper left to lower right, it suggests a negative correlation. A line of best fit (alternatively called 'trendline') can be drawn in order to study the correlation between the variables. An equation for the correlation between the variables can be determined by established best-fit procedures. For a linear correlation, the best-fit procedure is known as linear regression and is guaranteed to generate a correct solution in a finite time. No universal best-fit procedure is guaranteed to generate a correct solution for arbitrary relationships. A scatter plot is also very useful when we wish to see how two comparable data sets agree with each other. In this case, an identity line, i.e., a y=x line, or an 1:1 line, is often drawn as a reference. The more the two data sets agree, the more the scatters tend to concentrate in the vicinity of the identity line; if the two data sets are numerically identical, the scatters fall on the identity line exactly.
  • 8. 5.Ishikawa diagram Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams, herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, or Fishikawa) are causal diagrams created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1968) that show the causes of a specific event.[1][2] Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. The categories typically include  People: Anyone involved with the process  Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and laws  Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools, etc. required to accomplish the job  Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. used to produce the final product  Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality  Environment: The conditions, such as location, time, temperature, and culture in which the process operates 6. Histogram method
  • 9. A histogram is a graphical representation of the distribution of data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of a continuous variable (quantitative variable) and was first introduced by Karl Pearson.[1] To construct a histogram, the first step is to "bin" the range of values -- that is, divide the entire range of values into a series of small intervals -- and then count how many values fall into each interval. A rectangle is drawn with height proportional to the count and width equal to the bin size, so that rectangles abut each other. A histogram may also be normalized displaying relative frequencies. It then shows the proportion of cases that fall into each of several categories, with the sum of the heights equaling 1. The bins are usually specified as consecutive, non-overlapping intervals of a variable. The bins (intervals) must be adjacent, and usually equal size.[2] The rectangles of a histogram are drawn so that they touch each other to indicate that the original variable is continuous.[3] III. Other topics related to Crosby quality management (pdf download) quality management systems quality management courses quality management tools iso 9001 quality management system quality management process quality management system example quality system management quality management techniques quality management standards quality management policy quality management strategy quality management books