SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 5
Download to read offline
Article Citation:
Aysel Sivaci
Comparison of some physiological parameters in leaves and stems of wild and
cultivated almonds growing in Adiyaman Province/Turkey
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226
Comparison of some physiological parameters in leaves and stems of wild
and cultivated almonds growing in Adiyaman Province/Turkey
Keywords:
Almonds, carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigments, phenolics.
222-226 | JRPS | 2013 | Vol 2 | No 2
This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/
licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and
reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
www.plantsciences.info
Journal of Research in
Plant Sciences
An International Scientific
Research Journal
Authors:
Aysel Sivaci
Institution:
Department of Biology,
Art and Science Faculty,
Adiyaman University,
Adiyaman, Turkey.
Corresponding author:
Aysel Sivaci
Email Id:
Web Address:
http://plantsciences.info/
documents/PS0063.pdf. Dates:
Received: 20 Sep 2013 Accepted: 04 Oct 2013 Published: 11 Oct 2013
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences An International Scientific Research Journal
Original Research
JournalofResearchinPlantSciences
ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this study was to determine total pigment contents
(chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), phenolic compounds and carbohydrate
contents in leaves and stem of wild and cultivated almonds growing in the Adıyaman
Province. Levels of chlorophyll a in leaves and stems of wild almond were found to be
higher than cultivated almond. Chlorophyll b was determined to be at approximate
levels for both almonds. While carotenoid levels in leaves of wild almond were higher
than cultivated one, it was higher in stems of cultivated almond as well. Total
phenolics in leaves and stems of wild almond were higher compared to cultivated
almond. Total carbohydrate contents were higher in leaves and stems of cultivated
almond in comparison with the wild almond.
INTRODUCTION
Almond is cultivated for both commercial and
domestic consumption in temperate and sub-tropic zones
of the world (Yada et al., 2011). Almond belongs to the
family Rosaceae is cultivated all around the world.
Almonds are grown in every region owing to different
ecological conditions of Turkey (Ercisli, 2004).
Numerous studies reported that fruit yield, morphology,
and some physiological parameters in plants change
according to species (Baninasab and Rahemi, 2007;
Barreira et al., 2008; Abaspour et al., 2012). Chemical
content of almond kernel depends on cultivar, ecological
conditions and different ripening harvest (Soler
et al., 1988; Aslantas et al., 2001).
Climate changes experienced in recent years will
restrict the production of plants in the world. Thus, it is
significant to determine plant species resistant to harsh
conditions. For this purpose, it was aimed to compare
some physiological parameters, which are significant in
growth and development, in resistance of wild and
cultivated almonds growing under the same ecological
circumstances. This study determined pigments
(chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), total
carbohydrates, and phenolics in leaves and stems of wild
and cultivated almonds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant materials
Samples were collected from stems and leaves of
wild and cultivar almonds grown in Lokman village of
Adiyaman (37° 42' 15'' N, 38°19' 11'' E, 1920 feet) in
2011-2012.
Determination the pigments
Samples were extracted according to the method
of De Kok and Graham (1989). The absorbance values of
the samples were measured at 662, 645 and 470 nm and
calculated according to the method described by
Lichtenthaler and Wellburn (1983). All analyses were
made in triplicate.
Determination of total carbohydrate contents
Soluble sugar analysis
Leaf and stem samples of wild and cultivar
almonds were extracted according to McCready et al.,
(1950). The amount of samples were determined
depending on standard glucose equivalence by reading
their absorbance at 625 nm (Ebell, 1969).
Starch analysis
Starch was extracted according to McCready
et al., (1950) and determined depending on standard
glucose equivalent by reading their absorbance in
630 nm. Starch amounts were calculated by multiplying
the values found in glucose equivalent with 0.92
(McCready et al., 1950). All analyses were made in
triplicate.
Determination of total phenolic compounds
Leaf and stem samples were homogenized in
2.5 ml ethanol and shaken in water bath at 25°C for
24 h. Homogenized samples were filtered. 1 ml ethanol,
5 ml distilled water and 1 ml Folin-Ciocalteu reagent
were added to 1 ml of the filtered samples and shaken
well. After three minutes, 3 ml of Na2CO3 (2%, w/v) was
added and shaken in a dark medium at intervals for
two hours. Absorbance values were measured at 760 nm
for phenolic compounds and amounts were determined
according to standard gallic acid equivalence (Slinkard
Sivaci, 2013
223 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226
Pigments Chl a (mg g-1
FW) Chl b (mg g-1
FW) Carotenoids (mg g-1
FW)
Wild almond 2.16 ± 0.27a
0.26 ± 0.05b
0.46 ± 0.01a
Cultivated almond 0.99 ± 0.17b
0.29 ± 0.00a
0.34 ± 0.05b
Table 1. Photosynthetic pigment contents in leaves of cultivated and wild almonds (mg g-1
FW; Fresh weight)
(It was found that the values shown with different letters are important in terms of statistics (p <0.05),
Chl a; Chlorophyll a, Chl b; Chlorophyll b
and Singleton, 1977; Chandler and Dodds, 1983). All
analyses were made in triplicate.
Statistical Analysis
All analyses in this study were performed in
three replicates. SPSS version 15.0 was used for
statistical analyses. To determine the differences between
the means student t-test with a 95% confidence was used.
In the analyses, differences with p <0.05 were considered
to be significant.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Change of pigments in leaf and stem
It was found that levels of Chl a in leaves of
cultivated and wild almonds were different from each
other (p<0.05). Levels of Chl b were close to each other,
as well. While Chl a in wild almond leaves was
2.16 mg g-1
, it was 0.99 mg g-1
in cultivated almonds.
Levels of Chl b were 0.26 mg g-1
in wild almond and
0.29 mg g-1
in cultivated almonds. It was found that
carotenoid levels in wild almond was higher compared to
cultivated ones (p<0.05) (Table 1). Levels of Chl a in
stems of cultivated and wild almonds showed differences
(p<0.05) (Table 2). Chl a was 1.00 mg g-1
in stems of
wild almond and 0.13 mg g-1
in stems of cultivated
almond. Levels of Chl b in both almonds were close to
each other as well (p>0.05). It was determined as
0.06 mg g-1
in wild almond, and 0.06 mg g-1
in cultivated
almond. Carotenoid levels in wild almond were lower
compared to cultivated ones (p>0.05) (Table 2). Pigment
amounts of plants vary based on species, environment,
and age of leaf (Kramer and Kozlowski, 1979). In their
study, Camposeo et al., (2005) determined that there
were significant differences between wild and cultivated
almonds in terms of leaf area, stoma density and size. It
was found that pigments (Chl a, Chl b, and carotenoids)
had differences in wild and cultivated almonds in this
study as well (Tables 1 and 2). The fact that there were
different pigment levels for both almonds may be an
indicator for different photosynthesis rates.
Change of total carbohydrates in leaf and stem
Carbohydrate levels were determined to be lower
in leaves and stems of wild almond compared to
cultivated almond (p<0.05) (Tables 3 and 4). It was
67.04 mg g- 1
in leaves of wild almond, and 84.42 mg g-1
in leaves of cultivated almond (Table 3). It was
determined as 40.69 mg g-1
in stems of wild almond, and
56.74 mg g-1
in stems of cultivated almond (Table 4).
Soluble sugars and starch had differences in leaves and
stems of wild and cultivated almonds (p<0.05) (Tables 3
and 4). In another study, Sivaci (2006) determined that
Sivaci, 2013
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226 224
Pigments Chl a (mg g-1
FW) Chl b (mg g-1
FW) Carotenoids (mg g-1
FW)
Wild almond 1.00 ± 0.01a
0.06 ± 0.00a
0.09 ± 0.00a
Cultivated almond 0.13 ± 0.00b
0.06 ± 0.00a
0.08 ± 0.01a
Table 2. Photosynthetic pigment contents in stems of cultivated and wild almonds (mg g-1
FW; Fresh weight) (It
was found that the values shown with different letters are important in terms of statistics (p <0.05), Chl a;
Chlorophyll a, Chl b; Chlorophyll b
Phenolics (µg mg-1
FW) Carbohydrates (mg g-1
DW)
Soluble sugars
(mg g-1
DW)
Starch (mg g-1
DW)
Wild almond 6.07 ± 0.30a
67.04 ± 09.73b
64.63 ± 09.51b
2.41 ± 0.36b
Cultivated
almond
1.60 ± 0.20b
84.42 ± 18.72a
80.93 ± 18.55a
3.48 ± 0.38a
Table 3. Total phenolics and carbohydrates in leaves of cultivated and wild almonds (FW; Fresh weight, DW; Dry
weight) (It was found that the values shown with different letters are important in terms of statistics (p <0.05).
total carbohydrates in apple varieties changed based on
season and varieties. Carbohydrate contents affecting the
plant growth and fruit yield showed differences in wild
and cultivated almonds (Tables 3 and 4). Saura-Calixto
et al., (1980) found out that sugar contents showed
differences depending on varieties in the study conducted
on sweet almond varieties.
Change of total phenolics in leaf and stem
Phenolic compounds were determined to be
different in both almonds. They were 6.07 µg mg-1
in
leaves of wild almond, and 1.60 µg mg-1
in leaves of
cultivated almond (p<0.05) (Table 3). Phenolic
compounds were 1.97 µg mg-1
in stems of wild almond,
and 1.38 µg mg-1
in those of cultivated one (p<0.05)
(Table 4). Plants are natural antioxidant resources. These
antioxidants are caratenoids, vitamins, phenols,
flavonoids, glutathione, and endogenous metabolites
(Larson, 1988). Esfahlan and Jamei (2012) determined
that flavonoid, phenolics, and antioxidant activities in
fruits of ten wild almond species changed according to
almond species. It was found out that phenolic
compounds in almonds showed differences in leaves and
stems in this study like above-mentioned study. Phenolic
compounds in leaves and stems of wild almond were
higher compared to cultivated almond (Tables 3 and 4).
CONCLUSION
It was found that total pigments (chlorophyll a,
chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), phenolic compounds and
carbohydrate contents in leaves and stem of wild and
cultivated almonds exhibited differences. The highest
total phenolic compounds were found in the leaves and
stem of wild almond. Carbohydrate contents in the leaves
and stem of cultivated almond were higher than wild
almond. Wild almond may be more resistant than
cultivated almond but carbohydrate contents of wild
almond may be insufficient.
REFERENCES
Abaspour M, Imani A and Hassanlo T. 2012. Effects
of almond genotype and growing location on oil
percentage and fatty acid. Journal of Nuts. 3(3): 5-12.
Aslantas R, Güleryüz M, Turan M. 2001. Some
chemical contents of selected almond (Prunusamygdalus
Batsch ) types. In: Ak B.E. (ed.). XI GrempaSeminar on
Pistachiosand Almonds. Zaragoza : CIHEAM. Cahiers
Options Méditerranéennes; 56: 347 -350.
Baninasab B and Rahemi M. 2007. Evaluation of three
wild species of almond on the basis of their
morphological characters. Journal Central European
Agriculture.7(4): 619-626.
Barreira JCM, Ferreira ICFR, Oliveira MBPP and
Pereira JA. 2008. Antioxidantactivity and bioactive
compounds of ten Portuguese regional and commercial
almond cultivars. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(6):
2230-2235.
Camposeo S, Godini A and Palasciano M. 2005.
Stomatal size andfrequency in wild (A. webbii)
andcultivated (A.communis) almonds. In: Oliveira M.M.
(ed.) Cordeiro V. (ed.) .XIII GREMPA Meeting on
Almonds and Pistachios Zaragoza: CIHEAM Options
Méditerranéennes : Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens;
63: 305- 310.
Sivaci, 2013
225 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226
Phenolics (µg mg-1
FW) Carbohydrates (mg g-1
DW) Soluble sugars (mg g-1
DW) Starch (mg g-1
DW)
Wild almond 1.97 ± 0.26a
40.69 ± 0.87b
40.56 ± 0.85b
0.12 ± 0.01b
Cultivated almond 1.38 ± 0.27b
56.74 ± 8.62a
56.20 ± 8.70a
0.53 ± 0.09a
Table 4. Total phenolics and carbohydrates in stems of cultivated and wild almonds (FW; Fresh weight, DW; Dry
weight) (It was found that the values shown with different letters are important in terms of statistics (p < 0.05).
Chandler SF and Dodds JH. 1983. The effect of
phosphate, nitrogen and sucrose on the production of
phenolics and solasodine in calluscultures of
Solanumlaciniatum. Plant Cell Rep., 2(4):205–208.
De Kok LJ and Graham M. 1989. Levels of pigments,
soluble proteins, amino acids and sulfhydryl compounds
in foliar tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana during dark-
induced and natural senescence. Plant Physiol Biochem.,
27: 203-209.
Ebell LF. 1969. Variation in total soluble sugars of
conifer tissues with method of analysis. Phytochemistry.
8(1): 227-233.
Ercisli S. 2004. A short review of the fruit germ
plasmres ources of Turkey. Gen Res Crop Evol., 51
(4):419-435.
Esfahlan AJ and Jamei R. 2012. Properties of
biological activity of ten wild almond (Prunus
amygdalus L.) species.Turk J Biol., 36(2): 201-209.
Kramer PJ and Kozlowski TT. 1979. Physiology of
WoodyPlants. AcademicPress, London. 811.
Larson RA. 1988. The antioxidants of higher plants.
Phytochemistry.27(4): 969-978.
Lichtenthaler HK and Wellburn AR. 1983.
Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a
and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Bio chem Soc
Trans., 11(5): 591-592.
McCready RM, Guggolz J, Silviera V and Owens HS.
1950. Determination of starchandamylose in vegetables.
Analytic. Chemistry. 22(9): 1156-1158.
Saura-Calixto F, Canellas JandBauza M. 1980.
Remove from marked records soluble carbohydrates in
varieties of the sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus).
Anales de Bromatologia. 32(3): 263-270.
Sivaci A. 2006. Seasonal changes of total carbohydrate
contents in three varieties of apple (Malussylvestris
Miller) stem cuttings. Scientia Horticulturae.109(3):234-
237.
Slinkard K and Singleton VL. 1977. Total
phenolanalysis: automation and comparison with manual
methods. Am J Enol Viticult. 28(1): 49–55.
Soler L, Canellas J and Saura-Calixto F. 1988.
Oilcontent and fatty acid composition of develop in
galmond seeds. J. Agr. Food Chem., 36(4): 695-697.
Yada S, Lapsley K and Huang GA. 2011. A review of
composition studies of cultivated almonds: Macro
nutrients and micro nutrients. Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis. 24(4-5): 469-480.
Sivaci, 2013
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226 226
Submit your articles online at www.plantsciences.info
Advantages
Easy online submission
Complete Peer review
Affordable Charges
Quick processing
Extensive indexing
You retain your copyright
submit@plantsciences.info
www.plantsciences.info/Submit.php.

More Related Content

What's hot

Ecological environment effects on germination and seedling morphology in Park...
Ecological environment effects on germination and seedling morphology in Park...Ecological environment effects on germination and seedling morphology in Park...
Ecological environment effects on germination and seedling morphology in Park...
AI Publications
 
The evaluation of the effect of Sida acuta leaf extract on the microanatomy a...
The evaluation of the effect of Sida acuta leaf extract on the microanatomy a...The evaluation of the effect of Sida acuta leaf extract on the microanatomy a...
The evaluation of the effect of Sida acuta leaf extract on the microanatomy a...
IOSR Journals
 
PHYTO-NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF BROOM WEED (SIDA ACUTA) LEAF EXTRACT
PHYTO-NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF BROOM WEED (SIDA ACUTA) LEAF EXTRACTPHYTO-NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF BROOM WEED (SIDA ACUTA) LEAF EXTRACT
PHYTO-NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF BROOM WEED (SIDA ACUTA) LEAF EXTRACT
SubmissionResearchpa
 
Antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts of african mistletoes (loranthus ...
Antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts of african mistletoes (loranthus ...Antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts of african mistletoes (loranthus ...
Antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts of african mistletoes (loranthus ...
Alexander Decker
 
42.Mosquitoeslarvicidal activity of leaf extract of Neem(Azadirachta indica)
42.Mosquitoeslarvicidal activity of leaf extract of Neem(Azadirachta indica)42.Mosquitoeslarvicidal activity of leaf extract of Neem(Azadirachta indica)
42.Mosquitoeslarvicidal activity of leaf extract of Neem(Azadirachta indica)
Annadurai B
 

What's hot (19)

Studies on the Crude Extract of Moringa Oleifera Leaf for Preliminary Identif...
Studies on the Crude Extract of Moringa Oleifera Leaf for Preliminary Identif...Studies on the Crude Extract of Moringa Oleifera Leaf for Preliminary Identif...
Studies on the Crude Extract of Moringa Oleifera Leaf for Preliminary Identif...
 
Ecological environment effects on germination and seedling morphology in Park...
Ecological environment effects on germination and seedling morphology in Park...Ecological environment effects on germination and seedling morphology in Park...
Ecological environment effects on germination and seedling morphology in Park...
 
Asmaa sabrey
Asmaa sabreyAsmaa sabrey
Asmaa sabrey
 
Leaves as-functional-food-powder
Leaves as-functional-food-powderLeaves as-functional-food-powder
Leaves as-functional-food-powder
 
9th Student Conference for Conservation Science, UK 2008
9th Student Conference for Conservation Science, UK 20089th Student Conference for Conservation Science, UK 2008
9th Student Conference for Conservation Science, UK 2008
 
Invitro alpha amylase effect of Sida acuta Burm
Invitro alpha amylase effect of Sida acuta BurmInvitro alpha amylase effect of Sida acuta Burm
Invitro alpha amylase effect of Sida acuta Burm
 
Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical compounds in Normal and root gall of Ok...
Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical compounds in Normal and root gall of Ok...Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical compounds in Normal and root gall of Ok...
Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical compounds in Normal and root gall of Ok...
 
The evaluation of the effect of Sida acuta leaf extract on the microanatomy a...
The evaluation of the effect of Sida acuta leaf extract on the microanatomy a...The evaluation of the effect of Sida acuta leaf extract on the microanatomy a...
The evaluation of the effect of Sida acuta leaf extract on the microanatomy a...
 
Ph.D. Proposal
Ph.D. ProposalPh.D. Proposal
Ph.D. Proposal
 
Moisture Dependence of Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem...
Moisture Dependence of Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem...Moisture Dependence of Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem...
Moisture Dependence of Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem...
 
Effect of Temperature and Duration of Storage on Some Qualitative Characteris...
Effect of Temperature and Duration of Storage on Some Qualitative Characteris...Effect of Temperature and Duration of Storage on Some Qualitative Characteris...
Effect of Temperature and Duration of Storage on Some Qualitative Characteris...
 
Presentation on Bottle gourd. Nobab
Presentation on Bottle gourd. NobabPresentation on Bottle gourd. Nobab
Presentation on Bottle gourd. Nobab
 
Bryophyte Flora of Kalikasan Park, Albay, Philippines | JBES
Bryophyte Flora of Kalikasan Park, Albay, Philippines | JBESBryophyte Flora of Kalikasan Park, Albay, Philippines | JBES
Bryophyte Flora of Kalikasan Park, Albay, Philippines | JBES
 
MODIFICATION OF PROTCOL FOR ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF GENOMIC DNA
MODIFICATION OF PROTCOL FOR ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF GENOMIC DNAMODIFICATION OF PROTCOL FOR ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF GENOMIC DNA
MODIFICATION OF PROTCOL FOR ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF GENOMIC DNA
 
PHYTO-NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF BROOM WEED (SIDA ACUTA) LEAF EXTRACT
PHYTO-NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF BROOM WEED (SIDA ACUTA) LEAF EXTRACTPHYTO-NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF BROOM WEED (SIDA ACUTA) LEAF EXTRACT
PHYTO-NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF BROOM WEED (SIDA ACUTA) LEAF EXTRACT
 
In vitro free radical scavenging activity of different extracts of Adansonia ...
In vitro free radical scavenging activity of different extracts of Adansonia ...In vitro free radical scavenging activity of different extracts of Adansonia ...
In vitro free radical scavenging activity of different extracts of Adansonia ...
 
Antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts of african mistletoes (loranthus ...
Antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts of african mistletoes (loranthus ...Antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts of african mistletoes (loranthus ...
Antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts of african mistletoes (loranthus ...
 
42.Mosquitoeslarvicidal activity of leaf extract of Neem(Azadirachta indica)
42.Mosquitoeslarvicidal activity of leaf extract of Neem(Azadirachta indica)42.Mosquitoeslarvicidal activity of leaf extract of Neem(Azadirachta indica)
42.Mosquitoeslarvicidal activity of leaf extract of Neem(Azadirachta indica)
 
IRJET-Plant Regeneration by Somatic Embryogenesis in Azadirachta Indica A.Jus...
IRJET-Plant Regeneration by Somatic Embryogenesis in Azadirachta Indica A.Jus...IRJET-Plant Regeneration by Somatic Embryogenesis in Azadirachta Indica A.Jus...
IRJET-Plant Regeneration by Somatic Embryogenesis in Azadirachta Indica A.Jus...
 

Similar to Comparison of some physiological parameters in leaves and stems of wild and cultivated almonds growing in Adiyaman province Turkey

Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetalaMoringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
Drumstick Moringa
 
Uzma Waheed JPAM_Vol_9_N_3_2145-2152
Uzma Waheed JPAM_Vol_9_N_3_2145-2152Uzma Waheed JPAM_Vol_9_N_3_2145-2152
Uzma Waheed JPAM_Vol_9_N_3_2145-2152
UZMA WAHEED
 
Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility And Gas Production Characteristi...
Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility And Gas Production Characteristi...Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility And Gas Production Characteristi...
Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility And Gas Production Characteristi...
IOSR Journals
 
Induced Mutagenesis of Flowering, Phenology and Yield in M1 Generation of Bam...
Induced Mutagenesis of Flowering, Phenology and Yield in M1 Generation of Bam...Induced Mutagenesis of Flowering, Phenology and Yield in M1 Generation of Bam...
Induced Mutagenesis of Flowering, Phenology and Yield in M1 Generation of Bam...
ijtsrd
 
Genetic Variability for Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content in Fo...
Genetic Variability for Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content in Fo...Genetic Variability for Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content in Fo...
Genetic Variability for Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content in Fo...
CrimsonpublishersNTNF
 
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
Alexander Decker
 
Leaves as-functional-food-powder
Leaves as-functional-food-powderLeaves as-functional-food-powder
Leaves as-functional-food-powder
Drumstick Moringa
 
Alterations in Fatty Acid Profile of Polar Lipids Accompanied By Growth and S...
Alterations in Fatty Acid Profile of Polar Lipids Accompanied By Growth and S...Alterations in Fatty Acid Profile of Polar Lipids Accompanied By Growth and S...
Alterations in Fatty Acid Profile of Polar Lipids Accompanied By Growth and S...
iosrjce
 
PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Pentadiplandra brazzeana STEM BARK
PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Pentadiplandra brazzeana STEM BARKPROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Pentadiplandra brazzeana STEM BARK
PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Pentadiplandra brazzeana STEM BARK
SubmissionResearchpa
 

Similar to Comparison of some physiological parameters in leaves and stems of wild and cultivated almonds growing in Adiyaman province Turkey (20)

2624-6470-3-PB
2624-6470-3-PB2624-6470-3-PB
2624-6470-3-PB
 
C0441012
C0441012C0441012
C0441012
 
Proximate Analysis, Mineral Contents and Functional Properties of Moringa Ole...
Proximate Analysis, Mineral Contents and Functional Properties of Moringa Ole...Proximate Analysis, Mineral Contents and Functional Properties of Moringa Ole...
Proximate Analysis, Mineral Contents and Functional Properties of Moringa Ole...
 
Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetalaMoringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
 
Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetalaMoringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
Moringa oleifera-vs-stenopetala
 
Uzma Waheed JPAM_Vol_9_N_3_2145-2152
Uzma Waheed JPAM_Vol_9_N_3_2145-2152Uzma Waheed JPAM_Vol_9_N_3_2145-2152
Uzma Waheed JPAM_Vol_9_N_3_2145-2152
 
Reduction in Growth and Biological Pigments Present In Parthenium
Reduction in Growth and Biological Pigments Present In PartheniumReduction in Growth and Biological Pigments Present In Parthenium
Reduction in Growth and Biological Pigments Present In Parthenium
 
Adeyeyeand aremu
Adeyeyeand aremuAdeyeyeand aremu
Adeyeyeand aremu
 
Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility And Gas Production Characteristi...
Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility And Gas Production Characteristi...Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility And Gas Production Characteristi...
Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility And Gas Production Characteristi...
 
Induced Mutagenesis of Flowering, Phenology and Yield in M1 Generation of Bam...
Induced Mutagenesis of Flowering, Phenology and Yield in M1 Generation of Bam...Induced Mutagenesis of Flowering, Phenology and Yield in M1 Generation of Bam...
Induced Mutagenesis of Flowering, Phenology and Yield in M1 Generation of Bam...
 
Genetic Variability for Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content in Fo...
Genetic Variability for Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content in Fo...Genetic Variability for Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content in Fo...
Genetic Variability for Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content in Fo...
 
YELLOW OLEANDER (THEVETIA PERUVIANA) SEEDS FOR HUMAN FOOD IN KENYA
YELLOW OLEANDER (THEVETIA PERUVIANA) SEEDS FOR HUMAN FOOD IN KENYAYELLOW OLEANDER (THEVETIA PERUVIANA) SEEDS FOR HUMAN FOOD IN KENYA
YELLOW OLEANDER (THEVETIA PERUVIANA) SEEDS FOR HUMAN FOOD IN KENYA
 
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
 
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
Quantitative analysis of total phenolic content in avocado (persia americana)...
 
Leaves as-functional-food-powder
Leaves as-functional-food-powderLeaves as-functional-food-powder
Leaves as-functional-food-powder
 
Alterations in Fatty Acid Profile of Polar Lipids Accompanied By Growth and S...
Alterations in Fatty Acid Profile of Polar Lipids Accompanied By Growth and S...Alterations in Fatty Acid Profile of Polar Lipids Accompanied By Growth and S...
Alterations in Fatty Acid Profile of Polar Lipids Accompanied By Growth and S...
 
Antifungal Activity of Honey with Curcuma Starch against Rhodotorula
Antifungal Activity of Honey with Curcuma Starch against RhodotorulaAntifungal Activity of Honey with Curcuma Starch against Rhodotorula
Antifungal Activity of Honey with Curcuma Starch against Rhodotorula
 
PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Pentadiplandra brazzeana STEM BARK
PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Pentadiplandra brazzeana STEM BARKPROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Pentadiplandra brazzeana STEM BARK
PROXIMATE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF Pentadiplandra brazzeana STEM BARK
 
Bioactive constituents, antioxidant activity and in vitro cancer
Bioactive constituents, antioxidant activity and in vitro cancerBioactive constituents, antioxidant activity and in vitro cancer
Bioactive constituents, antioxidant activity and in vitro cancer
 
Study of Chlorophyll Mutations and Chlorophyll Content in Young Oil Palm (Ela...
Study of Chlorophyll Mutations and Chlorophyll Content in Young Oil Palm (Ela...Study of Chlorophyll Mutations and Chlorophyll Content in Young Oil Palm (Ela...
Study of Chlorophyll Mutations and Chlorophyll Content in Young Oil Palm (Ela...
 

More from researchplantsciences

Preliminary phytochemical studies and evaluation of Antipyretic property of t...
Preliminary phytochemical studies and evaluation of Antipyretic property of t...Preliminary phytochemical studies and evaluation of Antipyretic property of t...
Preliminary phytochemical studies and evaluation of Antipyretic property of t...
researchplantsciences
 
Karyomorphological studies in two species of Allium L.
Karyomorphological studies in two species of Allium L.Karyomorphological studies in two species of Allium L.
Karyomorphological studies in two species of Allium L.
researchplantsciences
 
Quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids and evaluation of in vitro a...
Quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids and evaluation of in vitro a...Quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids and evaluation of in vitro a...
Quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids and evaluation of in vitro a...
researchplantsciences
 
Formation, growth and productivity of the tea bush
Formation, growth and productivity of the tea bushFormation, growth and productivity of the tea bush
Formation, growth and productivity of the tea bush
researchplantsciences
 
Phytochemical studies on selected medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre.
Phytochemical studies on selected medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre.Phytochemical studies on selected medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre.
Phytochemical studies on selected medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre.
researchplantsciences
 
Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu - A pote...
Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu - A pote...Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu - A pote...
Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu - A pote...
researchplantsciences
 

More from researchplantsciences (20)

Effect of some pre sowing treatments on Sapindus laurifolius seed germination
Effect of some pre sowing treatments on Sapindus laurifolius seed germinationEffect of some pre sowing treatments on Sapindus laurifolius seed germination
Effect of some pre sowing treatments on Sapindus laurifolius seed germination
 
Preliminary phytochemical studies and evaluation of Antipyretic property of t...
Preliminary phytochemical studies and evaluation of Antipyretic property of t...Preliminary phytochemical studies and evaluation of Antipyretic property of t...
Preliminary phytochemical studies and evaluation of Antipyretic property of t...
 
Karyomorphological studies in two species of Allium L.
Karyomorphological studies in two species of Allium L.Karyomorphological studies in two species of Allium L.
Karyomorphological studies in two species of Allium L.
 
Quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids and evaluation of in vitro a...
Quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids and evaluation of in vitro a...Quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids and evaluation of in vitro a...
Quantification of total phenolics and flavonoids and evaluation of in vitro a...
 
Bioadsorbent to clean industrial effluents by seaweeds
Bioadsorbent to clean industrial effluents by seaweedsBioadsorbent to clean industrial effluents by seaweeds
Bioadsorbent to clean industrial effluents by seaweeds
 
Nodal anatomical study of certain members of the Rutaceae
Nodal anatomical study of certain members of the RutaceaeNodal anatomical study of certain members of the Rutaceae
Nodal anatomical study of certain members of the Rutaceae
 
The identity and occurrence of primula reidii duthie var. reidii from Shivali...
The identity and occurrence of primula reidii duthie var. reidii from Shivali...The identity and occurrence of primula reidii duthie var. reidii from Shivali...
The identity and occurrence of primula reidii duthie var. reidii from Shivali...
 
Plants used for basketry in kasaragod district, kerala
Plants used for basketry in kasaragod district, keralaPlants used for basketry in kasaragod district, kerala
Plants used for basketry in kasaragod district, kerala
 
Phytochemical investigation of tropical medicinal plants - Stereospermum cola...
Phytochemical investigation of tropical medicinal plants - Stereospermum cola...Phytochemical investigation of tropical medicinal plants - Stereospermum cola...
Phytochemical investigation of tropical medicinal plants - Stereospermum cola...
 
Intraspecific variation in Solanum xanthocarpum schard. and wendl.revealed by...
Intraspecific variation in Solanum xanthocarpum schard. and wendl.revealed by...Intraspecific variation in Solanum xanthocarpum schard. and wendl.revealed by...
Intraspecific variation in Solanum xanthocarpum schard. and wendl.revealed by...
 
Formation, growth and productivity of the tea bush
Formation, growth and productivity of the tea bushFormation, growth and productivity of the tea bush
Formation, growth and productivity of the tea bush
 
The Medicinally important Convolvulacean members used by the Kattunaikkan Tri...
The Medicinally important Convolvulacean members used by the Kattunaikkan Tri...The Medicinally important Convolvulacean members used by the Kattunaikkan Tri...
The Medicinally important Convolvulacean members used by the Kattunaikkan Tri...
 
Effect of Sucrose and Benzyl Adenine in the promotion of cut flower vase life...
Effect of Sucrose and Benzyl Adenine in the promotion of cut flower vase life...Effect of Sucrose and Benzyl Adenine in the promotion of cut flower vase life...
Effect of Sucrose and Benzyl Adenine in the promotion of cut flower vase life...
 
Effects of stimulated Ultraviolet Radiation on the growth of Maize Seedlings
Effects of stimulated Ultraviolet Radiation on the growth of Maize SeedlingsEffects of stimulated Ultraviolet Radiation on the growth of Maize Seedlings
Effects of stimulated Ultraviolet Radiation on the growth of Maize Seedlings
 
Toxic effect of copper on ten rice cultivars
Toxic effect of copper on ten rice cultivars Toxic effect of copper on ten rice cultivars
Toxic effect of copper on ten rice cultivars
 
Phytochemical studies on selected medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre.
Phytochemical studies on selected medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre.Phytochemical studies on selected medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre.
Phytochemical studies on selected medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre.
 
Phytochemical analysis of eight medicinal plants of Lamiaceae
Phytochemical analysis of eight medicinal plants of LamiaceaePhytochemical analysis of eight medicinal plants of Lamiaceae
Phytochemical analysis of eight medicinal plants of Lamiaceae
 
Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu - A pote...
Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu - A pote...Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu - A pote...
Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu - A pote...
 
Ipomoea capitellata var. multilobata (Convolvulaceae) – A new variety from Ja...
Ipomoea capitellata var. multilobata (Convolvulaceae) – A new variety from Ja...Ipomoea capitellata var. multilobata (Convolvulaceae) – A new variety from Ja...
Ipomoea capitellata var. multilobata (Convolvulaceae) – A new variety from Ja...
 
Influence of provenance in seed and emergence characteristics of a gigantic l...
Influence of provenance in seed and emergence characteristics of a gigantic l...Influence of provenance in seed and emergence characteristics of a gigantic l...
Influence of provenance in seed and emergence characteristics of a gigantic l...
 

Comparison of some physiological parameters in leaves and stems of wild and cultivated almonds growing in Adiyaman province Turkey

  • 1. Article Citation: Aysel Sivaci Comparison of some physiological parameters in leaves and stems of wild and cultivated almonds growing in Adiyaman Province/Turkey Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226 Comparison of some physiological parameters in leaves and stems of wild and cultivated almonds growing in Adiyaman Province/Turkey Keywords: Almonds, carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigments, phenolics. 222-226 | JRPS | 2013 | Vol 2 | No 2 This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited. www.plantsciences.info Journal of Research in Plant Sciences An International Scientific Research Journal Authors: Aysel Sivaci Institution: Department of Biology, Art and Science Faculty, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman, Turkey. Corresponding author: Aysel Sivaci Email Id: Web Address: http://plantsciences.info/ documents/PS0063.pdf. Dates: Received: 20 Sep 2013 Accepted: 04 Oct 2013 Published: 11 Oct 2013 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences An International Scientific Research Journal Original Research JournalofResearchinPlantSciences ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine total pigment contents (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), phenolic compounds and carbohydrate contents in leaves and stem of wild and cultivated almonds growing in the Adıyaman Province. Levels of chlorophyll a in leaves and stems of wild almond were found to be higher than cultivated almond. Chlorophyll b was determined to be at approximate levels for both almonds. While carotenoid levels in leaves of wild almond were higher than cultivated one, it was higher in stems of cultivated almond as well. Total phenolics in leaves and stems of wild almond were higher compared to cultivated almond. Total carbohydrate contents were higher in leaves and stems of cultivated almond in comparison with the wild almond.
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Almond is cultivated for both commercial and domestic consumption in temperate and sub-tropic zones of the world (Yada et al., 2011). Almond belongs to the family Rosaceae is cultivated all around the world. Almonds are grown in every region owing to different ecological conditions of Turkey (Ercisli, 2004). Numerous studies reported that fruit yield, morphology, and some physiological parameters in plants change according to species (Baninasab and Rahemi, 2007; Barreira et al., 2008; Abaspour et al., 2012). Chemical content of almond kernel depends on cultivar, ecological conditions and different ripening harvest (Soler et al., 1988; Aslantas et al., 2001). Climate changes experienced in recent years will restrict the production of plants in the world. Thus, it is significant to determine plant species resistant to harsh conditions. For this purpose, it was aimed to compare some physiological parameters, which are significant in growth and development, in resistance of wild and cultivated almonds growing under the same ecological circumstances. This study determined pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), total carbohydrates, and phenolics in leaves and stems of wild and cultivated almonds. MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant materials Samples were collected from stems and leaves of wild and cultivar almonds grown in Lokman village of Adiyaman (37° 42' 15'' N, 38°19' 11'' E, 1920 feet) in 2011-2012. Determination the pigments Samples were extracted according to the method of De Kok and Graham (1989). The absorbance values of the samples were measured at 662, 645 and 470 nm and calculated according to the method described by Lichtenthaler and Wellburn (1983). All analyses were made in triplicate. Determination of total carbohydrate contents Soluble sugar analysis Leaf and stem samples of wild and cultivar almonds were extracted according to McCready et al., (1950). The amount of samples were determined depending on standard glucose equivalence by reading their absorbance at 625 nm (Ebell, 1969). Starch analysis Starch was extracted according to McCready et al., (1950) and determined depending on standard glucose equivalent by reading their absorbance in 630 nm. Starch amounts were calculated by multiplying the values found in glucose equivalent with 0.92 (McCready et al., 1950). All analyses were made in triplicate. Determination of total phenolic compounds Leaf and stem samples were homogenized in 2.5 ml ethanol and shaken in water bath at 25°C for 24 h. Homogenized samples were filtered. 1 ml ethanol, 5 ml distilled water and 1 ml Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were added to 1 ml of the filtered samples and shaken well. After three minutes, 3 ml of Na2CO3 (2%, w/v) was added and shaken in a dark medium at intervals for two hours. Absorbance values were measured at 760 nm for phenolic compounds and amounts were determined according to standard gallic acid equivalence (Slinkard Sivaci, 2013 223 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226 Pigments Chl a (mg g-1 FW) Chl b (mg g-1 FW) Carotenoids (mg g-1 FW) Wild almond 2.16 ± 0.27a 0.26 ± 0.05b 0.46 ± 0.01a Cultivated almond 0.99 ± 0.17b 0.29 ± 0.00a 0.34 ± 0.05b Table 1. Photosynthetic pigment contents in leaves of cultivated and wild almonds (mg g-1 FW; Fresh weight) (It was found that the values shown with different letters are important in terms of statistics (p <0.05), Chl a; Chlorophyll a, Chl b; Chlorophyll b
  • 3. and Singleton, 1977; Chandler and Dodds, 1983). All analyses were made in triplicate. Statistical Analysis All analyses in this study were performed in three replicates. SPSS version 15.0 was used for statistical analyses. To determine the differences between the means student t-test with a 95% confidence was used. In the analyses, differences with p <0.05 were considered to be significant. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Change of pigments in leaf and stem It was found that levels of Chl a in leaves of cultivated and wild almonds were different from each other (p<0.05). Levels of Chl b were close to each other, as well. While Chl a in wild almond leaves was 2.16 mg g-1 , it was 0.99 mg g-1 in cultivated almonds. Levels of Chl b were 0.26 mg g-1 in wild almond and 0.29 mg g-1 in cultivated almonds. It was found that carotenoid levels in wild almond was higher compared to cultivated ones (p<0.05) (Table 1). Levels of Chl a in stems of cultivated and wild almonds showed differences (p<0.05) (Table 2). Chl a was 1.00 mg g-1 in stems of wild almond and 0.13 mg g-1 in stems of cultivated almond. Levels of Chl b in both almonds were close to each other as well (p>0.05). It was determined as 0.06 mg g-1 in wild almond, and 0.06 mg g-1 in cultivated almond. Carotenoid levels in wild almond were lower compared to cultivated ones (p>0.05) (Table 2). Pigment amounts of plants vary based on species, environment, and age of leaf (Kramer and Kozlowski, 1979). In their study, Camposeo et al., (2005) determined that there were significant differences between wild and cultivated almonds in terms of leaf area, stoma density and size. It was found that pigments (Chl a, Chl b, and carotenoids) had differences in wild and cultivated almonds in this study as well (Tables 1 and 2). The fact that there were different pigment levels for both almonds may be an indicator for different photosynthesis rates. Change of total carbohydrates in leaf and stem Carbohydrate levels were determined to be lower in leaves and stems of wild almond compared to cultivated almond (p<0.05) (Tables 3 and 4). It was 67.04 mg g- 1 in leaves of wild almond, and 84.42 mg g-1 in leaves of cultivated almond (Table 3). It was determined as 40.69 mg g-1 in stems of wild almond, and 56.74 mg g-1 in stems of cultivated almond (Table 4). Soluble sugars and starch had differences in leaves and stems of wild and cultivated almonds (p<0.05) (Tables 3 and 4). In another study, Sivaci (2006) determined that Sivaci, 2013 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226 224 Pigments Chl a (mg g-1 FW) Chl b (mg g-1 FW) Carotenoids (mg g-1 FW) Wild almond 1.00 ± 0.01a 0.06 ± 0.00a 0.09 ± 0.00a Cultivated almond 0.13 ± 0.00b 0.06 ± 0.00a 0.08 ± 0.01a Table 2. Photosynthetic pigment contents in stems of cultivated and wild almonds (mg g-1 FW; Fresh weight) (It was found that the values shown with different letters are important in terms of statistics (p <0.05), Chl a; Chlorophyll a, Chl b; Chlorophyll b Phenolics (µg mg-1 FW) Carbohydrates (mg g-1 DW) Soluble sugars (mg g-1 DW) Starch (mg g-1 DW) Wild almond 6.07 ± 0.30a 67.04 ± 09.73b 64.63 ± 09.51b 2.41 ± 0.36b Cultivated almond 1.60 ± 0.20b 84.42 ± 18.72a 80.93 ± 18.55a 3.48 ± 0.38a Table 3. Total phenolics and carbohydrates in leaves of cultivated and wild almonds (FW; Fresh weight, DW; Dry weight) (It was found that the values shown with different letters are important in terms of statistics (p <0.05).
  • 4. total carbohydrates in apple varieties changed based on season and varieties. Carbohydrate contents affecting the plant growth and fruit yield showed differences in wild and cultivated almonds (Tables 3 and 4). Saura-Calixto et al., (1980) found out that sugar contents showed differences depending on varieties in the study conducted on sweet almond varieties. Change of total phenolics in leaf and stem Phenolic compounds were determined to be different in both almonds. They were 6.07 µg mg-1 in leaves of wild almond, and 1.60 µg mg-1 in leaves of cultivated almond (p<0.05) (Table 3). Phenolic compounds were 1.97 µg mg-1 in stems of wild almond, and 1.38 µg mg-1 in those of cultivated one (p<0.05) (Table 4). Plants are natural antioxidant resources. These antioxidants are caratenoids, vitamins, phenols, flavonoids, glutathione, and endogenous metabolites (Larson, 1988). Esfahlan and Jamei (2012) determined that flavonoid, phenolics, and antioxidant activities in fruits of ten wild almond species changed according to almond species. It was found out that phenolic compounds in almonds showed differences in leaves and stems in this study like above-mentioned study. Phenolic compounds in leaves and stems of wild almond were higher compared to cultivated almond (Tables 3 and 4). CONCLUSION It was found that total pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), phenolic compounds and carbohydrate contents in leaves and stem of wild and cultivated almonds exhibited differences. The highest total phenolic compounds were found in the leaves and stem of wild almond. Carbohydrate contents in the leaves and stem of cultivated almond were higher than wild almond. Wild almond may be more resistant than cultivated almond but carbohydrate contents of wild almond may be insufficient. REFERENCES Abaspour M, Imani A and Hassanlo T. 2012. Effects of almond genotype and growing location on oil percentage and fatty acid. Journal of Nuts. 3(3): 5-12. Aslantas R, Güleryüz M, Turan M. 2001. Some chemical contents of selected almond (Prunusamygdalus Batsch ) types. In: Ak B.E. (ed.). XI GrempaSeminar on Pistachiosand Almonds. Zaragoza : CIHEAM. Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes; 56: 347 -350. Baninasab B and Rahemi M. 2007. Evaluation of three wild species of almond on the basis of their morphological characters. Journal Central European Agriculture.7(4): 619-626. Barreira JCM, Ferreira ICFR, Oliveira MBPP and Pereira JA. 2008. Antioxidantactivity and bioactive compounds of ten Portuguese regional and commercial almond cultivars. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(6): 2230-2235. Camposeo S, Godini A and Palasciano M. 2005. Stomatal size andfrequency in wild (A. webbii) andcultivated (A.communis) almonds. In: Oliveira M.M. (ed.) Cordeiro V. (ed.) .XIII GREMPA Meeting on Almonds and Pistachios Zaragoza: CIHEAM Options Méditerranéennes : Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens; 63: 305- 310. Sivaci, 2013 225 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226 Phenolics (µg mg-1 FW) Carbohydrates (mg g-1 DW) Soluble sugars (mg g-1 DW) Starch (mg g-1 DW) Wild almond 1.97 ± 0.26a 40.69 ± 0.87b 40.56 ± 0.85b 0.12 ± 0.01b Cultivated almond 1.38 ± 0.27b 56.74 ± 8.62a 56.20 ± 8.70a 0.53 ± 0.09a Table 4. Total phenolics and carbohydrates in stems of cultivated and wild almonds (FW; Fresh weight, DW; Dry weight) (It was found that the values shown with different letters are important in terms of statistics (p < 0.05).
  • 5. Chandler SF and Dodds JH. 1983. The effect of phosphate, nitrogen and sucrose on the production of phenolics and solasodine in calluscultures of Solanumlaciniatum. Plant Cell Rep., 2(4):205–208. De Kok LJ and Graham M. 1989. Levels of pigments, soluble proteins, amino acids and sulfhydryl compounds in foliar tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana during dark- induced and natural senescence. Plant Physiol Biochem., 27: 203-209. Ebell LF. 1969. Variation in total soluble sugars of conifer tissues with method of analysis. Phytochemistry. 8(1): 227-233. Ercisli S. 2004. A short review of the fruit germ plasmres ources of Turkey. Gen Res Crop Evol., 51 (4):419-435. Esfahlan AJ and Jamei R. 2012. Properties of biological activity of ten wild almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) species.Turk J Biol., 36(2): 201-209. Kramer PJ and Kozlowski TT. 1979. Physiology of WoodyPlants. AcademicPress, London. 811. Larson RA. 1988. The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochemistry.27(4): 969-978. Lichtenthaler HK and Wellburn AR. 1983. Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Bio chem Soc Trans., 11(5): 591-592. McCready RM, Guggolz J, Silviera V and Owens HS. 1950. Determination of starchandamylose in vegetables. Analytic. Chemistry. 22(9): 1156-1158. Saura-Calixto F, Canellas JandBauza M. 1980. Remove from marked records soluble carbohydrates in varieties of the sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus). Anales de Bromatologia. 32(3): 263-270. Sivaci A. 2006. Seasonal changes of total carbohydrate contents in three varieties of apple (Malussylvestris Miller) stem cuttings. Scientia Horticulturae.109(3):234- 237. Slinkard K and Singleton VL. 1977. Total phenolanalysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Viticult. 28(1): 49–55. Soler L, Canellas J and Saura-Calixto F. 1988. Oilcontent and fatty acid composition of develop in galmond seeds. J. Agr. Food Chem., 36(4): 695-697. Yada S, Lapsley K and Huang GA. 2011. A review of composition studies of cultivated almonds: Macro nutrients and micro nutrients. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 24(4-5): 469-480. Sivaci, 2013 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2013) 2(2): 222-226 226 Submit your articles online at www.plantsciences.info Advantages Easy online submission Complete Peer review Affordable Charges Quick processing Extensive indexing You retain your copyright submit@plantsciences.info www.plantsciences.info/Submit.php.