INTRODUCTION Quality Circle is a small group of employees in the same work-area or doing a similar types of works who voluntarily meet regularly for about an hour every week to identify, analyze and resolve works – related problems, leading to improvement in their total performance and enrichment of their work-life. The above definition reveals, the following features of Quality Circles :1. Small group of employees : Experience has shown that the optimum number of members in quality circles is about 8 to 10. The philosophy behind small groups is it should allow every member to actively participate and that fairly grade number ‗minimize of employees should be present for the meetings.2. In the same work-area or doing similar type of works : Quality circle is a homogeneous group and not the inter-departmental group. Designation of members need not necessarily be equal but the work in which they all are engaged should be common.3. Voluntarily: (Quality circle is not adopted practice but voluntary in nature. Employees join Quality Circles on their own.4. Meet regularly for about in hour every week : Normally, Quality Circles should meet for about an hour every weeks which would help the members to identify and resolve problems as and when they occur.5. To identify, analyze and resolve work-related problems : The accepted theory is Unit the worker/employees who do the works day after day better know the problems limiting the excellence. The problems are identified by the members themselves by brainstorming and also on the request from management and other departments. The problems are then arranged priority wise to tackle them in a systematic manner.6. Leading to improvement in their total performance: As the Quality Circle resolves the problem relating to quality, cost-reduction, safety etc. the total performance of the work-area goes up.7. Enrichment of their work-life: Quality Circle enriches the quality of work-life. It also helps employees change attitudes and learn team culture. The concept of Quality Circle is primarily based upon recognition of the value of the worker as a human being, as someone who willingly activises on his job, his wisdom, intelligence, experience, attitude and feelings. It is based upon the human resource management considered as one of the key factors in the improvement of product quality & productivity.
Quality Circle concept has three major attributes:a. Quality Circle is a form of participation management.b. Quality Circle is a human resource development technique.c. Quality Circle is a problem solving technique.Quality circle.. Its Composition?- It‘s a small group comprising of 6 to 12 employees doing similar work- They meet together voluntarily on a regular basis for identifying improvements in theirrespective work areas.- Their aim to achieve and so also to sustain excellence towards mutual upliftment of employeesas well as the organization.Undercurrent of Quality Circle:-The objectives of Quality Circles are multi-faced:a) Change in Attitude. - From ―I don‘t care‖ to ―I do care‖ - Continuous improvement in quality of work life through humanization of work.b) Self Development - Bring out ‗Hidden Potential‘ of people - People get to learn additional skills.c) Development of Team Spirit - Individual Vs Team – ―I could not do but we did it‖ - Eliminate inter departmental conflicts.d) Improved Organizational Culture - Positive working environment. - Total involvement of people at all levels. - Higher motivational level.
History of Quality CircleQuality circles were originally associated with Japanese management and manufacturingtechniques. The introduction of quality circles in Japan in the postwar years was inspired by thelectures of W. Edwards Deming (1900-1993), a statistician for the U.S. government. Demingbased his proposals on the experience of U.S. firms operating under wartime industrial standards.Noting that American management had typically given line managers and engineers about 85percent of the responsibility for quality control and line workers only about 15 percent, Demingargued that these shares should be reversed. He suggested redesigning production processes tomore fully account for quality control, and continuously educating all employees in a firm—fromthe top down—in quality control techniques and statistical control technologies. Quality circleswere the means by which this continuous education was to take place for production workers. Compete History of Evolution of Quality Circles1947: General Douglas McArthur requested US Govt to send experts to help Japaneserejuvenate their industries. Dr Edward Deming was sent.1949: An Overseas Technical Research Committee was organized by the Union of JapaneseScientists and Engineers (JUSE)1949: JUSE organized a seminar on ―SQC‖1949: JUSE organized a seminar ―Quality Control- Basic Course‖1950: JUSE published a magazine ―SQC‖1950: Dr Deming invited to eight day Quality Control seminar organized by JUSE1951: Deming prize instituted1954: Dr Joseph Juran invited to Quality Control Management seminar organized by JUSE1956: Japan‘s radio started broadcasting a Quality Control Course organized by JUSE
1960: Japanese Govt declared November as Quality Month and Q-flag was adoptedQuality Control Circles (Japan)1962: First QC Circle was registered with QC Circle Head Quarters1962: First annual QC Conference for Foremen was held1964: Regional chapters of QC Circles were organized in four different districts1966: Dr Juran observed Japanese QC Circle activities1966: Special QC Circle session was organized at the 10th conference of European Organizationfor Quality Control held in Stockholm, Sweden1967: Number of registered QC Circles grew to 100001968: JUSE dispatched the first QC Circle Study Team overseas1969: Registered Circles grew to 200001969: 100th QC Circle Conference was held in Tokyo1970: Registered Circles grew to 300001971: JUSE organized the first QC Circle seminar1971: 200th QC conference was held1971: Registered QC Circles grew to 400001971: First National QC Circle Conference was held in Tokyo
1972: Regional Circles grew to 500001973: 300th QC Circle Conference was held1974: Registered circles grew to 600001974: 400th QC Circle conference was held1975: Registered Circles grew to 70000. 500th Conference was held1977: Registered Circles grew to 80000. 700th Conference was held1978: Registered Circles grew to 900001978: First international QC Circle Convention was held1979: 800th QC Circle Conference was held1979: Registered QC Circle Conference numbered 1000001980: 900th Conference was held1981: International QC Circle Convention was held1985: Third International QC Circle Convention was held1988: More than one million Circles with over ten million membersQuality Circles (Other than Japan)1974: Lockheed Company, USA started Quality Circle movement1977: International Association of Quality Circles (IACC) was formed in USA1980: 230 companies in USA had Quality Circles
1983: There were more than 500,000 known Quality Circles active in the worldQuality Circles (India)1980: BHEL, Hyderabad first in India to start Quality Circles1982: Quality Circle Forum of India (QCFI) was founded1983: Tata Motors (formerly Telco) started Quality Circles, by 1985 they had more than 400Circles1985: BHEL had 1411 Circles covering around 13362 members Objectives of Quality Circles Promote job involvement Create problem solving capability Improve communication Promote leadership qualities Promote personal development Develop a greater awareness for cleanliness Develop greater awareness for safety Improve morale through closer identity of employee objectives Reduce errors. Enhance quality Inspire more effective team work Build an attitude of problem prevention Promote cost reduction Develop harmonious manager, supervisor and worker relationship Improve productivity Reduce downtime of machines and equipment Increase employee motivation
Formal and Informal GroupsFormal Groups Family. Organization. Departments.Informal Groups Employees meet near water cooler and gossip. Five salesmen from marketing department meet once a month for lunch to discuss mutual concerns and to seek relief from tedious aspects of their job. Four computer programmers form a jogging club that meets three days per week at lunch time to run two miles. All employees of a section meet and discuss how to improve and beautify office layouts. Seven workers of a production shop floor meet once a week to solve their technical problems. Maintenance department staff meets regularly to maintain machines in a better way.Other Names of Quality Circles Small Groups Action Circles Excellence Circles Human Resources Circles Productivity Circles
What Quality Circles are Not? (Misconcepts)Quality Circles do not tackle just quality problems.Quality Circle is not a substitute or replacement for task forces, product committees, jointplant councils or works committees, quality assurance department, suggestion schemes.Quality Circles do not change the existing organizational structure or the chain of command.Quality Circles are not a forum for grievances or a spring board for demands.Quality Circles are not a means for the management to unload all their problems.Quality Circles are not just another techniques.Quality Circles are not a panacea for all ills. Quality Circle MeetingsMeetings are important part of quality circles working.Meetings are attended by all the members of the quality circle.In general, meetings take place once a week or once in a fortnight.Each meeting lasts for approximately one hour, though variations are possible.Apart from the frequency of the meetings, what is important is the regularity of the meetings.
What Takes Place During Quality Circle Meetings?Any of the several activities may occur during a meeting such as: Identifying a theme or a problem to work on. Getting training as required to enable members to analyze problems. Analyzing problem(s). Preparing recommendations for implementing solution(s). Follow up of implementation of suggestions. Prepare for a presentation to the management.Areas of interest to quality circle Quality improvement. Efficiency improvement in service organization. Cost reduction. Process control during manufacturing. Safety in materials handling and equipment operations. Equipment and manpower utilization. Reduction in work in progress. Job improvement. Reduction in machine maintenance problems Reduction in human errors.
Why Quality CircleIt is said that 95% of the problems in workshops can be solved through Quality circle controltools. The Japanese have experienced this! The qualitycontrol tools useful for QCCs are ParetoDiagrams, Cause-and-EffectDiagrams, Stratification, Check Sheets, Histograms, ScatterDiagrams, Graphs and Control Charts. Also, logical thinking and experience are amust forsolving problems.Therefore the main objectives of QC are: To improve quality and productivity. To reduce the cost of products or services by waste reduction, safety, effective utilization of resources, avoiding unnecessary errors and defects. To identify and solve work-related problems and interfere with production as a team To tap the creative intelligence of people working in the org. and make full use of human resources. To improve communication within the organization. To improve employees loyalty and commitment to the organization and its goals. (Promoting Morale of employees) To build a happy, bright, meaningful work environment. To satisfy the human needs of recognition, achievement and self Development
Structure of Quality Circles ProgramSix Basic Elements1. Top management.2. Steering Committee3. Facilitators4. Leaders5. Members.6. Non members
Roles and Responsibilities of Various Elements Roles of top management The success of the quality circles depends solely on the attitude of the Top management and plays an important role to ensure the success of implementation of quality circles in the organization. Roles of Steering Committee (Management) Formally announce the launching of quality circle initiative in the organization. Provide full support and encouragement to quality circle movement in the organization. Provide leadership and guidance to develop the quality circle models, structure and policies. Design the opportunities for presentations by the quality circles. Facilitate the approval and implementation of the solutions presented by quality circles. Sanction the necessary monetary budgets for smooth working of quality circles. Provide the logistic support as needed (presentation venues, meeting rooms, time, finance, training facilities etc). Plan out and execute various training programs for the existing and prospective quality circle facilitators, leaders and members. Give due recognition to quality circles, their members and their work by way of prizes, felicitations and other means. Develop guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of quality circles and also the quality circle initiative as a whole. Review the performance and progress of quality circles periodically.
Roles of Facilitators Act as an effective link between the quality circles and the management. Coordinate the work of several quality circles through their respective leaders. Act as a resource person for the quality circles being facilitated. Arrange for obtaining necessary expertise from other agencies and quality circles. Keep the motivation and morale level of all the leaders and members at the highest level. Review the progress of each circle periodically and lead them appropriately. Continually update the knowledge and skills pertaining to the working of quality circles by studying the relevant literature and attending the training programs. Transfer the knowledge and skills to the leaders and the members. Arrange for additional training to the leaders and members as required. Arrange for necessary monetary budgets and keep the required records. Facilitate and guide the quality circle leaders and members to make the management presentations.Roles of Leaders Decide date and time of each quality circle meeting and inform to all the members. Ensure maximum attendance of all the members in the meetings. Conduct the meetings effectively. Motivate the members for their full participation in the proceedings of quality circle meetings and related activities.
Facilitate the members in data collection. Maintain the records of quality circles meetings and other related activities. Interact with other quality circle leaders. Interact with the quality circle facilitator frequently. Make presentations of solutions to the management. Involve the members in making the presentations. Seek management approvals of the solutions. Ensure implementation of the approved solutions with the active involvement of the members. Arrange first time training and later on, the refresher training of the members and self in the quality circles group process, tools and techniques.Roles of Members Focus on organizational objectives through the theme(s) selected for ones quality circle Theme/problem should be related to work. Do not bring in the personal issues or problems as the themes of quality circles; Demonstrate mutual respect. Take training in all the aspects of quality circles. Acquire the necessary skills in various quality circle tools and techniques.
Participate wholeheartedly in problem-solving process by giving ideas and views voluntarily and suggesting the solutions. Attend all the meetings of quality circle. When unavoidable to attend the meeting, seek prior permission of the quality circle leader. Participate in implementing the finalized solutions. How to implement quality circleFirstly, the management is informed about the quality control circle process that is beingplanned. A committee is formed, and key persons such as a coordinator in-house coach are selected. The scope is defined, and areas of application identified. First-line supervisors in the identified areas are given QCC presentations. It is important to make these impressive, and valuable tips on the subject are available. This is followed up with extensive training for coordinators and middle management on the process and their roles. Employees are invited to become members of a circle, and trained suitably once they sign up. Thus, a circle is formed and begins work. These may give rise to other circles. Problems are discussed and solved in a systematic manner in the QCCs. It is very important that solutions are implemented as quickly as possible, to maintain the momentum.Usually QCC programs must operate in all sections of the company i.e., in the offices, serviceoperations and manufacturing. But remember, while the size of the company is not important to aprograms success, the following factors certainly are: Voluntary participation. Management support. Employee empowerment. Training programs. Team work. Problem solving skills.
PDCA CYCLE How Do Quality Circles Operate?Appointment of a steering committee, facilitator and QC team leaders.Formation of QCs by nomination/voluntary enrolment of QC members.Training of all QC members (by an expert consultant).Training of non-participating employees (by an expert consultant).Problem data bank and identification of problems for QC work.QC problem resolution by QCs through standardized techniques.Presentation of QC solutions to management.Evaluation of award/recognition.
Stages of AdoptionThe quality circles programme has to be introduced very cautiously with care. So, that it canreceive the acceptability and appreciation of one and all. This program can be adopted in the following stages :-1. EVALUATION OF FEASIBILITY.2. GENERAL AWARENESS PROGRAMMES3. PLANNING AND ORGANISATION OF CIRCLES.4. ORIENTATION OF FACILITATORS AND LEADERS.5. ADOPTATION OF CIRCLES.6. MONITORING AND REVIEW OF ACTIVITIES EVALUATION OF FEASIBILITY A study of the organization is first necessary to understand its culture and general health, so as to determine the practical feasibility of introducing circles. It is advisable to call in an outside consultant or agency to carry out the evaluation in an unbiased manner. GENERAL AWARENESS PROGRAMMES Before circles can be started, people in the introducing this idea at all levels have to made aware about it. This awareness exercise may consist of informal discussions in suitable groups, talks to large gatherings, seminars, distribution of brochures and publicity literature on QCs, prepared in the local languages of workers , slide shows , video shows and films.
PLANNING AND ORGANISATION OF CIRCLESHaving created the necessary awareness amongst all personnel, the areas in which circles areto be immediately formed are decided and accordingly, leaders and facilitators are chosenand a steering committee is formed.It should be made explicitly clear that circles are not substitutes for the task, plant council orsuggestion scheme.They are voluntary not management inspired or management nominated.ORIENTATION OF FACILITATORS AND LEADERSIt is necessary to impart suitable guidelines to facilitators and instructions and training toleaders regarding the operation of circles.This can be arranged in groups either by the experienced and senior staff of the company orby an outside consultant.ADOPTION OF CIRCLESThe leader of the circles can informally discuss the probable points or problems to be takenup and prepare the agenda in advance. Efforts should be made to select and discuss suchproblems which can bring out the innovative ability and potential capacity of workers.All required help in the form of data, documents, reports, assistance for analytical study byother knowledgeable staff or training inputs from outside experts should be made available tocircles as per their requirementsMONITORING AND REVIEW OF ACTIVITIESThe suggestions and recommendations given by the QC from time to time, have to be studiedand appropriate actions taken for their speedy implementation.It has to be ensured that QC once started, function smoothly and perform well for whichcooperation from all concerned must be available.
Problem Solving Tools and Techniques Used by Quality CirclesGiven below are the most commonly used tools and techniques. These are called the old QCtools: Brainstorming. Pareto analysis. Cause and effect diagram (or fish bone diagram or Ishikawa diagram). Histogram. Scatter diagram Stratification Check sheet Control charts and graphsExplaination:Brainstorming:-Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which a group tries to find a solution for aspecific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.Brainstorming was developed and coined by Alex Faickney Osborn in 1953 through thebook Applied Imagination. In the book, Osborn not only proposed the brainstorming method butalso established effective rules for hosting brainstorming sessions.Brainstorming has become a popular group technique and has aroused attention in academia.Multiple studies have been conducted to test Osborn‘s postulation that brainstorming is moreeffective than individuals working alone in generating ideas. Some researchers have concludedthat the statement is false (brainstorming is not effective), while others uncovered flaws in theresearch and determined that the results are inconclusive. Furthermore, researchers have mademodifications or proposed variations of brainstorming in an attempt to improve the productivity
of brainstorming. However, there is no empirical evidence to indicate that any variation is moreeffective than the original technique.Nonetheless, brainstorming can be of great utility when the group accounts for, and works tominimize, the group processes that decrease its effectiveness.There are four basic rules in brainstorming (Osborn, 1963) intended to reduce social inhibitionsamong team members, stimulate idea generation, and increase overall creativity: o No criticism: Criticism of ideas are withheld during the brainstorming session as the purpose is on generating varied and unusual ideals and extending or adding to these ideas. Criticism is reserved for the evaluation stage of the the process. This allows the members to feel comfortable with the idea of generating unusual ideas. o Welcome unusual ideas: Unusual ideas are welcomed as it is normally easier to "tame down" than to "tame up" as new ways of thinking and looking at the world may provide better solutions. o Quantity Wanted: The greater the number of ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution. o Combine and improve ideas: Not only are a variety of ideals wanted, but also ways to combine ideas in order to make them better.
Pareto analysis:-Pareto analysis is a statistical technique in decision making that is used for selection of a limitednumber of tasks that produce significant overall effect. It uses the Pareto principle – the idea thatby doing 20% of work, 80% of the advantage of doing the entire job can be generated. Or interms of quality improvement, a large majority of problems (80%) are produced by a few keycauses (20%).Pareto analysis is a formal technique useful where many possible courses of action arecompeting for attention. In essence, the problem-solver estimates the benefit delivered by eachaction, then selects a number of the most effective actions that deliver a total benefit reasonablyclose to the maximal possible onePareto analysis is a creative way of looking at causes of problems because it helps stimulatethinking and organize thoughts. However, it can be limited by its exclusion of possibly importantproblems which may be small initially, but which grow with time. It should be combined withother analytical tools such as failure mode and effects analysis and fault tree analysis forexample.This technique helps to identify the top 20% of causes that need to be addressed to resolve the80% of the problems. Once the top 20% of the causes are identified, then tools like the Ishikawadiagram or Fish-bone Analysis can be used to identify the root causes of the problems.The application of the Pareto analysis in risk management allows management to focus on the20% of the risks that have the most impact on the project.
Steps to identify the important causes using Pareto analysis Step 1: Form an explicit table listing the causes and their frequency as a percentage. Step 2: Arrange the rows in the decreasing order of importance of the causes (i.e., the most important cause first) Step 3: Add a cumulative percentage column to the table Step 4: Plot with causes on x- and cumulative percentage on y-axis Step 5: Join the above points to form a curve Step 6: Plot (on the same graph) a bar graph with causes on x- and percent frequency on y- axis Step 7: Draw line at 80% on y-axis parallel to x-axis. Then drop the line at the point of intersection with the curve on x-axis. This point on the x-axis separates the important causes (on the left) and trivial causes (on the right) Step 8: Explicitly review the chart to ensure that at least 80% of the causes are captured
Ishikawa diagrams:Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams, or herringbone diagrams , cause-and-effectdiagrams, or Fishikawa) are causal diagrams that show the causes of a specific event -- createdby Kaoru Ishikawa (1990). Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design andquality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause orreason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categoriesto identify these sources of variation.The categories typically include: People: Anyone involved with the process Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and laws Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools etc. required to accomplish the job Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. used to produce the final product Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality Environment: The conditions, such as location, time, temperature, and culture in which the process operatesIshikawa diagrams were proposed by Kaoru Ishikawa in the 1960s, who pioneered qualitymanagement processes in the Kawasaki shipyards, and in the process became one of thefounding fathers of modern management.It was first used in the 1940s, and is considered one of the seven basic tools of quality control. Itis known as a fishbone diagram because of its shape, similar to the side view of a fish skeleton.
Cause and effect diagram (or fish bone diagram or Ishikawa diagram):-This diagram represents the relationship between some ―effect‖ and all the possible ―causes.‖ The major causes might be summarized under categories referred to as People, Methods, Materials, Procedures, Machinery, Environment, and/or Policies. However, a QC may use any major category that emerges or helps people think creatively. From this well-defined list of possible causes, the most likely are identified and selected for further analysis. When examining each cause, look for things that have changed, deviations from the norm or patterns. For each cause, ask, Why does it happen?‖ and list the responses as branches off the major causes. This way, a QC looks for causes that appear repeatedly, and reach a team consensus.
Histogram:When you need to discover and display the distribution of data by bar graphing the number ofunits in each category.A Histogram displays the distribution of measurement data, such as scores, size, time, ortemperature. This is critical since we know that all repeated events will produce results that varyover time. A Histogram reveals the amount of variation that any process has within it. Acceptable Bus Arrival Time 14 15 frequency 9 10 8 7 6 4 4 5 2 3 2 1 0 7:52 7:54 7:56 7:58 8:00 8:02 8:04 8:06 8:08 8:10 8:12 arrival time at school 60 data points (10 bus drivers logged their arrival time over 6 day period of time)Assuming that the perfect arrival time is 8:00 and the goal is to arrive within 5 minutes of thescheduled arrival time, attention needs to be paid to the causes of the later arrival times.Scatter Diagramm:A scatter plot or scattergraph is a type of mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates todisplay values for two variables for a set of data.The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determiningthe position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position onthe vertical axis. This kind of plot is also called a scatter chart, scattergram, scatterdiagram or scatter graph.
Purpose:When you need to display what happens to one variable when another variable changes inorder to test a theory that the two variables are related. It shows possible cause and effectrelationships. It cannot prove that one variable causes the other, but it does make it clearwhether a relationship exists and the strength of that relationship.The direction and ―tightness‖ of the cluster give a clue to the strength of the relationship betweenthe two variables. If you find the values being repeated, circle that point as many times asappropriate.
Stratification:A technique that separates data gathered from a variety of sources so that patterns can be seen(some lists replace "stratification" with "flowchart" or "run chart").‗Stratification‘ is a term used to characterize a structure of inequality where (a) individualsoccupy differentiated structural positions and (b) the positions are situated in layers (or strata)that are ranked hierarchically according to broadly recognized standards. The implied referenceto sedimentary layers from geology reflects the relative permanence of the posited structure andthe long history that is assumed to have generated it. Stratification researchers focus primarilyon the empirical study of(a) the sources of the rankings that generate the hierarchy of strata,(b) the mobility of individuals between strata, and(c) the mechanisms of integration that allow societies to cope with the existence of persistentinequalities between strata. The structural orientation of stratification scholarship can be contrasted with distributionalapproaches to the study of inequality that have dominated economics. Modelling the distributionof valued resources across individuals makes possible explanations of change in response toshort-run interventions and shocks from unforeseen exogenous events. For stratificationresearchers, short-run variation in inequality is considered to be noise that dissipates as socialinequalities are reproduced.Check sheet:-The check sheet is a simple document that is used for collecting data in real-time and at thelocation where the data is generated. The document is typically a blank form that is designed forthe quick, easy, and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be eitherquantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the checksheet is sometimescalled a tally sheet .A defining characteristic of a checksheet is that data is recorded by making marks ("checks") onit. A typical checksheet is divided into regions, and marks made in different regions havedifferent significance. Data is read by observing the location and number of marks on the sheet. 5Basic types of Check Sheets: Classification: A trait such as a defect or failure mode must be classified into a category. Location: The physical location of a trait is indicated on a picture of a part or item being evaluated.
Frequency: The presence or absence of a trait or combination of traits is indicated. Also number of occurrences of a trait on a part can be indicated. Measurement Scale: A measurement scale is divided into intervals, and measurements are indicated by checking an appropriate interval. Check List: The items to be performed for a task are listed so that, as each is accomplished, it can be indicated as having been completed.
Control charts:-Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts or process-behaviour charts, in statistical processcontrol are tools used to determine whether a manufacturing or business process is in a stateof statistical control.If analysis of the control chart indicates that the process is currently under control (i.e. is stable,with variation only coming from sources common to the process) then no corrections or changesto process control parameters are needed or desirable. In addition, data from the process can beused to predict the future performance of the process. If the chart indicates that the process beingmonitored is not in control, analysis of the chart can help determine the sources of variation,which can then be eliminated to bring the process back into control. A control chart is a specifickind of run chart that allows significant change to be differentiated from the natural variability ofthe process.The control chart can be seen as part of an objective and disciplined approach that enablescorrect decisions regarding control of the process, including whether to change process controlparameters. Process parameters should never be adjusted for a process that is in control, as thiswill result in degraded process performance. A process that is stable but operating outside ofdesired limits (e.g. scrap rates may be in statistical control but above desired limits) needs to beimproved through a deliberate effort to understand the causes of current performance andfundamentally improve the process.The control chart is one of the seven basic tools of quality control.Chart detailsA control chart consists of: Points representing a statistic (e.g., a mean, range, proportion) of measurements of a quality characteristic in samples taken from the process at different times [the data] The mean of this statistic using all the samples is calculated (e.g., the mean of the means, mean of the ranges, mean of the proportions) A center line is drawn at the value of the mean of the statistic The standard error (e.g., standard deviation/sqrt(n) for the mean) of the statistic is also calculated using all the samples Upper and lower control limits (sometimes called "natural process limits") that indicate the threshold at which the process output is considered statistically unlikely are drawn typically at 3 standard errors from the center line
The chart may have other optional features, including: Upper and lower warning limits, drawn as separate lines, typically two standard errors above and below the center line Division into zones, with the addition of rules governing frequencies of observations in each zone Annotation with events of interest, as determined by the Quality Engineer in charge of the processs quality The UCL is three standard deviations above the average and the LCL is three standard deviations below the average.GRAPH:In mathematics, a graph is an abstract representation of a set of objects where some pairs of theobjects are connected by links. The interconnected objects are represented by mathematicalabstractions called vertices, and the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called edges.Typically, a graph is depicted in diagrammatic form as a set of dots for the vertices, joined bylines or curves for the edges. Graphs are one of the objects of study in discrete mathematics.The edges may be directed (asymmetric) or undirected (symmetric). For example, if the verticesrepresent people at a party, and there is an edge between two people if they shake hands, thenthis is an undirected graph, because if person A shook hands with person B, then person B alsoshook hands with person A. On the other hand, if the vertices represent people at a party, andthere is an edge from person A to person B when person A knows of person B, then this graph is
directed, because knowing of someone is not necessarily a symmetric relation (that is, one personknowing of another person does not necessarily imply the reverse; for example, many fans mayknow of a celebrity, but the celebrity is unlikely to know of all their fans). This latter type ofgraph is called a directed graph and the edges are called directed edges or arcs.Vertices are also called nodes or points, and edges are also called lines. Graphs are the basicsubject studied by graph theory. The word "graph" was first used in this sense by J.J. Sylvester in1878.
New QC ToolsQuality circles started using additional seven tools as they started maturing. These are: 1. Relations diagram. 2. Affinity diagram. 3. Systematic diagram or Tree diagram. 4. Matrix diagram. 5. Matrix data analysis diagram. 6. PDPC (Process Decision Program Chart). 7. Arrow diagram.Explaination:Relations diagram.Relations Diagram (or Interrelationship Digraph)Relations Diagrams are drawn to show all thedifferent relationships between factors, areas, or processes. Why are they worthwhile? Becausethey make it easy to pick out the factors in a situation which are the ones which are driving manyof the other symptoms or factors. For example, a relations diagram of urban poverty might startout something like this:
Instead of one item following another in a logical sequence, each item is connected to manyother pieces, showing that they have an impact on each one. Once all the relevant connectionsbetween items have been drawn, the connections are counted. Those with the most connectionswill usually be the most important factors to focus on.While the relations diagram is one of the 7 New QC Tools described in the Japaneseclassic"Management for Quality Improvement", it is less frequently used than some of itsstablemates. However, in a fairly tangled situation, it is a powerful means of forcing a group tomap out the interactions between factors, and usually helps bring the most important issues intofocus.
To create a Relations Diagram: 1. Agree on the issue or question. 2. Add a symbol to the diagram for every element involved in the issue. 3. Compare each element to all others. Use an "influence" arrow to connect related elements. 4. The arrows should be drawn from the element that influences to the one influenced. 5. If two elements influence each other, the arrow should be drawn to reflect the stronger influence. 6. Count the arrows. 7. The elements with the most outgoing arrows will be root causes or drivers. 8. The ones with the most incoming arrows will be key outcomes or results.affinity diagram :-The affinity diagram is a business tool used to organize ideas and data. It is one of the SevenManagement and Planning Tools.The tool is commonly used within project management and allows large numbers of ideasstemming from brainstorming to be sorted into groups for review and analysis.The affinity diagram was devised by Jiro Kawakita in the 1960s and is sometimes referred toas the KJ Method.PROCESS: Record each idea on cards or notes Look for ideas that seem to be related Sort cards into groups until all cards have been used.Once the cards have been sorted into groups the team may sort large clusters into subgroups foreasier management and analysis. Once completed, the affinity diagram may be used to createa cause and effect diagram.Affinity diagrams can be used to: Draw out common themes from a large amount of information Discover previously unseen connections between various ideas or information Brainstorm root causes and solutions to a problem
Because many decision-making exercises begin with brainstorming, this is one of the mostcommon applications of affinity diagrams. After a brainstorming session there are usually pagesof ideas. These wont have been censored or edited in any way, many of them will be verysimilar, and many will also be closely related to others in a variety of ways. What an affinitydiagram does is start to group the ideas into themes.From the chaos of the randomly generated ideas comes an insight into the common threads thatlink groups of them together. From there the solution or best idea often emerges quite naturally.This is why affinity diagrams are so powerful and why the Japanese Union of Scientists andEngineers consider them one of the "seven management tools."Affinity diagrams are not the domain of brainstorming alone though. They can be used in anysituation where: The solution is not readily apparent You want to reach a consensus or decision and have a lot of variables to consider, concepts to discuss, ideas to connect, or opinions to incorporate There is a large volume of information to sort throughHere is a step-by-step guide to using affinity diagrams along with a simple example to show howthe process works.
Systematic diagram or Tree diagram:-The systematic diagram, also known as the tree diagram, maps out in increasing detail the pathsand tasks that must be accomplished to achieve a goal. It looks somewhat like an organizationalchart or a family tree.Steps for constructing the Systematic Diagram are: 1. Agree on the problem statement. 2. Team members brainstorm ideas that help them better understand the problem. Ask questions such as "What must happen to achieve?" and "What causes that?" 3. Each item should then be evaluated to see if it is something that you can take action on. You may code the ideas by placing a number or a symbol on each actionable item, a different symbol on ideas that require more information to determine if they are actionable or not, and yet a different symbol on those ideas that you cannot take action on. Look at these thoroughly prior to making them as not actionable. 4. Place the problem statement on the left side of the paper or other surface on which you will work. 5. Locate the cards that are most closely related to the problem to the immediate right of the problem statement. 6. Brainstorm for new ideas to explain the idea cards placed on the systematic diagram. As the team concurs with these new ideas they should be placed to the right of the idea to which they apply. 7. Continue to repeat steps 5 and 6 until there are sufficient ideas that, if all are accomplished, a solution to the problem will be reached.
Matrix diagram:- A Matrix diagram is a graphical tool that shows the connection or correlation between ideas or issues in the form of a table (matrix). A relationship is indicated at each intersection of rows and columns as present or absent. The matrix diagram shows the relationship between two, three or four groups of information. It also can give information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. It is a tool used for clarifying problems by ―Thinking Multi-dimensionally‖. It consists of a two- dimensional array to determine location and nature of problem. Tree diagram needs to be constructed before moving to Matrix diagram. The output (Means) of tree diagram are required to put in Y axis of Matrix and on X axis. Types of Matrix Diagram There are a number of different shapes of matrix for comparing more than the basic two lists. There are Six different shaped matrices possible: L, T, Y, X, C and roof-shaped, depending on how many groups must be compared.1. L-shaped matrix relates two groups of items to each other (or one group to itself).2. T-shaped matrix relates three groups of items: groups B and C are each related to A. Groups B and C are not related to each other.3. Y-shaped matrix relates three groups of items. Each group is related to the other two in a circular fashion.4. C-shaped matrix relates three groups of items all together simultaneously, in 3-D.5. X-shaped matrix relates four groups of items. Each group is related to two others in a circular fashion.6. Roof-shaped matrix relates one group of items to itself. It is usually used along with an L- or T- shaped matrix.
PDPC (Process Decision Program Chart):-The process decision program chart systematically identifies what might go wrong in a planunder development. Countermeasures are developed to prevent or offset those problems. Byusing PDPC, you can either revise the plan to avoid the problems or be ready with the bestresponse when a problem occurs.When to Use PDPC Before implementing a plan, especially when the plan is large and complex. When the plan must be completed on schedule. When the price of failure is high.PDPC Procedure 1. Obtain or develop a tree diagram of the proposed plan. This should be a high-level diagram showing the objective, a second level of main activities and a third level of broadly defined tasks to accomplish the main activities. 2. For each task on the third level, brainstorm what could go wrong. 3. Review all the potential problems and eliminate any that are improbable or whose consequences would be insignificant. Show the problems as a fourth level linked to the tasks. 4. For each potential problem, brainstorm possible countermeasures. These might be actions or changes to the plan that would prevent the problem, or actions that would remedy it once it occurred. Show the countermeasures as a fifth level, outlined in clouds or jagged lines. 5. Decide how practical each countermeasure is. Use criteria such as cost, time required, ease of implementation and effectiveness. Mark impractical countermeasures with an X and practical ones with an O.
ARROW DIAGRAM:-An arrow diagramming method (ADM) is a network diagramming technique in which activitiesare represented by arrows. It is used for scheduling activities in a project plan.The precedence relation between activities is represented by circles connecting to one or morearrows. The length of the arrow represents the duration of the relevant activity.Sometimes a "dummy task" is added, to represent a dependency between tasks, which does notrepresent any activity.
Essential requirements for the success of circlesSupport from the top management and cooperation from the middle management is anessential request for the success of circle. Half hearted support is not adequate.Management should be not expect immediate results and short term benefit from the circle.It should also be made clear that quality circle do not dilute the responsibilities or authorityof different function. They may only reduce their burden and make things easier.Circle should not be taken as forums for grievances or personal problems. Such problemsshould always be discouraged by the leaders. For this purpose , the agenda of meeting mustbe decided earlier. The members should accept the role of the leaders and appreciate thebasic purpose of the basic purpose of these circles. A reasonably good climate spirit of cooperation and feeling of confidence between theworkers and the management must exist. Workers should feel that improvement of thecompany‗s. Performance is not the responsibilities of the manager only but of workers alsoand they can play a vital role in this direction.Persons participating in the circle should be encouraged at appropriate times by themanagementTraining of leaders and circle members as of utmost important and this should be arrangedby the management in best possible way.
Benefits of QC Self development. Promotes leadership qualities among participants. Recognition. Achievement satisfaction. Promotes group/team working. Serves as cementing force between management/non-management groups. Promotes continuous improvement in products and services. Brings about a change in environment of more productivity, better quality, reduced costs, safety and corresponding rewards.The benefits of introducing a quality control circle program in the work place are many. Heightened quality awareness reveals faults in the system that might obstruct good practices. It improves the quality of your firm‘s products and services, thereby increasing the value of your brand, and securing your customers‘ confidence. The quality of customer relationship management can be further enhanced by using help desk software from the likes of prosoftware. The people who are part of the quality control circle will feel a sense of ownership for the project. Higher yields and lower rejection rates also result in enhanced job satisfaction for workers, which in turn drives them to contribute more. A quality control circle program also brings about improved two-way communication between the staff and the management. Finally, the financial benefits will certainly exceed the costs of implementing the program. A study revealed that some companies improved their savings ten fold!
Characteristics Quality circle1. Small group of employees – optimum of 8-10 members2. Members are from same work area or doing similar type of job3. Membership is voluntary4. Meet regularly for an hour every week5. They meet to identify, analyze, and resolve work related problems6. Resolve work related problems, leading improvement in their total performance.7. Quality circle enrich the work life of the employees.
Code of Conduct for QCsAttend all meetings and be on time.Listen to and show respect for the views of other members.Make others feel a part of the group.Criticize ideas, not persons.Help other members to participate more fully.Be open to and encourage the ideas of others.Every member is responsible for the team‘s progress.Maintain a friendly attitude.Strive for enthusiasm.The only stupid question is the one that is not asked.Look for merit in the ideas of others.Pay attention- avoid disruptive behavior.Avoid actions that delay progress.Carry out assignments on schedule.Give credit to those whom it is due.Thank those who give assistance.Do not suppress ideas- do express.Objectives and causes first, solutions next.
Give praise and honest appreciation when due. Ideas generated by the group should not be used as individual suggestions to suggestion Impact Of Quality Circle1. Improvement of human relations and workplace morale2. Promotion of work culture3. Enhancement of job interest4. Effective team work5. Reducing defects and improving quality6. Improvement of productivity7. Enhancing problem solving capacity8. Improving communication & interaction9. Catalyzing attitude change10. Promotion of personal & leadership development
Pitfalls And Problems In Quality Circle1. Lack of faith in and support to Quality Circle activities among management personnel2. Lack of interest or incompetence of leaders/facilitator3. Apathy, fear and misunderstanding among middle level executives4. Delay or non-implementation of Circle recommendations5. Irregularity of Quality Circle activities6. Non-application of simple techniques for problem solving7. Lack of or non-participation by some members in the Circle activities8. Circles running out of problems9. Antagonism of non-members towards Quality Circle operations10. Inadequate visibility of management support11. Complexity of problems taken up12. Non-maintenance of Quality Circle records13. Too much facilitation or too little14. Language difficulty in communication15. Communication gap between Circles and departmental head16. Change of management17. Confusing Quality Circle for another technique
18. Resistance from trade unions EXAMPLES OF QUALITY CIRCLE MOVEMENT IN INDIA1. BHEL -1980 –Mr.S.R.Udapa (GM Operations) 1st Indian to start quality circle2. Hero Honda motors ―Sunrise Quality circle‖3. Lucas TVS, Chennai ―honey bee quality circle‖4. Tata Refectories (located in orissa) ―Niharika quality circle‖ (saved Rs.4000 p.a)5. Kudhremukh –Iron Ore Plant (located in Karnataka) ―Soorthy Quality Circl6. XEROX one of the most well known firms in the world has benefitted from it.7. Xerox reduced waste production by 65000 tonnes annually-with the help of Quality Circles.8. United Airlines –one of the largest carriers in the USA Quality circles at UA helped tackle the issue of no-shows and sick leaves. Result: Sick leaves were down by 17% and UA could save 18.2 million dollars Some successful example of Quality Circle in Indian Industries: �Hero Honda Motors has promoted the ‗Sunrise Quality Circle‘and solve the problem of unsuccessful indicators supplied by a localmanufacturer. The indicators would always fail in the field ofoperation endangering the riders of Honda bikes and bringing downthe company‘s reputation. The Sunrise QC tackled the problem afteran investigation wherein the members found that the indicatorsfailed due to a gap in the contact points. A few changes in the angleof the piece concerned and use of foolproof tools led to saving Rs. 80,000 per year. It also helped in increasing customer satisfactionand improving the reputation of the company. �The TATA Refractories Limited Belpahar, Orissa, has promotedthe ‗ Niharika QC‘. The sweepers found that using brush fibrebristle was more effective in cleaning of oil spills in the maintenancedepartment where they worked Re- using of plastic brush fibresfrom Toyota Vacuum cleaner of the department enabled them tosave Rs. 4000 per annum besides leading to better housekeepingand safe working conditions.
Example of Quality Circle Programmes in India • BHEL-‘Navratna‘ PSU one of the largest PSU‘s in INDIA. • BHEL‘s Tiruchirapalli Plant : A large heavy engineering units manufacturing boiler‘s and an entire range of equipments required for a thermal power unit. • BHEL-pioneer in implementing QC‘s in INDIA. Introduced it in 1981. Introduced in 1984 at the Tiruchirapalli Plant. • BHEL -1980-Mr. S.R.Udapa (G.M.operations)1st Indian to start quality circle. OBJECTIVES: Achieve n sustain a reputation for quality at competitive prices in national and international market for entire product range . FUNCTIONS: 1. Preparations of QC manual 2. Preparations of quality plan for various products 3. Formation of annual quality implementations plan. Impact of Quality Circles in BHEL Cohesive team work and team spirit. Work itself is more enjoyable. Improvement in interpersonal and intergroup relations.
Improvement in the quality of workmanship within the work group. Greater and prompter response to suggestions given. Attitudinal changes. A greater sense of belonging to the group and the organization as a whole. Positive approach. Mutual trust.
ConclusionMost studies show that employee participation seems to have a positive effect on performanceand productivity and hence is here to stay. However, Wright (1995: p.180) argues that a trendemerged during the recession in 1990, suggesting a move away from participative policies backto the traditional management concerns of cost minimisation and ‗top-down‘ rationalisation.Wright questions whether the application of new post-Fordist technologies and workreorganisation within the Australian industry has resulted in a fundamental break with previousmanagement practice.The findings in this essay imply that today‘s workers and managers realise that there is no wayback once employee participation has been implemented. Employees are more educated todaythan only a few decades ago, and if organisations want to stay alive in an increasinglycompetitive global market, they will have to acknowledge the benefits of a motivated, efficient,co-operative, and productive workforce which increased employee involvement in decision-making activities will produce. Hence, although organisations can survive in the short-run,employee participation could be said to be a prerequisite for organisational performance andgrowth in the long-run. But productivity may not entail the implementation of participationprograms and schemes if these are not carried out thoughtfully in regard to external and internalfactors such as unions, organisational culture, work force willingness, etc. How employeeparticipation is best implemented will probably continue to perplex writers and managers, but itdefinitely is here to stay. Quality circle is implemented to all organisation where there is scope for group based solution of work related problems. Qc is aim to achieve the objectives basically through development of people , the most important asset of an organisation.
INDEXIntroHistoryObjectivesFormal and informal groupWhat quality circle are ntQuality circle meetingsAREA of interestY quality circleStructureHow to implementStages of adoptionTools and techniquesESSential reqirementsBenefitsCode of conduct