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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
• Corporate Governance aims to balance the interests of the various
parties involved.
• By balancing the interests of all the stakeholders- management,
shareholders, consumers etc, it formulates ways to attain company’s
objectives.
• Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement by Securities Exchange Board of
India elaborates on the issue of Corporate Governance and prescribes
the norms under which the Companies are mandated to operate
SEBI
• On April 12, 1988, the Securities and Exchange Board of India
(SEBI)was established with a dual objective of protecting the rights of
small investors and regulating and developing the stock markets in
India
• In 1992, the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE),the leading stock exchange
in India, witnessed the first major scam masterminded by Harshad
Mehta.
• Analysts unanimously felt that if more powers had been given to SEBI,
the scam would not have happened.
• As a result the Government of India (GoI) brought in a separate
legislation by the name of ‘SEBI Act 1992’and conferred statutory
powers to it.
• Since then, SEBI had introduced several stock market reforms. These
reforms significantly transformed the face of Indian Stock Markets
SEBI and Clause 49
• SEBI asked Indian firms above a certain size to implement Clause 49,
a regulation that strengthens the role of independent directors serving
on corporate boards.
• On August 26, 2003, SEBI announced an amended Clause 49 of the
listing agreement which every public company listed on an Indian
stock exchange is required to sign. The amended clauses come into
immediate effect for companies seeking a new listing.
CLAUSE 49 ON SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS
• Participate in and be sufficiently informed on decisions concerning
fundamental corporate changes.
• Vote in shareholder meetings.
• Ask questions to the Board and propose resolutions.
• Participate in nomination and election of Board members.
• Exercise their ownership rights.
• Put forward their grievances to the Company.
• Be protected from abusive actions in the interest of controlling
shareholders.
CLAUSE 49 ON BOARD COMPOSITION
• At-least half of the Board should be IDs
 If Chairman is an ED
 If Chairman is a Promoter or related to a Promoter.
 If Chairman is related to anyone occupying management position
 If the Board doesn’t have a regular non-executive Chairman
• At-least one-third of the Board should be IDs
 If the Chairman is an NED
• The Board should have at-least one woman director.
CLAUSE 49 ON INDEPENDENT
DIRECTORS
• Is not a Nominee Director
• Is/was not a promoter / relative of the promoter of the Company
• Has/had no pecuniary relationship with the Company, its holding,
subsidiary, associate company or the promoters or directors during
two immediately preceding financial years.
• Whose relatives do not have/had any pecuniary relationship with the
Company its holding, subsidiary, associate company or the promoters
or directors, amounting to 2% or more of its total income or Rs. 50
lakh during the two immediately preceding financial years.
• Who is/was not an employee of the Company its holding, subsidiary,
associate company in the any of the three immediately preceding
financial years.
CLAUSE 49 ON INDEPENDENT
DIRECTORS contd..
• Is/has not been an employee/proprietor/partner of an audit /legal
/consulting/any other firm which has transaction with the Company its
holding, subsidiary, associate company, amounting to 10% or more of
gross turnover of that firm, in any of three preceding financial years.
• Is not a CEO/Director of a non-profit firm that receives 25% or more
of its receipts from the Company its holding, subsidiary, associate
company, promoters or its directors, or holds 2% or more voting
power of the Company.
• is not a material supplier, service provider or customer or a lessor or
lessee of the company.
• Is not less than 21 years of age.
CLAUSE 49 ON DIRECTORIAL
REMUNERATION
• Disclosure of all pecuniary relationships of non-executive directors
with the company.
• Disclosure of detailed information on remuneration to directors.
• Disclosure of criteria of making payments to non-executive directors.
• Disclosure of shares/other instruments held by non-executive directors.
SOME RESTRICTIONS ON IDS
Outside Directorship
• A person not to serve as an ID in more than 7 listed companies.
• A whole-time director of one company not to serve as an ID in more than 3
listed companies.
Tenure
• An ID can only hold office for two terms of five years each.
• Reappointment for the second term has to be sought from shareholders
through a special resolution.
• If an person has already served as an ID for 5 years or more in a company as
on October 1st 2014, he will be eligible for one more term of upto 5 years only.
• An ID will be eligible for reappointment as an ID only after allowing a 3 years
cooling-off period, after completion of two terms.
Stock Options:
• IDs will not be entitled to any stock options of the Company.
CLAUSE 49 ON AUDIT COMMITTEES
Members
• At-least three members, two-thirds of which shall be IDs
• All the members must be financially literate and one member must be
an expert in accounting or related financial management
• The Chairman of the Audit Committee must be an Independent
Director
Meeting
• At-least four times a year and not more than four months gaps
between meetings
Roles
• Oversight of the company’s financial reporting process and the
disclosure of its financial information to ensure that the financial
statement is correct, sufficient and credible.
• Approval of payment to external auditors for any other services
rendered by the external auditors.
CLAUSE 49 ON AUDIT COMMITTEES
contd..
• Recommending to the Board, the appointment, re-appointment and, if
required, the replacement or removal of the external auditor and the
fixation of audit fees.
• Reviewing, with the management, the annual financial statements before
submission to the board for approval
• Reviewing, with the management, the quarterly financial statements
before submission to the board for approval
• Reviewing, with the management, external and internal auditors,
adequacy of the internal control systems.
• Reviewing the company’s financial and risk management policies.
• To look into the reasons for substantial defaults in the payment to the
depositors, debenture holders, shareholders (in case of non payment of
declared dividends) and creditors.
CLAUSE 49 ON AUDIT COMMITTEES
contd..
Review of information by Audit Committee
• Management discussion and analysis of financial condition and results
of operations
• Statement of significant related party transactions (as defined by the
audit committee), submitted by management
• Management letters / letters of internal control weaknesses issued by
the external auditors
• Internal audit reports relating to internal control weaknesses
• The appointment, removal and terms of remuneration of the Chief
internal auditor shall be subject to review by the Audit Committee
CLAUSE 49 ON SUBSIDIARIES
• At-least one ID of the company should be a director on the Board of a
material non-listed Indian subsidiary.
• The audit committee should review financial statements of and
investments made by the unlisted subsidiary.
• No company can dispose of shares in the material subsidiary, reducing
its shareholding below 50%, without passing a special resolution in its
general meeting.
• Selling, disposing or leasing of more than 20% of assets of the material
subsidiary will require approval of shareholders by way of special
resolution.
CLAUSE 49 ON RELATED PARTY
TRANSACTIONS
• RPTs to require prior approval of the audit committee.
• Material RPTs to require shareholder approval though special
resolution and concerned related parties to abstain from voting on
such resolutions.
• Disclosure of all material RPTs on a quarterly basis with compliance
report on corporate governance.
• Disclosure of policies on dealing with RPTs, in website and Annual
Report.
CLAUSE 49 ON OTHER BOARD
PROVISIONS
• A director can’t be a member in more than 10 committees and
Chairman of more than 5 committees across all the Boards of Indian
listed companies.
• IDs who resign or are removed, are to be replaced with new IDs within
3 months or immediate next Board meeting, whichever is earlier, in
case the requirement of IDs is not met.
• Board members have to affirm compliance with a ‘Code of Conduct’
on an annual basis.
• IDs to be held liable in acts of omission or commission, which occurs in
their knowledge.
• Company has to mandatorily establish a whistle blower mechanism.
CLAUSE 49 ON DISCLOSURE AND
TRANSPARENCY
• The Company should ensure timely and accurate disclosure of information
to its shareholders.
• The information should be prepared and disclosed in accordance with the
prescribed standards and rules.
• Channels for dissemination of information should provide for equal,
timely and cost efficient access to relevant information by users
• The company should maintain minutes of the meeting explicitly recording
dissenting opinions.
CLAUSE 49 ON OTHER DISCLOSURES
• Directorial Resignation: Disclosure of letter of resignation of directors
along with reasons, on the company website and stock exchange,
within one working day of receipt of the letter.
• Letter of Appointment: Disclosure of letter of appointment of an ID
along with detailed profile, on the company website and stock
exchange, within one working day of date of appointment.
• Disclosure of training imparted to IDs, in the Annual Report.
• Disclosure of details of establishment of vigil mechanism, in company
website and Board’s report.
• Disclosure of the remuneration policy and the evaluation criteria in the
Annual Report.
MAJOR SCAMS
BHANSALI SCAM
• Between the years of 1992 - 1996, Chain Roop Bhansali was running a
lot of financial firms like CRB Capital Markets, CRB Mutual Fund
and CRB Share Custodial Services
• He offered lot of attractive schemes and made the public and big
organizations to invest in his financial outfits.
• Once investment was made Bhansali very conveniently transferred the
money to imaginary companies.
• Thus he easily owned money worth Rs 900 crores from all the sources.
• It was only when his capital grew from Rs.2 crores in 1992 to Rs.430
crores in 1996 there was a suspicion.
BHANSALI SCAM
• Thus Chain Roop Bhansali was soon charged under various grounds
like fraud, cheating, siphoning off funds from SBI and much more.
• Bhansali made several misleading companies to float in the market like
the CRB Capital Markets, CRB Mutual Fund & CRB Share Custodial
Services and nearly 133 subsidiaries and unlisted companies which
were truly dummy.
• The above three mentioned companies played a major role in
attracting a huge chunk of public money through various attractive
schemes with fixed deposits, bonds and debentures
TELGI SCAM
• Abdul Karim Telgi from Belgaum in Karnataka is the main accused in
the major Telgi scam which is worth more than 43,000 crores
• The scam involved the printing and circulation of duplicate stamps
and stamp papers
• In the year 2003, Abdul Karim Telgi started printing fake stamp paper
and also along with this appointed nearly 300 agents for selling the
duplicate stamp papers to bulk purchasers like banks, financial
institutions, insurance companies and share broking firms.
• A shortage of stamp paper engineered with the help of a few officials of
the Indian Security Press at Nashik enabled Telgi to expand his illegal
business throughout the country
• There were also records which clearly state that there were lot of illegal
support from various other organizations and departments of the
Government which were helping in the production and the selling of
the high security stamps.
TELGI SCAM
• Telgi had appointed lot of agents who worked to explore the loopholes
or inadequacies in the law and when the right time emerged Telgi and
his team established a well- knitted network
• Telgi's methodology was that he used a special type of chemical to wash
the cancelled stamp papers.
• Once the stamp papers were washed it used to give a fresh look after
which they were sold at even discount prices by his network of people
to big corporations such as Indian Oil or the Life Insurance
Corporation
HARSHAD MEHTA SCAM
• Harshad Mehta was making waves in the stock market. He had been
buying shares heavily since the beginning of 1990.
• The crucial mechanism through which the scam was effected was
the ready forward (RF) deal.
• Another instrument used in a big way was the bank receipt (BR).
• The money which was got due to manipulation was used to drive up
the prices of stocks in the stock market.
Thank you

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Clause 49

  • 1.
  • 2. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE • Corporate Governance aims to balance the interests of the various parties involved. • By balancing the interests of all the stakeholders- management, shareholders, consumers etc, it formulates ways to attain company’s objectives. • Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement by Securities Exchange Board of India elaborates on the issue of Corporate Governance and prescribes the norms under which the Companies are mandated to operate
  • 3. SEBI • On April 12, 1988, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)was established with a dual objective of protecting the rights of small investors and regulating and developing the stock markets in India • In 1992, the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE),the leading stock exchange in India, witnessed the first major scam masterminded by Harshad Mehta. • Analysts unanimously felt that if more powers had been given to SEBI, the scam would not have happened. • As a result the Government of India (GoI) brought in a separate legislation by the name of ‘SEBI Act 1992’and conferred statutory powers to it. • Since then, SEBI had introduced several stock market reforms. These reforms significantly transformed the face of Indian Stock Markets
  • 4. SEBI and Clause 49 • SEBI asked Indian firms above a certain size to implement Clause 49, a regulation that strengthens the role of independent directors serving on corporate boards. • On August 26, 2003, SEBI announced an amended Clause 49 of the listing agreement which every public company listed on an Indian stock exchange is required to sign. The amended clauses come into immediate effect for companies seeking a new listing.
  • 5. CLAUSE 49 ON SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS • Participate in and be sufficiently informed on decisions concerning fundamental corporate changes. • Vote in shareholder meetings. • Ask questions to the Board and propose resolutions. • Participate in nomination and election of Board members. • Exercise their ownership rights. • Put forward their grievances to the Company. • Be protected from abusive actions in the interest of controlling shareholders.
  • 6. CLAUSE 49 ON BOARD COMPOSITION • At-least half of the Board should be IDs  If Chairman is an ED  If Chairman is a Promoter or related to a Promoter.  If Chairman is related to anyone occupying management position  If the Board doesn’t have a regular non-executive Chairman • At-least one-third of the Board should be IDs  If the Chairman is an NED • The Board should have at-least one woman director.
  • 7. CLAUSE 49 ON INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS • Is not a Nominee Director • Is/was not a promoter / relative of the promoter of the Company • Has/had no pecuniary relationship with the Company, its holding, subsidiary, associate company or the promoters or directors during two immediately preceding financial years. • Whose relatives do not have/had any pecuniary relationship with the Company its holding, subsidiary, associate company or the promoters or directors, amounting to 2% or more of its total income or Rs. 50 lakh during the two immediately preceding financial years. • Who is/was not an employee of the Company its holding, subsidiary, associate company in the any of the three immediately preceding financial years.
  • 8. CLAUSE 49 ON INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS contd.. • Is/has not been an employee/proprietor/partner of an audit /legal /consulting/any other firm which has transaction with the Company its holding, subsidiary, associate company, amounting to 10% or more of gross turnover of that firm, in any of three preceding financial years. • Is not a CEO/Director of a non-profit firm that receives 25% or more of its receipts from the Company its holding, subsidiary, associate company, promoters or its directors, or holds 2% or more voting power of the Company. • is not a material supplier, service provider or customer or a lessor or lessee of the company. • Is not less than 21 years of age.
  • 9. CLAUSE 49 ON DIRECTORIAL REMUNERATION • Disclosure of all pecuniary relationships of non-executive directors with the company. • Disclosure of detailed information on remuneration to directors. • Disclosure of criteria of making payments to non-executive directors. • Disclosure of shares/other instruments held by non-executive directors.
  • 10. SOME RESTRICTIONS ON IDS Outside Directorship • A person not to serve as an ID in more than 7 listed companies. • A whole-time director of one company not to serve as an ID in more than 3 listed companies. Tenure • An ID can only hold office for two terms of five years each. • Reappointment for the second term has to be sought from shareholders through a special resolution. • If an person has already served as an ID for 5 years or more in a company as on October 1st 2014, he will be eligible for one more term of upto 5 years only. • An ID will be eligible for reappointment as an ID only after allowing a 3 years cooling-off period, after completion of two terms. Stock Options: • IDs will not be entitled to any stock options of the Company.
  • 11. CLAUSE 49 ON AUDIT COMMITTEES Members • At-least three members, two-thirds of which shall be IDs • All the members must be financially literate and one member must be an expert in accounting or related financial management • The Chairman of the Audit Committee must be an Independent Director Meeting • At-least four times a year and not more than four months gaps between meetings Roles • Oversight of the company’s financial reporting process and the disclosure of its financial information to ensure that the financial statement is correct, sufficient and credible. • Approval of payment to external auditors for any other services rendered by the external auditors.
  • 12. CLAUSE 49 ON AUDIT COMMITTEES contd.. • Recommending to the Board, the appointment, re-appointment and, if required, the replacement or removal of the external auditor and the fixation of audit fees. • Reviewing, with the management, the annual financial statements before submission to the board for approval • Reviewing, with the management, the quarterly financial statements before submission to the board for approval • Reviewing, with the management, external and internal auditors, adequacy of the internal control systems. • Reviewing the company’s financial and risk management policies. • To look into the reasons for substantial defaults in the payment to the depositors, debenture holders, shareholders (in case of non payment of declared dividends) and creditors.
  • 13. CLAUSE 49 ON AUDIT COMMITTEES contd.. Review of information by Audit Committee • Management discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations • Statement of significant related party transactions (as defined by the audit committee), submitted by management • Management letters / letters of internal control weaknesses issued by the external auditors • Internal audit reports relating to internal control weaknesses • The appointment, removal and terms of remuneration of the Chief internal auditor shall be subject to review by the Audit Committee
  • 14. CLAUSE 49 ON SUBSIDIARIES • At-least one ID of the company should be a director on the Board of a material non-listed Indian subsidiary. • The audit committee should review financial statements of and investments made by the unlisted subsidiary. • No company can dispose of shares in the material subsidiary, reducing its shareholding below 50%, without passing a special resolution in its general meeting. • Selling, disposing or leasing of more than 20% of assets of the material subsidiary will require approval of shareholders by way of special resolution.
  • 15. CLAUSE 49 ON RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS • RPTs to require prior approval of the audit committee. • Material RPTs to require shareholder approval though special resolution and concerned related parties to abstain from voting on such resolutions. • Disclosure of all material RPTs on a quarterly basis with compliance report on corporate governance. • Disclosure of policies on dealing with RPTs, in website and Annual Report.
  • 16. CLAUSE 49 ON OTHER BOARD PROVISIONS • A director can’t be a member in more than 10 committees and Chairman of more than 5 committees across all the Boards of Indian listed companies. • IDs who resign or are removed, are to be replaced with new IDs within 3 months or immediate next Board meeting, whichever is earlier, in case the requirement of IDs is not met. • Board members have to affirm compliance with a ‘Code of Conduct’ on an annual basis. • IDs to be held liable in acts of omission or commission, which occurs in their knowledge. • Company has to mandatorily establish a whistle blower mechanism.
  • 17. CLAUSE 49 ON DISCLOSURE AND TRANSPARENCY • The Company should ensure timely and accurate disclosure of information to its shareholders. • The information should be prepared and disclosed in accordance with the prescribed standards and rules. • Channels for dissemination of information should provide for equal, timely and cost efficient access to relevant information by users • The company should maintain minutes of the meeting explicitly recording dissenting opinions.
  • 18. CLAUSE 49 ON OTHER DISCLOSURES • Directorial Resignation: Disclosure of letter of resignation of directors along with reasons, on the company website and stock exchange, within one working day of receipt of the letter. • Letter of Appointment: Disclosure of letter of appointment of an ID along with detailed profile, on the company website and stock exchange, within one working day of date of appointment. • Disclosure of training imparted to IDs, in the Annual Report. • Disclosure of details of establishment of vigil mechanism, in company website and Board’s report. • Disclosure of the remuneration policy and the evaluation criteria in the Annual Report.
  • 20. BHANSALI SCAM • Between the years of 1992 - 1996, Chain Roop Bhansali was running a lot of financial firms like CRB Capital Markets, CRB Mutual Fund and CRB Share Custodial Services • He offered lot of attractive schemes and made the public and big organizations to invest in his financial outfits. • Once investment was made Bhansali very conveniently transferred the money to imaginary companies. • Thus he easily owned money worth Rs 900 crores from all the sources. • It was only when his capital grew from Rs.2 crores in 1992 to Rs.430 crores in 1996 there was a suspicion.
  • 21. BHANSALI SCAM • Thus Chain Roop Bhansali was soon charged under various grounds like fraud, cheating, siphoning off funds from SBI and much more. • Bhansali made several misleading companies to float in the market like the CRB Capital Markets, CRB Mutual Fund & CRB Share Custodial Services and nearly 133 subsidiaries and unlisted companies which were truly dummy. • The above three mentioned companies played a major role in attracting a huge chunk of public money through various attractive schemes with fixed deposits, bonds and debentures
  • 22. TELGI SCAM • Abdul Karim Telgi from Belgaum in Karnataka is the main accused in the major Telgi scam which is worth more than 43,000 crores • The scam involved the printing and circulation of duplicate stamps and stamp papers • In the year 2003, Abdul Karim Telgi started printing fake stamp paper and also along with this appointed nearly 300 agents for selling the duplicate stamp papers to bulk purchasers like banks, financial institutions, insurance companies and share broking firms. • A shortage of stamp paper engineered with the help of a few officials of the Indian Security Press at Nashik enabled Telgi to expand his illegal business throughout the country • There were also records which clearly state that there were lot of illegal support from various other organizations and departments of the Government which were helping in the production and the selling of the high security stamps.
  • 23. TELGI SCAM • Telgi had appointed lot of agents who worked to explore the loopholes or inadequacies in the law and when the right time emerged Telgi and his team established a well- knitted network • Telgi's methodology was that he used a special type of chemical to wash the cancelled stamp papers. • Once the stamp papers were washed it used to give a fresh look after which they were sold at even discount prices by his network of people to big corporations such as Indian Oil or the Life Insurance Corporation
  • 24. HARSHAD MEHTA SCAM • Harshad Mehta was making waves in the stock market. He had been buying shares heavily since the beginning of 1990. • The crucial mechanism through which the scam was effected was the ready forward (RF) deal. • Another instrument used in a big way was the bank receipt (BR). • The money which was got due to manipulation was used to drive up the prices of stocks in the stock market.