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The identity and occurrence of Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii
from Shivalik hill ranges, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Keywords:
Primula reidii, identity, Churdhar, Shivaliks, Himachal Pradesh.
ABSTRACT:
Primula reidii var reidii is reported and identified its presence from Shivalik
Hill Ranges of Himachal Pradesh. Earlier records pertaining to occurrence &
distribution of the species, detailed description and other ecological parameters
including its photograph, have been discussed and detailed.
104-108 | JRPS | 2012 | Vol 1 | No 2
This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/
licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution, and
reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
www.plantsciences.info
Authors:
Subramani SP* and
Kapoor KS.
Institution:
Himalayan Forest Research
Institute (HFRI), Conifer
Campus, Panthaghati,
Shimla, Himachal Pradesh,
171009, India.
* Present Address: Institute
of Forest Genetics & Tree
Breeding (IFGTB), Forest
Campus, R.S. Puram,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu,
641002, India.
Corresponding author:
Subramani SP.
Email:
subramanisp@icfre.org
Web Address:
http:/www.plantsciences.info
documents/PS0022.pdf.
Dates:
Received: 13 Feb 2012 Accepted: 18 Feb 2012 Published: 19 Jun 2012
Article Citation:
Subramani SP and Kapoor KS.
The identity and occurrence of Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii
from Shivalik hill ranges, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108
Original Research
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences
JournalofResearchinPlantSciences An International Scientific Research Journal
Journal of Research
in Plant Sciences
An International Scientific
Research Journal
INTRODUCTION
The genus Primula L. is represented by about
425 species, distributed across Northern Temperate
Zone, Europe, Ethiopia, North America, Java and
Sumatra, however, it has maximum diversity in the
Himalayan mountain chain and Western China
(Mabberley, 2008). It is a most widespread genus of the
family Primulaceae, occurring in a variety of habitats and
exhibits itself as one of the typical herbaceous element in
marshy meadows. It also received early scientific
recognition in Darwin’s (1877) pioneering work on
heterostyly, the dominant breeding system in the group.
Owing to interesting and unique morphology of its
vegetative parts, the representatives of this genus are
cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants and in
gardens which lead Green (1976) to publish an account
of Asiatic Primulas with special reference to their
gardening.
The first account on Primulas was compiled by
Linnaeus during 1753 after fairly investigating its
taxonomy and the efforts beyond in this direction were
continued by Pax (1889). Pax and Kunth (1905), also
monographed the family twice in Engler’s ‘Das
Pflanzenreich’. Duthie (1881), published a list of
north-western Indian plants in which 17 species of
Primulas were recorded. Hooker (1882), in his ‘Flora of
British India’, recognized 43 species on the basis of their
leaf characters, venation, inflorescence and the flower
characteristics. Earlier investigations of Watt
(1904-1905, 1913-1914), revealed that the Indian
Primulas are largely studied. On the basis of available
literature for north-west Himalayas, Ludlow (1951),
published the Primulas of Kashmir Himalayas whereas
Gosh (1981), reported about 113 taxa of Primulas and
their occurrence in the specified areas of Eastern
Himalayas thereby, indicating the Indian elements. In the
state of Himachal Pradesh, the genus is represented by
16 species (Collett, 1902; Chowdhery and Wadhwa,
1984; Aswal and Mehrotra, 1994; Dhaliwal and Sharma,
1995; Kaur and Sharma, 2004; Jishtu, 2005).
STUDY AREA
Churdhar Wild-life Sanctuary situated
in-between 30º 48' 37'' to 30º 54' 39'' N latitude and
77º 23' 32'' to 77º 29' 49'' E longitude in Shivalik Hill
Region of Sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh with its
altitude varying from 1900m to 3647m above msl. Lying
in the strategic part of the state, the sanctuary is one of
the micro-endemic zone of the country. Literally known
as the ‘tresses of Shiva’ and as ‘Manak Parbat’ during
ancient times, the Shivalik Ranges encompass portions
of the districts of Kangra, Hamirpur, Una, Bilaspur and
the lower parts of Mandi, Solan and Sirmaur
(Balokhra, 2002).
While undertaking the field surveys for
assessment of population status of rare, endemic and
endangered plants from ecological and taxonomical point
of view in this sanctuary, a rare species of Primula was
collected and photographed in flowering condition
(Fig. 1). Further studies and critical analysis of this
taxon lead to its identity as Primula reidii Duthie var.
reidii and no one in the recent past had brought to light
any information as far as the distribution of the species in
Shivalik Hill Ranges is concerned in this state.
Accordingly, a detailed account with relevant notes and
photograph on the species has been provided to enable its
Subramani and Kapoor, 2012
105 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108
Fig. 1. Primula reidii var. reidii
easy identification in the field. The voucher specimens
have also been deposited in the Herbarium of Himalayan
Forest Research Institute (HFRI), Shimla.
Specimen Collected and Examined
Collection made from the Nohra beat of
Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary, district Sirmaur
on way to Chur Peak, ± 3040 m on 19.07.2006,
Vouchers specimens: SPS 3734, 4048.
Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii Report
Saharanpur, Bot. Gard. 30, 1885; Hook. f. in Curtis Bot.
Mag. t. 6961. 1887 ; Watt, G. in J. Roy. Hort. Soc., 29:
298-307; Pax in Engler, Pflanzenr. 22 : (iv. 237). 67.
1905 ; Smith, W.W. & H.R. Fletcher in J. Linn. Soc.,
52 : 328. 1941; Gould in Hara et al., Enum. Flow. Pl.
Nep. 3: 73 (1982); Polunin & Stainton, Fl. Himalaya,
252. 1984.
An efarinose pubescent herb, upto 15 cm high.
Leaves 4-12 x 2-3.5 cm, oblong-elliptic, membranous,
upper surface convex, laxly silky villous, apex obtuse,
margins coarsely lobulate-dentate or crenate, base
narrowed to a winged petiole which is shorter than the
leaf-blade. Scape stiff, up to c 11 cm long; bracts broad,
3-4 mm long; flowers 1-3, subsessile, nodding,
ivory-white, fragrant, c 2-2.5 cm across; calyx c 6-9 mm
long, campanulate, white-farinose within, with broad,
rotundate, obtuse, glandular ciliate lobes; corolla
5-lobed, lobes broad-oblong, closed in a globe, the apex
2-cleft with a tooth between; sometimes slightly retuse.
Capsule subglobose, membranous, included in the calyx,
seeds c 1 mm long, brown.
Flowering & Fruiting: June to August.
NOTES
This species was first described by Duthie in
1885 (Duthie 3133, Kew) based on a plant collected from
Ralam-Thal of Kumaon, presently in Uttarakhand, India
on the wet rocks at an altitude of 4000-4300 m above
msl. Hara et al., (1982), considered two varieties of
Primula reidii of which var. williamsii Ludlow is upto
20 cm high, having bluish flowers and considered as
endemic to Western and Central Nepal in Eastern
Himalayas (Shrestha, 2006) whereas, the other
var. reidii, is a small one, with one umbel of nodding
ivory-white flowers found in Western Himalayas even
upto Pakistan. Later, Nayar (1996), recorded its
distribution as endemic to Western Himalayas right from
Kashmir to central Nepal.
The species is found growing on damp
rocky cliffs covered with thick mats of moss and also
a s un d er - gr owth in th e for es t s of
R h o d o d e n d r o n c a m p a n u l a t u m D . D on ,
Betula utilis D.Don, Quercus semecarpifolia J.E.
Smith and Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirbel in
sub-alpines. The mossy bed basically holds moisture and
soil which is sufficient for the growth of the species.
The other associated plants are Fragaria vesca L.,
Viola biflora L., Dienia muscifera Lindl.,
Corydalis govaniana Wall., Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f.
& Thoms.) Engl., Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All.,
Primula denticulata Smith, Trillium govanianum Wall.
ex D.Don., Swertia cordata (G.Don) Wall. ex Clarke,
Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb., G. aparine L.,
Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet,
Polemonium caeruleum L., Lactuca macrorhiza (Royle)
Hook.f., Meconopsis aculeata Royle, Impatiens
micranthemum Edgew., Polygonatum verticillatum (L.)
All. and Hylotelephium ewersii (Ledeb.) Ohba.
In the entire area, the species was found localised
in one place only with very few individuals and
accordingly, the avenues are open to record further
occurrence/ distribution of the species if any, within this
sanctuary or in adjacent areas of Shivalik Hills,
Himachal Pradesh. This restricted distribution and the
low number of species has to sustain admist habitat
fragilty, habitat destruction, trampling and under biotic
pressure mainly because of grazing by the live-stocks of
Gujjar community staying in the sanctury and also by the
pilgrims those who visit Chureshwar Temple at Chur
Subramani and Kapoor, 2012
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108 106
peak for most part of the year. There are all doubts
as to whether the existing population of
Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii will continue to survive
in those localities or not. In view of the heavy biotic
pressure, it becomes imperative to conserve this
interesting endemic prime rose as forest genetic resource
and its habitat as well. Gardening of Primulas as also
mentioned in the initial paras, those interests the farmers-
floriculture bring one of the remunerative option and
having the marketing potential -can also help generating
livelihood for the farmers/ people especially for those
who live on the fringes of forests on one hand and
linking them with the forestry sector on the other.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors are thankful to the Director, Himalayan
Forest Research Institute, Shimla for allowing us to use
the related facilities and for encouragement during the
study. Thanks are also due the PCCF (Wild-life),
Himachal Pradesh State Forest Department for according
necessary permission to undertake studies in the
Sanctury Area and to the Head, Systematic Botany
Branch of Botany Division, Forest Research Institute,
Dehradun for allowing consultations and matching of the
species in DD Herbarium, Dehra Dun. We are also
thankful to S/Sh Purushotham Ram, Forester and
Dushyant Kumar RA Grade II, HFRI Shimla for their
valuable help at different stages of the study.
REFERENCES
Aswal BS and Mehrotra BN. 1994. Flora of Lahaul-
Spiti (A Cold Desert in North West Himalaya). Bishen
Singh Mahendra Pal Singh , Dehra Dun. 761.
Balokhra JM. 2002. The Wonderland Himachal
Pradesh. H.G. Publication, New Delhi.
Chowdhery HJ and Wadhwa BM. 1984. Flora of
Himachal Pradesh, Analysis. Vol. 1-3. Botanical Survey
of India, Calcutta. 860.
Collett H. 1902. Flora Simlensis: A Handbook of the
Flowering Plants of Simla and the Neighbourhood.
Thacker Spink and Co., Calcutta. 652.
Darwin C. 1877. The different forms of flowers on
plants of the same species. J Murray, London.
Dhaliwal DS and Sharma M. 1995. Flora of District
Kullu (Himachal Pradesh). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal
Singh , Dehra Dun. 744.
Duthie JF. 1881. List of N.W. Indian plants 1-120.
Gosh RB. 1981. An analysis on the distribution of de
Indian taxa of the genus Primula L. in the eastern
Himalaya with remarks on the species of Assam. An.
Aula Dei, 14(3/4):300-308.
Green R. 1976. Asiatic Primulas: A Gardeners Guide.
Alpine Garden Soc., Publications, Lye Link, Surrey 163.
Hara H, Chater AO and Williams LHJ. 1982. An
enumeration of flowering plants of Nepal. Vol. 3. British
Museum (Natural History), London. 73.
Hooker JD. 1882. Primulaceae in Hook.f. The Flora of
British India L. Reeve & Co., London. III:482-506.
Jishtu V. 2005. Studies on the floristics and associated
mycorrhiza of Baspa Valley in Kinnaur, Himachal
Pradesh. Ph.D. Thesis, FRI, Deemed University, Dehra
Dun. 393 .
Kaur H and Sharma M. 2004. Flora of Sirmaur
(Himachal Pradesh). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh ,
Dehra Dun. 770.
Ludlow F. 1951. The Primulas of Kashmir. J. Roy. Hort.
Soc., 76:191-206.
Mabberley JD. 2008. The Plant-Book. A portable
dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Third
Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Subramani and Kapoor, 2012
107 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108
Nayar, MP. 1996. Hot spots of endemic plants of India,
Nepal and Bhutan. Tropical Botanic Garden and
Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram.
Pax F. 1889. Monographische uebersicht uber die arten
der gattung Primula. Engler Bot. Jahrb., In A Engler, ed.
Botanische Jahrbuch er fur Systematik,
Planzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie. Engelmann,
Leipzig. 10:75-241.
Pax F and Kunth R. 1905. Primulaceae. Pages 1–386
In: A Engler, ed. Das Pflanzenreich. Engelmann,
Leipzig.
Shrestha MR, Rokaya MB and Ghimire SK. 2006. A
checklist of Trans-Himalayan dicot flora of Dolpo and its
surrounding region in northwest Nepal. Scientific World
4(4):84-95.
Watt G. 1904-1905. Observations on Indian Primulas. J.
Roy. Hort. Soc., 29:295-326.
Watt G. 1913-1914. Observations on Indian Primulas.
J. Roy. Hort. Soc., 39:196-218.
Subramani and Kapoor, 2012
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108 108
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The identity and occurrence of primula reidii duthie var. reidii from Shivalik hill ranges, Himachal Pradesh, India.

  • 1. The identity and occurrence of Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii from Shivalik hill ranges, Himachal Pradesh, India. Keywords: Primula reidii, identity, Churdhar, Shivaliks, Himachal Pradesh. ABSTRACT: Primula reidii var reidii is reported and identified its presence from Shivalik Hill Ranges of Himachal Pradesh. Earlier records pertaining to occurrence & distribution of the species, detailed description and other ecological parameters including its photograph, have been discussed and detailed. 104-108 | JRPS | 2012 | Vol 1 | No 2 This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution, and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited. www.plantsciences.info Authors: Subramani SP* and Kapoor KS. Institution: Himalayan Forest Research Institute (HFRI), Conifer Campus, Panthaghati, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 171009, India. * Present Address: Institute of Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding (IFGTB), Forest Campus, R.S. Puram, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641002, India. Corresponding author: Subramani SP. Email: subramanisp@icfre.org Web Address: http:/www.plantsciences.info documents/PS0022.pdf. Dates: Received: 13 Feb 2012 Accepted: 18 Feb 2012 Published: 19 Jun 2012 Article Citation: Subramani SP and Kapoor KS. The identity and occurrence of Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii from Shivalik hill ranges, Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108 Original Research Journal of Research in Plant Sciences JournalofResearchinPlantSciences An International Scientific Research Journal Journal of Research in Plant Sciences An International Scientific Research Journal
  • 2. INTRODUCTION The genus Primula L. is represented by about 425 species, distributed across Northern Temperate Zone, Europe, Ethiopia, North America, Java and Sumatra, however, it has maximum diversity in the Himalayan mountain chain and Western China (Mabberley, 2008). It is a most widespread genus of the family Primulaceae, occurring in a variety of habitats and exhibits itself as one of the typical herbaceous element in marshy meadows. It also received early scientific recognition in Darwin’s (1877) pioneering work on heterostyly, the dominant breeding system in the group. Owing to interesting and unique morphology of its vegetative parts, the representatives of this genus are cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants and in gardens which lead Green (1976) to publish an account of Asiatic Primulas with special reference to their gardening. The first account on Primulas was compiled by Linnaeus during 1753 after fairly investigating its taxonomy and the efforts beyond in this direction were continued by Pax (1889). Pax and Kunth (1905), also monographed the family twice in Engler’s ‘Das Pflanzenreich’. Duthie (1881), published a list of north-western Indian plants in which 17 species of Primulas were recorded. Hooker (1882), in his ‘Flora of British India’, recognized 43 species on the basis of their leaf characters, venation, inflorescence and the flower characteristics. Earlier investigations of Watt (1904-1905, 1913-1914), revealed that the Indian Primulas are largely studied. On the basis of available literature for north-west Himalayas, Ludlow (1951), published the Primulas of Kashmir Himalayas whereas Gosh (1981), reported about 113 taxa of Primulas and their occurrence in the specified areas of Eastern Himalayas thereby, indicating the Indian elements. In the state of Himachal Pradesh, the genus is represented by 16 species (Collett, 1902; Chowdhery and Wadhwa, 1984; Aswal and Mehrotra, 1994; Dhaliwal and Sharma, 1995; Kaur and Sharma, 2004; Jishtu, 2005). STUDY AREA Churdhar Wild-life Sanctuary situated in-between 30º 48' 37'' to 30º 54' 39'' N latitude and 77º 23' 32'' to 77º 29' 49'' E longitude in Shivalik Hill Region of Sirmaur district, Himachal Pradesh with its altitude varying from 1900m to 3647m above msl. Lying in the strategic part of the state, the sanctuary is one of the micro-endemic zone of the country. Literally known as the ‘tresses of Shiva’ and as ‘Manak Parbat’ during ancient times, the Shivalik Ranges encompass portions of the districts of Kangra, Hamirpur, Una, Bilaspur and the lower parts of Mandi, Solan and Sirmaur (Balokhra, 2002). While undertaking the field surveys for assessment of population status of rare, endemic and endangered plants from ecological and taxonomical point of view in this sanctuary, a rare species of Primula was collected and photographed in flowering condition (Fig. 1). Further studies and critical analysis of this taxon lead to its identity as Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii and no one in the recent past had brought to light any information as far as the distribution of the species in Shivalik Hill Ranges is concerned in this state. Accordingly, a detailed account with relevant notes and photograph on the species has been provided to enable its Subramani and Kapoor, 2012 105 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108 Fig. 1. Primula reidii var. reidii
  • 3. easy identification in the field. The voucher specimens have also been deposited in the Herbarium of Himalayan Forest Research Institute (HFRI), Shimla. Specimen Collected and Examined Collection made from the Nohra beat of Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary, district Sirmaur on way to Chur Peak, ± 3040 m on 19.07.2006, Vouchers specimens: SPS 3734, 4048. Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii Report Saharanpur, Bot. Gard. 30, 1885; Hook. f. in Curtis Bot. Mag. t. 6961. 1887 ; Watt, G. in J. Roy. Hort. Soc., 29: 298-307; Pax in Engler, Pflanzenr. 22 : (iv. 237). 67. 1905 ; Smith, W.W. & H.R. Fletcher in J. Linn. Soc., 52 : 328. 1941; Gould in Hara et al., Enum. Flow. Pl. Nep. 3: 73 (1982); Polunin & Stainton, Fl. Himalaya, 252. 1984. An efarinose pubescent herb, upto 15 cm high. Leaves 4-12 x 2-3.5 cm, oblong-elliptic, membranous, upper surface convex, laxly silky villous, apex obtuse, margins coarsely lobulate-dentate or crenate, base narrowed to a winged petiole which is shorter than the leaf-blade. Scape stiff, up to c 11 cm long; bracts broad, 3-4 mm long; flowers 1-3, subsessile, nodding, ivory-white, fragrant, c 2-2.5 cm across; calyx c 6-9 mm long, campanulate, white-farinose within, with broad, rotundate, obtuse, glandular ciliate lobes; corolla 5-lobed, lobes broad-oblong, closed in a globe, the apex 2-cleft with a tooth between; sometimes slightly retuse. Capsule subglobose, membranous, included in the calyx, seeds c 1 mm long, brown. Flowering & Fruiting: June to August. NOTES This species was first described by Duthie in 1885 (Duthie 3133, Kew) based on a plant collected from Ralam-Thal of Kumaon, presently in Uttarakhand, India on the wet rocks at an altitude of 4000-4300 m above msl. Hara et al., (1982), considered two varieties of Primula reidii of which var. williamsii Ludlow is upto 20 cm high, having bluish flowers and considered as endemic to Western and Central Nepal in Eastern Himalayas (Shrestha, 2006) whereas, the other var. reidii, is a small one, with one umbel of nodding ivory-white flowers found in Western Himalayas even upto Pakistan. Later, Nayar (1996), recorded its distribution as endemic to Western Himalayas right from Kashmir to central Nepal. The species is found growing on damp rocky cliffs covered with thick mats of moss and also a s un d er - gr owth in th e for es t s of R h o d o d e n d r o n c a m p a n u l a t u m D . D on , Betula utilis D.Don, Quercus semecarpifolia J.E. Smith and Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirbel in sub-alpines. The mossy bed basically holds moisture and soil which is sufficient for the growth of the species. The other associated plants are Fragaria vesca L., Viola biflora L., Dienia muscifera Lindl., Corydalis govaniana Wall., Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Engl., Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All., Primula denticulata Smith, Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don., Swertia cordata (G.Don) Wall. ex Clarke, Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb., G. aparine L., Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet, Polemonium caeruleum L., Lactuca macrorhiza (Royle) Hook.f., Meconopsis aculeata Royle, Impatiens micranthemum Edgew., Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. and Hylotelephium ewersii (Ledeb.) Ohba. In the entire area, the species was found localised in one place only with very few individuals and accordingly, the avenues are open to record further occurrence/ distribution of the species if any, within this sanctuary or in adjacent areas of Shivalik Hills, Himachal Pradesh. This restricted distribution and the low number of species has to sustain admist habitat fragilty, habitat destruction, trampling and under biotic pressure mainly because of grazing by the live-stocks of Gujjar community staying in the sanctury and also by the pilgrims those who visit Chureshwar Temple at Chur Subramani and Kapoor, 2012 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108 106
  • 4. peak for most part of the year. There are all doubts as to whether the existing population of Primula reidii Duthie var. reidii will continue to survive in those localities or not. In view of the heavy biotic pressure, it becomes imperative to conserve this interesting endemic prime rose as forest genetic resource and its habitat as well. Gardening of Primulas as also mentioned in the initial paras, those interests the farmers- floriculture bring one of the remunerative option and having the marketing potential -can also help generating livelihood for the farmers/ people especially for those who live on the fringes of forests on one hand and linking them with the forestry sector on the other. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors are thankful to the Director, Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Shimla for allowing us to use the related facilities and for encouragement during the study. Thanks are also due the PCCF (Wild-life), Himachal Pradesh State Forest Department for according necessary permission to undertake studies in the Sanctury Area and to the Head, Systematic Botany Branch of Botany Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun for allowing consultations and matching of the species in DD Herbarium, Dehra Dun. We are also thankful to S/Sh Purushotham Ram, Forester and Dushyant Kumar RA Grade II, HFRI Shimla for their valuable help at different stages of the study. REFERENCES Aswal BS and Mehrotra BN. 1994. Flora of Lahaul- Spiti (A Cold Desert in North West Himalaya). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh , Dehra Dun. 761. Balokhra JM. 2002. The Wonderland Himachal Pradesh. H.G. Publication, New Delhi. Chowdhery HJ and Wadhwa BM. 1984. Flora of Himachal Pradesh, Analysis. Vol. 1-3. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. 860. Collett H. 1902. Flora Simlensis: A Handbook of the Flowering Plants of Simla and the Neighbourhood. Thacker Spink and Co., Calcutta. 652. Darwin C. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. J Murray, London. Dhaliwal DS and Sharma M. 1995. Flora of District Kullu (Himachal Pradesh). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh , Dehra Dun. 744. Duthie JF. 1881. List of N.W. Indian plants 1-120. Gosh RB. 1981. An analysis on the distribution of de Indian taxa of the genus Primula L. in the eastern Himalaya with remarks on the species of Assam. An. Aula Dei, 14(3/4):300-308. Green R. 1976. Asiatic Primulas: A Gardeners Guide. Alpine Garden Soc., Publications, Lye Link, Surrey 163. Hara H, Chater AO and Williams LHJ. 1982. An enumeration of flowering plants of Nepal. Vol. 3. British Museum (Natural History), London. 73. Hooker JD. 1882. Primulaceae in Hook.f. The Flora of British India L. Reeve & Co., London. III:482-506. Jishtu V. 2005. Studies on the floristics and associated mycorrhiza of Baspa Valley in Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh. Ph.D. Thesis, FRI, Deemed University, Dehra Dun. 393 . Kaur H and Sharma M. 2004. Flora of Sirmaur (Himachal Pradesh). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh , Dehra Dun. 770. Ludlow F. 1951. The Primulas of Kashmir. J. Roy. Hort. Soc., 76:191-206. Mabberley JD. 2008. The Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Third Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Subramani and Kapoor, 2012 107 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108
  • 5. Nayar, MP. 1996. Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram. Pax F. 1889. Monographische uebersicht uber die arten der gattung Primula. Engler Bot. Jahrb., In A Engler, ed. Botanische Jahrbuch er fur Systematik, Planzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie. Engelmann, Leipzig. 10:75-241. Pax F and Kunth R. 1905. Primulaceae. Pages 1–386 In: A Engler, ed. Das Pflanzenreich. Engelmann, Leipzig. Shrestha MR, Rokaya MB and Ghimire SK. 2006. A checklist of Trans-Himalayan dicot flora of Dolpo and its surrounding region in northwest Nepal. Scientific World 4(4):84-95. Watt G. 1904-1905. Observations on Indian Primulas. J. Roy. Hort. Soc., 29:295-326. Watt G. 1913-1914. Observations on Indian Primulas. J. Roy. Hort. Soc., 39:196-218. Subramani and Kapoor, 2012 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2012) 1(2): 104-108 108 Submit your articles online at www.plantsciences.info Advantages Easy online submission Complete Peer review Affordable Charges Quick processing Extensive indexing You retain your copyright submit@plantsciences.info www.plantsciences.info/Submit.php.