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Copyright, Patents, and Trademarks
What Creators and Users of Art
Need to Know ©
Created and Presented by:
Miriam Robeson, Attorney
May 22, 2024
Program Objectives
What is Copyright (and other Intellectual Property)?
How can I protect my creative works?
How do I properly use the creative works of others?
Basics of Intellectual Property
What is IP (Intellectual Property)?
o Patents – Invention
Invention that is useful, novel, and non-obvious
o Trademarks - Name
Identification of goods and services
o Copyright - Creative
Creative Expressions fixed in form
o Creative Commons – Deliberately making your
work available for use by others.
Patents - Trademarks – Copyright – Creative Commons
Patents
Patent – exclusive rights to an invention in
exchange for public disclosure
 Must be new, inventive, useful, industrially applicable
 Good for 20 years
 Three types of Patents:
 Utility (new process)
 Design (new, original)
 Plant (variety of plant)
Inventions and Processes
Not all Inventions are Patented
 TRADE SECRETS are valuable company information
that will never be patented.
 Remember – Patents are only good for 20
years. Trade Secrets may be kept forever.
 Famous examples of trade secrets include: Coca Cola
formula, Mrs. Fields Chocolate Chip Cookie recipe,
Listerine formula, WD-40 formula, Big Mac special sauce
recipe, Google search algorithm, Auto-Tune software code
 Patent Basic Info:
 https://www.uspto.gov/patents/basics/apply
 Attorney highly recommended
Trademarks
Trademarks (also Service Marks)
 Commercial methods to identify and distinguish goods and
services from competitors
Industry Identification
From: FastCoDesign.com
Fun Facts About Trademarks
Importance of Trademarks
 Protection of your BRAND
 Sad stories of Xerox and Kleenex “Dilution”
 Trademark Graveyard:
 Escalator, Trampoline, Dry Ice, Cube Steak, Kerosene, Yo-Yo, Corn
Flakes, Linoleum, Lanolin, Raisin Bran
 Value of your BRAND
 Name Recognition, product recognition, credibility
 Loss of income because of confusion or “dilution” of BRAND
 Trademark protection lasts forever (if not diluted)
Complicated Trademark Protection
 Trademark = Brand/ Service Mark = Source
 Trademark rights protect the MARK against confusingly
similar marks or abuse of the mark
 Trademark is ONLY the MARK (not the product, service or
person associated with the mark)
 You can sell hamburgers and not be McDonalds, but you cannot
use the to identify your product
 Every “protected” use must be protected
 Each style, manifestation, color scheme is a different
application
 Ridiculous Trademark Applications
 https://infographicjournal.com/the-biggest-pop-culture-
trademark-blunders/
Licensing Trademarks
 You can license the use of your trademark for a fee or for free – as
long as you have a written document which (1) restricts the use
and (2) reserves your rights.
 You must actively preserve your mark by going after unauthorized
use.
 “Cease and Desist” letter
 Failure to protect = loss of rights
 Protection by Internet Image search or hired “monitor”
 If you need to license your trademark, catch me offline.
Handout: Sample C&D Letter
Copyright
Protecting artist expression since 1783*
* In the United States – UK started in1710
Copyright
 Copyright protects “original work of authorship fixed in a
tangible medium of expression.”
 Ideas are not protected by copyright law
 Facts are not protected by copyright law
 Titles are not protected by copyright law
 Books, motion pictures, artwork, photographs, website pages,
computer code, marketing documents, choreography, music are
ALL protected (the expression of the idea or fact)
Copyright duration
 Public domain created before December 31,
1922
 However, there may be a NEW copyright rights created by
derivative work
 New arrangement of a hymn, new perspective of Mona Lisa
 For works created after 1978
 Individual: Life of creator + 70 years (Mickey Mouse)
 Mickey Mouse (Steamboat Willie) is now in the public domain!
 Work for hire: 95 years from publication or 120 years from
creation, whichever is shorter
Expansion of Copyright protection
From: Wikipedia “United States Copyright Law”
Copyright “Rights”
 Perform
 Reproduce
 Display
 Distribute copies
 Derivative works
 A new work created from the original work
 Enough of the original work remains to be recognizable
 Parts of a melody, section of a photograph, re-color of an image,
enlargement or reduction in size
 Having rights to ONE is not the rights to ALL
©
What is a Violation of Copyright?
 Something you do NOT own
o You claim as your own (sign your name, publish under
your brand)
o You change, but it is still recognizable as the original**
 ** This is where a lot of litigation happens
o You change the use, but it is still recognizable
 You use without permission or license from the
owner
 Regardless of whether you make money from it
Limitations on Copyright “Rights”
 Purchasers of copyright items can sell “those items”
 THAT Artwork
 THAT Compact Disk (Who has compact discs?)
 THAT Book
 Does not extend to copies, derivative works, or photographs
 What about MP3? MP4? What if you purchase and download music?
 Parodies/Satire (more later)
 Fair Use (more later)
 Reproduction for handicapped use
 Braille, audio, electronic
Copyright License
 Use with Permission does not mean unlimited use!
 Make sure you know what the “license” covers
 Purchase of an original artwork is not the purchase of the
copyright
 Purchase of an image does not grant right to alter or use the
image outside of purchased use
 Purchase of a Painting
 Does not mean image on website
 Does not mean image on note cards
 Does not mean image on brochure Handouts
Commercial Copyright License Agreement
Claiming copyright ownership
Irony: It is impossible to credit the original creator of this image, due to wide
publication on the internet, and lack of embedded documentation.
Handout: Sample C&D Letter
Soft Approach/Strong Approach
Copyright and Public Domain
Published (created) before December 31, 1922, or
 70 years after the death of the creator, or
Specifically placed in the public domain (freeware,
shareware, Creative Commons), or
Government works
However, new arrangements or versions of a public
domain work are copyrighted to the extent of the
arrangement or version
Public Domain - Free to use in any form
Public Domain Confusion
 How do you prove something is in the public domain?
 Proving a negative – just because you don’t find copyright
information, doesn’t mean it isn’t protected
 Happy Birthday Song – Federal class-action lawsuit
proved that the HBS is public domain.
 Warner/Chappell Music collected royalties for years
The complaint is 26 pages long
You can read it at:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/147645129/Happybirthday
Copyright and Fair Use
 “Fair Use” is an exception to copyright protection
 Examples:
 Excerpts for review or critique
 Parody and Satire
 News reporting
 Educational Use
 Balance test – how much is too much?
 Not relevant to Copyright
 Not a copyright issue
 Legally permitted
 Not “copyright-able”
Fair Use and “Not” Fair Use
Fair Use Four-Factor Test
 Generally Accepted as the test for “Fair use”
 Factor #1 – What is the Character of the Use?
 Factor #2 – What is the Nature of the Work Used?
 Factor #3 – How Much of the Work is Used?
 Factor #4 – What effect does this have on the market for the original?
Handout: Copyright and Fair Use for Educators
Fair Use? (We may never know)
Steve Simula reproduction of Hope Poster
Source: Wikipedia
Original photo by Mannie Garcia (?)
Shepard Fairey “Hope” Poster
Parodies and Satire
Copyright
 Trolls are predators on the internet who try to
extort $$ from you by claiming you are
violating someone’s copyright
 DO NOT Assume that they are correct – ask an
attorney!
Watch for Trolls! ©
What is Copyright-able
Cannot copyright
 Formulae
 Recipes
 Government works
 Titles (movies, books,
artwork)
 Chord progression
Can copyright
 Math Books
 Recipe Books
 Formatted Statute book
Only one thing is impossible for God:
to find any sense in any copyright law
on the planet.
~ Mark Twain’s Notebook, 1902-1903
Copyright and Music
 There are multiple rights involved with music
 Music
 Lyrics
 Sound Recording
 All are copyrighted and protected separately
 There are also statutory permitted uses of music
 Mechanical License
 Compulsory Mechanical License
 Requires that the recording does not change the “basic melody or
fundamental character”
 Is a copy of …. Not a derivative of… the original work
Handout: Sample Mechanical License Agreement
Copyright and Music
From: SASHAY Communications, by Joy Butler
Legal use of Copyright Material
 Obtain permission from the owner
 Use Public Domain works
 Public Domain by passage of time
 Public Domain by Government works
 Public Domain by design
 Create your own source materials
How to “Get Around” Copyright Law
Handout: Top 10 Copyright Myths
Work For Hire
 “Work For Hire” is owned by the hiring agent under three
conditions:
 (1) Meet “Commissioned Works” definition in the law:
 Contribution to a larger work, such as a magazine
 A part of a motion picture or audiovisual work
 A compilation of existing works
 Instructional texts or graphic works
 A translation of an existing work
 A test
 Answers for a test
 Supplementary works, such as a graph for a book
 An atlas
Handout: Sample Work for Hire Agreement
Work for Hire (continued)
 Work For Hire belongs entirely to hiring agent:
 (2) If the creator is an employee and the work was created on
company time or with company resources;
 (3) If the creator specifically relinquishes all rights prior to
commencement of work.
Copyright Protection
Copyright Protection
 Protected at Creation (fixed in form)
 Notice © + year + name
 Registration to recover costs and fees for claims
 www.copyright.gov/register for online registration
 $35 filing fee (online) $50-65 filing fee (hard copy)
 Failure to protect rights may mean you lose rights
 Fair Use – See handout
 [alt] 169 = ©
Protect Your Creations ©
Criminal Copyright and other IP Violations
 Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
 Federal Criminal Law
 Trademark Counterfeiting Act
 Counterfeit Labeling Act
 Criminal Copyright Infringement = Felony if:
 At least 10 copies
 Total retail value > $2,500
 Within 180 days
 3 years - $250,000 fine
 5 years – if done for commercial advantage or private financial gain
 Misdemeanor where value > $1,000 and “willful violation of rights for
commercial advantage or private financial gain”
“Grumpy Cat” was the #1 Meme for 2012
Memes are good examples of how difficult
it may be to (1) protect a copyright and
(2) correctly use a copyrighted work.
Releases – Use of private likeness
 Types of Releases
 Model Release
 Minor Release
 Property Release
 When do you need a release?
 If the subject is recognizable
 If the subject is used for commercial purposes
Handout: Sample Model Release
Releases – When Not Needed
 Public Places
 Images taken from the street of publicly visible property
 Public buildings (visible to the public, located in public)
 When is a release not needed?
 Educational purposes
 Editorial illustration
 Non-commercial purposes
Creative Commons
 Allowing defined types of licenses for your creative works –
and provides a guide for using the work of others
 Creativecommons.org
 FREE
 Types of Licenses:
Attribution – No Derivative – Non Commercial – Share alike
Handout: CC Info Flyer
So… What is this Presentation?
Resources
 US Patent & Trademark Office: https://www.uspto.gov/
 US PTO – Search Trademark Database:
o https://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/search?utm_campaign=cio-tess2-cf&utm_source=www-
redir&utm_medium=direct
 Indiana Trademark Registration: https://inbiz.in.gov/business-filings/trademarks
 What Musicians Should Know about Copyright:
o https://www.copyright.gov/engage/musicians/
 Interesting Facts About Trademarks (with links):
o https://www.findlaw.com/smallbusiness/intellectual-property/interesting-facts-about-
business-names-and-trademarks.html
 DesignRush: How Much Does Branding Cost?
o https://www.designrush.com/agency/logo-branding/trends/how-much-does-branding-cost
 For Fun: Trademark Blunders (Infographic)
o https://infographicjournal.com/the-biggest-pop-culture-trademark-blunders/
Intellectual Property - Summary
 Property Rights
 Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights
 Exception to Exclusive Rights
 Creative Commons, Public Domain, Fair Use
 Controlling Rights
 Licensing, Work for Hire
 A View from YouTube: TED Talk
 https://www.ted.com/talks/margaret_gould_stewart_how_youtube
_thinks_about_copyright/transcript
Handout: Top 10 Copyright Myths
Thank you for your attention!
Questions?
You can find this presentation
At blog.lawlatte.com
https://lawlatte.com/workshops/
You can find Miriam at:
Miriam@robeson-law.com

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Copyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to Know

  • 1. Copyright, Patents, and Trademarks What Creators and Users of Art Need to Know © Created and Presented by: Miriam Robeson, Attorney May 22, 2024
  • 2. Program Objectives What is Copyright (and other Intellectual Property)? How can I protect my creative works? How do I properly use the creative works of others?
  • 3. Basics of Intellectual Property What is IP (Intellectual Property)? o Patents – Invention Invention that is useful, novel, and non-obvious o Trademarks - Name Identification of goods and services o Copyright - Creative Creative Expressions fixed in form o Creative Commons – Deliberately making your work available for use by others. Patents - Trademarks – Copyright – Creative Commons
  • 4. Patents Patent – exclusive rights to an invention in exchange for public disclosure  Must be new, inventive, useful, industrially applicable  Good for 20 years  Three types of Patents:  Utility (new process)  Design (new, original)  Plant (variety of plant) Inventions and Processes
  • 5. Not all Inventions are Patented  TRADE SECRETS are valuable company information that will never be patented.  Remember – Patents are only good for 20 years. Trade Secrets may be kept forever.  Famous examples of trade secrets include: Coca Cola formula, Mrs. Fields Chocolate Chip Cookie recipe, Listerine formula, WD-40 formula, Big Mac special sauce recipe, Google search algorithm, Auto-Tune software code  Patent Basic Info:  https://www.uspto.gov/patents/basics/apply  Attorney highly recommended
  • 6. Trademarks Trademarks (also Service Marks)  Commercial methods to identify and distinguish goods and services from competitors Industry Identification
  • 8. Importance of Trademarks  Protection of your BRAND  Sad stories of Xerox and Kleenex “Dilution”  Trademark Graveyard:  Escalator, Trampoline, Dry Ice, Cube Steak, Kerosene, Yo-Yo, Corn Flakes, Linoleum, Lanolin, Raisin Bran  Value of your BRAND  Name Recognition, product recognition, credibility  Loss of income because of confusion or “dilution” of BRAND  Trademark protection lasts forever (if not diluted)
  • 9. Complicated Trademark Protection  Trademark = Brand/ Service Mark = Source  Trademark rights protect the MARK against confusingly similar marks or abuse of the mark  Trademark is ONLY the MARK (not the product, service or person associated with the mark)  You can sell hamburgers and not be McDonalds, but you cannot use the to identify your product  Every “protected” use must be protected  Each style, manifestation, color scheme is a different application  Ridiculous Trademark Applications  https://infographicjournal.com/the-biggest-pop-culture- trademark-blunders/
  • 10. Licensing Trademarks  You can license the use of your trademark for a fee or for free – as long as you have a written document which (1) restricts the use and (2) reserves your rights.  You must actively preserve your mark by going after unauthorized use.  “Cease and Desist” letter  Failure to protect = loss of rights  Protection by Internet Image search or hired “monitor”  If you need to license your trademark, catch me offline. Handout: Sample C&D Letter
  • 11. Copyright Protecting artist expression since 1783* * In the United States – UK started in1710
  • 12. Copyright  Copyright protects “original work of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression.”  Ideas are not protected by copyright law  Facts are not protected by copyright law  Titles are not protected by copyright law  Books, motion pictures, artwork, photographs, website pages, computer code, marketing documents, choreography, music are ALL protected (the expression of the idea or fact)
  • 13. Copyright duration  Public domain created before December 31, 1922  However, there may be a NEW copyright rights created by derivative work  New arrangement of a hymn, new perspective of Mona Lisa  For works created after 1978  Individual: Life of creator + 70 years (Mickey Mouse)  Mickey Mouse (Steamboat Willie) is now in the public domain!  Work for hire: 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation, whichever is shorter
  • 14. Expansion of Copyright protection From: Wikipedia “United States Copyright Law”
  • 15. Copyright “Rights”  Perform  Reproduce  Display  Distribute copies  Derivative works  A new work created from the original work  Enough of the original work remains to be recognizable  Parts of a melody, section of a photograph, re-color of an image, enlargement or reduction in size  Having rights to ONE is not the rights to ALL ©
  • 16. What is a Violation of Copyright?  Something you do NOT own o You claim as your own (sign your name, publish under your brand) o You change, but it is still recognizable as the original**  ** This is where a lot of litigation happens o You change the use, but it is still recognizable  You use without permission or license from the owner  Regardless of whether you make money from it
  • 17. Limitations on Copyright “Rights”  Purchasers of copyright items can sell “those items”  THAT Artwork  THAT Compact Disk (Who has compact discs?)  THAT Book  Does not extend to copies, derivative works, or photographs  What about MP3? MP4? What if you purchase and download music?  Parodies/Satire (more later)  Fair Use (more later)  Reproduction for handicapped use  Braille, audio, electronic
  • 18. Copyright License  Use with Permission does not mean unlimited use!  Make sure you know what the “license” covers  Purchase of an original artwork is not the purchase of the copyright  Purchase of an image does not grant right to alter or use the image outside of purchased use  Purchase of a Painting  Does not mean image on website  Does not mean image on note cards  Does not mean image on brochure Handouts Commercial Copyright License Agreement
  • 19. Claiming copyright ownership Irony: It is impossible to credit the original creator of this image, due to wide publication on the internet, and lack of embedded documentation. Handout: Sample C&D Letter Soft Approach/Strong Approach
  • 20. Copyright and Public Domain Published (created) before December 31, 1922, or  70 years after the death of the creator, or Specifically placed in the public domain (freeware, shareware, Creative Commons), or Government works However, new arrangements or versions of a public domain work are copyrighted to the extent of the arrangement or version Public Domain - Free to use in any form
  • 21. Public Domain Confusion  How do you prove something is in the public domain?  Proving a negative – just because you don’t find copyright information, doesn’t mean it isn’t protected  Happy Birthday Song – Federal class-action lawsuit proved that the HBS is public domain.  Warner/Chappell Music collected royalties for years The complaint is 26 pages long You can read it at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/147645129/Happybirthday
  • 22. Copyright and Fair Use  “Fair Use” is an exception to copyright protection  Examples:  Excerpts for review or critique  Parody and Satire  News reporting  Educational Use  Balance test – how much is too much?  Not relevant to Copyright  Not a copyright issue  Legally permitted  Not “copyright-able” Fair Use and “Not” Fair Use
  • 23. Fair Use Four-Factor Test  Generally Accepted as the test for “Fair use”  Factor #1 – What is the Character of the Use?  Factor #2 – What is the Nature of the Work Used?  Factor #3 – How Much of the Work is Used?  Factor #4 – What effect does this have on the market for the original? Handout: Copyright and Fair Use for Educators
  • 24. Fair Use? (We may never know) Steve Simula reproduction of Hope Poster Source: Wikipedia Original photo by Mannie Garcia (?) Shepard Fairey “Hope” Poster
  • 26. Copyright  Trolls are predators on the internet who try to extort $$ from you by claiming you are violating someone’s copyright  DO NOT Assume that they are correct – ask an attorney! Watch for Trolls! ©
  • 27. What is Copyright-able Cannot copyright  Formulae  Recipes  Government works  Titles (movies, books, artwork)  Chord progression Can copyright  Math Books  Recipe Books  Formatted Statute book Only one thing is impossible for God: to find any sense in any copyright law on the planet. ~ Mark Twain’s Notebook, 1902-1903
  • 28. Copyright and Music  There are multiple rights involved with music  Music  Lyrics  Sound Recording  All are copyrighted and protected separately  There are also statutory permitted uses of music  Mechanical License  Compulsory Mechanical License  Requires that the recording does not change the “basic melody or fundamental character”  Is a copy of …. Not a derivative of… the original work Handout: Sample Mechanical License Agreement
  • 29. Copyright and Music From: SASHAY Communications, by Joy Butler
  • 30. Legal use of Copyright Material  Obtain permission from the owner  Use Public Domain works  Public Domain by passage of time  Public Domain by Government works  Public Domain by design  Create your own source materials How to “Get Around” Copyright Law Handout: Top 10 Copyright Myths
  • 31. Work For Hire  “Work For Hire” is owned by the hiring agent under three conditions:  (1) Meet “Commissioned Works” definition in the law:  Contribution to a larger work, such as a magazine  A part of a motion picture or audiovisual work  A compilation of existing works  Instructional texts or graphic works  A translation of an existing work  A test  Answers for a test  Supplementary works, such as a graph for a book  An atlas Handout: Sample Work for Hire Agreement
  • 32. Work for Hire (continued)  Work For Hire belongs entirely to hiring agent:  (2) If the creator is an employee and the work was created on company time or with company resources;  (3) If the creator specifically relinquishes all rights prior to commencement of work.
  • 33. Copyright Protection Copyright Protection  Protected at Creation (fixed in form)  Notice © + year + name  Registration to recover costs and fees for claims  www.copyright.gov/register for online registration  $35 filing fee (online) $50-65 filing fee (hard copy)  Failure to protect rights may mean you lose rights  Fair Use – See handout  [alt] 169 = © Protect Your Creations ©
  • 34. Criminal Copyright and other IP Violations  Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)  Federal Criminal Law  Trademark Counterfeiting Act  Counterfeit Labeling Act  Criminal Copyright Infringement = Felony if:  At least 10 copies  Total retail value > $2,500  Within 180 days  3 years - $250,000 fine  5 years – if done for commercial advantage or private financial gain  Misdemeanor where value > $1,000 and “willful violation of rights for commercial advantage or private financial gain”
  • 35. “Grumpy Cat” was the #1 Meme for 2012 Memes are good examples of how difficult it may be to (1) protect a copyright and (2) correctly use a copyrighted work.
  • 36. Releases – Use of private likeness  Types of Releases  Model Release  Minor Release  Property Release  When do you need a release?  If the subject is recognizable  If the subject is used for commercial purposes Handout: Sample Model Release
  • 37. Releases – When Not Needed  Public Places  Images taken from the street of publicly visible property  Public buildings (visible to the public, located in public)  When is a release not needed?  Educational purposes  Editorial illustration  Non-commercial purposes
  • 38. Creative Commons  Allowing defined types of licenses for your creative works – and provides a guide for using the work of others  Creativecommons.org  FREE  Types of Licenses: Attribution – No Derivative – Non Commercial – Share alike Handout: CC Info Flyer
  • 39.
  • 40. So… What is this Presentation?
  • 41. Resources  US Patent & Trademark Office: https://www.uspto.gov/  US PTO – Search Trademark Database: o https://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/search?utm_campaign=cio-tess2-cf&utm_source=www- redir&utm_medium=direct  Indiana Trademark Registration: https://inbiz.in.gov/business-filings/trademarks  What Musicians Should Know about Copyright: o https://www.copyright.gov/engage/musicians/  Interesting Facts About Trademarks (with links): o https://www.findlaw.com/smallbusiness/intellectual-property/interesting-facts-about- business-names-and-trademarks.html  DesignRush: How Much Does Branding Cost? o https://www.designrush.com/agency/logo-branding/trends/how-much-does-branding-cost  For Fun: Trademark Blunders (Infographic) o https://infographicjournal.com/the-biggest-pop-culture-trademark-blunders/
  • 42. Intellectual Property - Summary  Property Rights  Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights  Exception to Exclusive Rights  Creative Commons, Public Domain, Fair Use  Controlling Rights  Licensing, Work for Hire  A View from YouTube: TED Talk  https://www.ted.com/talks/margaret_gould_stewart_how_youtube _thinks_about_copyright/transcript Handout: Top 10 Copyright Myths
  • 43. Thank you for your attention! Questions? You can find this presentation At blog.lawlatte.com https://lawlatte.com/workshops/ You can find Miriam at: Miriam@robeson-law.com

Editor's Notes

  1. PATENTS require public disclosure of the item to be patented; sometimes it is more valuable to not obtain a patent, but to closely guard the formula, instead
  2. A quick google search reveals all sorts of companies that can help you with your trademark application.  If you have a brand you want to protect, be sure you work with a reputable company.