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CATALYSTS FOR SUSTAINABLE
CLOTHING CONSUMPTION
NewValue Propositions for Over Consumers
SPECIAL SESSION
Moderator: Cosette M. Joyner Armstrong,
Oklahoma State University, USA
Tim Cooper
Professor
Nottingham
Trent
University
UK
Kyungeun
Sung
Lecturer
De Montfort
University
& Nottingham
Trent
University
UK
Tina Müller
PhD Fellow
Copenhagen
Business
School
DK
Lisa McNeill
Associate
Professor
University of
Otago
NZ
Emotional FitKatherine
Townsend
Associate
Professor
Nottingham
Trent
University
UK
CLOTHING STYLE
CONFIDENCE
Development and validation of 5-dimension
scale to explore how personal influences
sustainable clothing consumption
Confidence about the individual way one
expresses themselves with clothing and
accessories, which includes a preference for:
1.  Style longevity
2.  An aesthetic perceptual ability
3.  Engagement in creativity
4.  A priority given to appearance
5.  …and an emphasis on personal
authenticity.
Cosette M. Joyner Armstrong
Oklahoma State University
Final Scale
Domain Theory
foundation
Interview
examples
Survey item examples
Style
longevity
Style
consumption
Style orientation
Freedom in dress
“I don't buy
too trendy
items since it
will be out of
date very
soon.”
 
I like to buy clothing that I
know won’t go out of style
for a while.
 
I prefer to purchase
clothing I know I can utilize
for a long time.
Aesthetic
perceptual
ability
Aesthetic value
Aesthetic
perceptual
ability
Centrality of
visual product
aesthetics
“I think that I
know what
looks good on
me”
I have the ability to put
clothes together in an
aesthetically pleasing way.
I know how to select
clothing that flatters my
body.
Final Scale (cont.)
Domain Theory
foundation
Interview
examples
Survey item examples
Creativity Use
innovativeness
Consumer
creativity
Creative
expression
 “I enjoy
playing with
my style and
recreating my
look on a
daily basis.”
I experiment to put
different clothing items
together to create my
personal style.
 
I enjoy new ways to use old
clothing.
Appearance
importance
Appearance
investment,
orientation,
evaluation
Vanity
“I feel that my
appearance
is a way that I
represent
myself; self
image is
important to
me.”
How I look when I’m
dressed is important to me.
 
What I look like is an
important part of who I
am.
Final Scale (end)
Domain Theory
foundation
Interview
examples
Survey item examples
Authenticity Authenticity
Authentic self
awareness
Authentic self
expression
“I dress the
way I do to
please myself”
 
My clothing style matches
the real me.
 
I know who I am when it
comes to what I wear.
Note. All constructs were measured on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly
disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
Predictive Validity
External Criterion
Behaviors
SL APA CR AI AU
Wardrobe engagement
(α = .722)
.197 .465 .550 .476 .459
Wardrobe preservation
(α = .710)
.225 .356 .401 .381 .274
Note. All correlations are significant. p < .01.
Wardrobe Engagement
Knowing what is in one’s closet, organization for the purpose of
developing outfit ideas and identifying items to keep/discard (e.g.
attending to wardrobe, Fletcher 2016; emotional attachment fostered
via psychic energy supports longevity, Belk, 1987).
Wardrobe Preservation
Care & maintenance of clothing, including rotating wear, repair,
laundering, and storage (e.g. “good housekeeping”, Fletcher & Tham,
2004)
FUTURE RESEARCH
„ Substantiate precisely how CSC influences aspects
of sustainable clothing consumption
„  Consumption across product lifecycle (e.g. purchase & disposal
frequency)
„ “Style sensitive” = small segment of population
(Sproles, 1979 ); related to aesthetics & standards of
taste dependent (Cohen, 1998;Wagner, 1999); can be
trained (Delong, 1978)
„ Implications for retail marketing &
consumer education could support
sustainable consumption
The relationship between fashion
and style orientation & well-being
1.  Explore the conceptual distinction between style
and fashion orientations and their relationship with
subjective well-being
2.  Investigate the role of materialism in the
relationships between style and fashion orientation
and subjective well-being
Tina Müller
Copenhagen Business School
Fashion vs. style orientation
•  Focus on consumers with high interest and
involvement in fashion
Fashionorientation
• Up-to-date on the latest
fashion trends
• Emphasize the material
and possession
components
of clothing acquisition
• View clothing as a
means to achieve
social positioning
and status
Styleorientation
• Select clothing that
reflects one’s personal
taste, interests, and
characteristics (i.e.
expressing individuality)
• Emphasize longevity,
authenticity and
uniqueness
• Acquire fewer products
than fashion-oriented
consumers
Materialism
Materialism …
•  refers to the importance a person places on
possessions and their acquisition as a
necessary or desirable form of conduct to
reach desired end states
•  is characterized by three facets:
Acquisition centrality
Happiness through acquisition
Success (i.e. success evaluated by possessions)
•  has consistently been found
negatively linked to subjective well-being
Subjective well-being
•  relates to how people feel and think about
their life
•  comprises both cognitive and affective well-
being
Cognitive well-being (CWB) refers to domain-
specific and global evaluations of life
Affective well-being (AWB) refers to the frequency
and intensity of positive and negative emotions
and mood
1.  Materialism is more strongly related to fashion
orientation than style orientation
2.  Consumers with a style orientation exhibit
higher levels of SWB than fashion-oriented
consumers
3.  Materialism mediates the relationship
between fashion as well as style orientation
and SWB
1.  Materialism is more strongly related to fashion
orientation than style orientation
2.  Consumers with a style orientation exhibit
higher levels of SWB than fashion-oriented
consumers
3.  Materialism mediates the relationship
between fashion as well as style orientation
and SWB
Hypotheses
and results
A fashion orientation is more strongly related
to materialism than a style orientation
Style-oriented consumers exhibit higher levels
of SWB than fashion-oriented consumers
When the materialistic aspect of a fashion
orientation is controlled for, both clothing
orientations are positively related to SWB
Conclusions
FUTURE RESEARCH
„ Reduced clothing consumption
„  Prevalence, motivations and outcomes
„ Diary data on consumption
„ Can we strengthen positive attitudes
towards and consequentially foster
reduced clothing consumption behaviours
with interventions?
Clothing Longevity
Tim Cooper
NottinghamTrent University
Scaling up fashion upcycling
businesses in the UK
Multi-stakeholder perspectives
from 16 practitioners and 7
consumers in the UK on:
1.  Challenges for scaling up
2.  Success factors for scaling up
3.  Potential actors to make
changes
Kyungeun Sung
De Montfort University
NottinghamTrent University
http://ethicalfashionblog.com/wp-content/uploads/
2013/07/newspaper-print-parka.jpg
Tim Cooper, Johanna Oehlmann, Mollie Painter-
Morland, Usha Ramanathan, Jagdeep Singh
NottinghamTrent University
Research methods
§  Semi-structured interviews (face-to-face or phone) with 23
stakeholders of upcycling-based SMEs conducted
between April and June 2017 (30-60 mins)
§  Purposive sampling (dimensional)
−  16 practitioners: 2 material suppliers, 2 supplier-retailers, 1
upcycler, 10 upcycler-retailers, and 1 retailer
−  7 consumers: 4 females + 3 males (2 under 35; 3 between 35
and 54; 2 55 and over)
§  Questions: Challenges, success factors, suitable actors
§  Analysis: Thematic analysis (QSR Nvivo 10)
Material suppliers’ perspective
unsteady inflow of sufficient,
affordable materials
Decreasing donations (for
selling materials)
Complicated laws and
legislations
Being financially unstableBad macro-economic
situation
Promotion
Law and
legislation help
and support
Financial support for lease/
rent
Individual activists and
volunteers
National
organisations
(e.g. Reuseful UK)
Local councils
Upcycling designers and
makers’ perspectives
Limited access to a variety of
affordable, used materials with
quality and quantity
−  Limited by the materials
−  Difficult to find a right
equipment
Time-consuming handmade
process
small volume
production
Limited product
variety
High labour cost
−  Difficult to build reputation
−  High cost for attending
markets and fairs
High price for
sales
−  Unaffordable space
−  A lack of space
Having employees
and apprentices
§  Online
marketing
support
§  Connections
with right buyers
§  Press coverage
Financial
support
Upcyclers
Retailers’ perspectives
Varied quality of products
Consumers’ negative perception
−  Difficult to get the right
narratives and keywords
−  Difficult social media use
−  Difficult to attract suitable
consumers
−  No time for market research
A lack of funding
−  Shop with insufficient display
space and in a bad location
−  High rent
High quality (e.g. aesthetics, longevity,
desirability)
Good exposure of the shop and
products
-  Effective online marketing
-  Good story/history behind products
-  Right wording
-  Good product photos
-  Good product reviews
-  Celebrity involvement
-  Building trust
-  Appreciation of the skills and time
for upcycling
Retailers
Social media, celebrities, consumers,
volunteers
Consumers’ perspectives
−  Limited availability of products
−  Finding good quality products
−  Suitability
−  Warranty
−  High price
−  Price justification
−  Access to the products
−  Convenience in shopping
−  A lack of awareness
−  A loss of appreciation of the
value of handmade products
−  Personal situation
Bespoke
Lowered price by VAT reduction
Increasing availability and access to
products
-  More physical shops embedded in
local shopping environment
-  Financial support and incentives
for retailers
-  Incentives or grants for designers,
makers, manufactures.
-  Information
-  Training and education
Consumers, designers, makers, businesses
(including media) and government
FUTURE RESEARCH
„ Critically discuss (or validate) the findings
throughout a workshop with practitioners,
consumers and experts
„ Suggest promising interventions for scaling up
upcycling SMEs in the UK and beyond
„ Implications will impact upon progress towards
sustainability: a) contribution to academic and
policymaking communities; b) change of consumer
awareness and purchasing preferences; and c)
improvement of business practices à scaling up
of upcycling SMEs à reduce waste + employment
Catalysts  for  sustainable  clothing  consump5on:    
New  value  proposi5ons  for  over  consumers    
  
Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:  
Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
Associate  Professor  Lisa  McNeill  
lisa.mcneill@otago.ac.nz
•  This	
  study	
  explores	
  consumer	
  a4tude	
  and	
  behavioural	
  inten7on	
  toward	
  
collabora7ve	
  consump7on	
  generally,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  exploring	
  the	
  fashion	
  context	
  in	
  
light	
  of	
  several	
  fashion-­‐sharing	
  models	
  of	
  consump7on	
  (e.g.	
  ren7ng,	
  borrowing,	
  
trading	
  and	
  community	
  ownership).	
  	
  
•  The	
  sharing,	
  or	
  access,	
  economy	
  has	
  been	
  seen	
  as	
  a	
  hybrid	
  market	
  model	
  
between	
  owning	
  and	
  giA	
  giving;	
  characterised	
  by	
  mul7ple	
  modes	
  of	
  exchange	
  
that	
  operate	
  at	
  the	
  intersec7on	
  between	
  market	
  and	
  non-­‐market	
  economies	
  
(Scaraboto	
  2015).	
  	
  	
  
•  In	
  this	
  way,	
  the	
  sharing	
  economy	
  is	
  characterised	
  by	
  temporarily	
  accessing	
  
goods	
  and	
  services	
  in	
  place	
  of	
  owning	
  them,	
  and	
  is	
  ideal	
  for	
  assets	
  that	
  have	
  
frequent	
  idle	
  capacity,	
  such	
  as	
  fashion	
  items	
  (Botsman	
  and	
  Rogers	
  2010,	
  
Hamari,	
  Sjöklint	
  and	
  Ukkonen	
  2015).	
  
Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:    
Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
Findings	
  
•  Par7cipants	
  were	
  mo7vated	
  to	
  use	
  alterna7ve	
  consump7on	
  models	
  to	
  express	
  a	
  
unique	
  and	
  dis7nct	
  sense	
  of	
  individuality.	
  They	
  perceived	
  that	
  they	
  could	
  be	
  
more	
  self-­‐expressive	
  using	
  alterna7ve	
  consump7on	
  models,	
  which	
  is	
  an	
  
important	
  implica7on	
  for	
  the	
  marke7ng	
  of	
  collabora7ve	
  consump7on	
  op7ons.	
  	
  
•  The	
  current	
  study	
  found	
  that	
  many	
  consumers	
  were	
  mo7vated	
  to	
  par7cipate	
  in	
  
alterna7ve	
  forms	
  of	
  consump7on	
  due	
  to	
  a	
  desire	
  for	
  personal	
  change,	
  a	
  chance	
  
to	
  be	
  crea7ve	
  and	
  alterna7ve	
  means	
  to	
  develop	
  their	
  iden7ty.	
  External	
  
influences,	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  environmental	
  benefit	
  of	
  alterna7ve	
  fashion	
  
consump7on,	
  was	
  not	
  a	
  mo7va7ng	
  factor	
  in	
  their	
  decision,	
  despite	
  the	
  
par7cipants	
  showing	
  informed	
  awareness	
  of	
  the	
  detrimental	
  effects	
  the	
  fashion	
  
industry	
  has	
  on	
  the	
  environment.	
  
•  Par7cipants	
  were	
  predominantly	
  intrinsically	
  mo7vated,	
  therefore,	
  future	
  
research	
  of	
  alterna7ve	
  consump7on	
  models	
  could	
  examine	
  mo7va7ons	
  with	
  
regard	
  to	
  self-­‐determina7on	
  theory,	
  to	
  beVer	
  understand	
  the	
  balance	
  between	
  
consumer	
  values	
  regarding	
  sustainability	
  and	
  fashion	
  consump7on.	
  	
  
•  A	
  unique	
  contribu7on	
  that	
  this	
  study	
  provides	
  is	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
  place-­‐iden7ty	
  as	
  
a	
  mo7va7ng	
  factor	
  for	
  one	
  to	
  par7cipate	
  in	
  alterna7ve	
  forms	
  of	
  consump7on.	
  
Much	
  of	
  the	
  preceding	
  literature	
  on	
  fashion	
  consump7on	
  is	
  focused	
  on	
  the	
  use	
  
of	
  clothing	
  in	
  forming	
  an	
  iden7ty,	
  the	
  current	
  study	
  7es	
  the	
  emo7onal	
  sense	
  of	
  
place	
  to	
  alterna7ve	
  models	
  of	
  consump7on	
  iden7ty	
  development.	
  
Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:    
Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:    
Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
Mo*va*ons	
  (+ve)	
  
ü Uniqueness/
Difference/Variety	
  
ü Crea7vity	
  (in	
  self-­‐
expression)	
  
ü Confidence	
  (by	
  
collabora7on)	
  
ü Experimenta7on	
  (>risk)	
  
ü Learning	
  experience	
  
(<gain)	
  
Mo*va*ons	
  (-­‐ve)	
  
§ Ac7on	
  ‘unfashionable’	
  
§ Not	
  exci7ng	
  
§ Preconceived	
  style	
  
no7ons	
  for	
  model	
  
§ Ownership	
  no7ons	
  
(reluctant	
  to	
  give	
  back)	
  
§ Fear	
  of	
  failure	
  (system	
  
and	
  self)	
  
Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:    
Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
	
  
	
  
Mo*va*ons	
  (+ve)	
  
	
  
Mo*va*ons	
  (-­‐ve)	
  
	
  
•  “A	
  place	
  like	
  Dunedin	
  or	
  Wellington,	
  I	
  think	
  
there's	
  a	
  lot	
  of	
  people	
  that	
  are	
  interested	
  in	
  
fashion,	
  but	
  it	
  does	
  feel	
  more	
  like	
  a	
  
community.	
  Even	
  though	
  you'd	
  have	
  less	
  
choice	
  in	
  places	
  that	
  are	
  smaller	
  like	
  
Dunedin	
  and	
  Wellington,	
  because	
  there's	
  
that	
  sense	
  of	
  community,	
  I	
  think	
  it	
  would	
  
have	
  a	
  stronger	
  founda-on	
  to	
  grow	
  
from”	
  (Lily).	
  
	
  	
  
•  “Yes,	
  I	
  would	
  probably	
  parFcipate	
  more	
  for	
  
the	
  community,	
  or	
  more	
  for	
  the	
  people	
  
rather	
  than	
  the	
  clothes	
  themselves,	
  but	
  
yeah.	
  I	
  see	
  how	
  that's	
  really	
  appealing.	
  It	
  
sounds	
  really	
  fun.	
  Plus,	
  you	
  could	
  possibly	
  
gain	
  inspiraFon	
  from	
  that,	
  too,	
  so	
  yeah,	
  
definitely.”	
  (Deborah)	
  
•  “a	
  group	
  of	
  like-­‐minded	
  people”	
  (Lily)	
  
•  “Say	
  for	
  a	
  subscripFon	
  you	
  got	
  a	
  this	
  
white	
  shirt	
  that	
  you're	
  like,	
  "This	
  is	
  
amazing.	
  This	
  is	
  the	
  best	
  white	
  shirt	
  
I've	
  ever	
  worn."	
  Then	
  you	
  can't	
  get	
  it.	
  
You	
  get	
  it	
  one	
  week,	
  and	
  then	
  you	
  
can't	
  get	
  it	
  for	
  a	
  month.	
  You	
  are	
  like,	
  
"Well,	
  I	
  can't	
  get	
  it."	
  Maybe	
  you	
  just	
  
want	
  to	
  go	
  and	
  buy	
  it.”	
  (Alex).	
  	
  
	
  	
  
•  “Yeah,	
  you'd	
  be	
  gu6ed.	
  You'd	
  be	
  like,	
  
"Bye,	
  white	
  shirt.	
  I	
  don't	
  know	
  if	
  I'll	
  
ever	
  see	
  you	
  again,	
  but	
  you	
  were	
  a	
  
good	
  shirt."(Alex).	
  	
  
Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:    
Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
Support	
  Mechanisms	
  (+ve)	
  
ü Place	
  iden7ty/
community	
  
ü Community	
  
ü Limited	
  finances	
  
ü Social	
  structures	
  
Support	
  Mechanisms	
  (-­‐ve)	
  
•  Ageing/life	
  changes	
  
•  Earning	
  
•  Role	
  enforcement	
  
•  Lack	
  of	
  place	
  iden7ty/
community	
  
•  “Ooh.	
  It	
  sounds	
  like	
  a	
  lot	
  of	
  fun.	
  Yes,	
  I	
  
would	
  probably	
  parFcipate	
  more	
  for	
  
the	
  community,	
  or	
  more	
  for	
  the	
  
people	
  rather	
  than	
  the	
  clothes	
  
themselves,	
  but	
  yeah.	
  I	
  see	
  how	
  that's	
  
really	
  appealing.	
  It	
  sounds	
  really	
  fun.	
  
Plus,	
  you	
  could	
  possibly	
  gain	
  
inspira-on	
  from	
  that,	
  too,	
  so	
  yeah,	
  
definitely.”	
  (Deborah	
  )	
  
•  I	
  think	
  it’s	
  very	
  much	
  where	
  we’re	
  
at	
  at	
  the	
  moment,	
  and	
  the	
  living	
  style,	
  
and	
  the	
  culture	
  we’re	
  all	
  in	
  at	
  the	
  
moment,	
  like	
  at	
  this	
  age.	
  I’d	
  say	
  all	
  my	
  
friends	
  that	
  [got	
  full-­‐Fme	
  jobs]	
  at	
  the	
  
end	
  of	
  last	
  year	
  and	
  are	
  working	
  now,	
  
I’d	
  say	
  they	
  don’t	
  wear	
  each	
  other’s	
  
clothes	
  nearly	
  as	
  much	
  as	
  they	
  used	
  
to.”	
  (Holly)	
  
Support	
  Mechanisms	
  (+ve)	
   Support	
  Mechanisms	
  (-­‐ve)	
  
Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:    
Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
Q&
A ?
„  Cosette M. Joyner Armstrong
„  Oklahoma State University
„  Cosette.armstrong@okstate.edu
„  Katherine Townsend
„  Nottingham Trent University
„  Katherine.townsend@ntu.ac.uk
„  Tina Müller
„  Copenhagen Business School
„  Tm.msc@cbs.dk
„  Tim Cooper
„  Nottingham Trent University
„  T.h.cooper@ntu.ac.uk
„  Kyungeun Sung
„  De Montfort University
„  Kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk
„  Lisa McNeill
„  University of Otago
„  Lisa.mcneill@otago.ac.nz

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Catalysts for sustainable clothing consumption: New value propositions for over consumers (special session) - Download recommended (for full information)

  • 1. CATALYSTS FOR SUSTAINABLE CLOTHING CONSUMPTION NewValue Propositions for Over Consumers SPECIAL SESSION Moderator: Cosette M. Joyner Armstrong, Oklahoma State University, USA
  • 2. Tim Cooper Professor Nottingham Trent University UK Kyungeun Sung Lecturer De Montfort University & Nottingham Trent University UK Tina Müller PhD Fellow Copenhagen Business School DK Lisa McNeill Associate Professor University of Otago NZ
  • 4. CLOTHING STYLE CONFIDENCE Development and validation of 5-dimension scale to explore how personal influences sustainable clothing consumption Confidence about the individual way one expresses themselves with clothing and accessories, which includes a preference for: 1.  Style longevity 2.  An aesthetic perceptual ability 3.  Engagement in creativity 4.  A priority given to appearance 5.  …and an emphasis on personal authenticity. Cosette M. Joyner Armstrong Oklahoma State University
  • 5. Final Scale Domain Theory foundation Interview examples Survey item examples Style longevity Style consumption Style orientation Freedom in dress “I don't buy too trendy items since it will be out of date very soon.”   I like to buy clothing that I know won’t go out of style for a while.   I prefer to purchase clothing I know I can utilize for a long time. Aesthetic perceptual ability Aesthetic value Aesthetic perceptual ability Centrality of visual product aesthetics “I think that I know what looks good on me” I have the ability to put clothes together in an aesthetically pleasing way. I know how to select clothing that flatters my body.
  • 6. Final Scale (cont.) Domain Theory foundation Interview examples Survey item examples Creativity Use innovativeness Consumer creativity Creative expression  “I enjoy playing with my style and recreating my look on a daily basis.” I experiment to put different clothing items together to create my personal style.   I enjoy new ways to use old clothing. Appearance importance Appearance investment, orientation, evaluation Vanity “I feel that my appearance is a way that I represent myself; self image is important to me.” How I look when I’m dressed is important to me.   What I look like is an important part of who I am.
  • 7. Final Scale (end) Domain Theory foundation Interview examples Survey item examples Authenticity Authenticity Authentic self awareness Authentic self expression “I dress the way I do to please myself”   My clothing style matches the real me.   I know who I am when it comes to what I wear. Note. All constructs were measured on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
  • 8. Predictive Validity External Criterion Behaviors SL APA CR AI AU Wardrobe engagement (α = .722) .197 .465 .550 .476 .459 Wardrobe preservation (α = .710) .225 .356 .401 .381 .274 Note. All correlations are significant. p < .01. Wardrobe Engagement Knowing what is in one’s closet, organization for the purpose of developing outfit ideas and identifying items to keep/discard (e.g. attending to wardrobe, Fletcher 2016; emotional attachment fostered via psychic energy supports longevity, Belk, 1987). Wardrobe Preservation Care & maintenance of clothing, including rotating wear, repair, laundering, and storage (e.g. “good housekeeping”, Fletcher & Tham, 2004)
  • 9. FUTURE RESEARCH „ Substantiate precisely how CSC influences aspects of sustainable clothing consumption „  Consumption across product lifecycle (e.g. purchase & disposal frequency) „ “Style sensitive” = small segment of population (Sproles, 1979 ); related to aesthetics & standards of taste dependent (Cohen, 1998;Wagner, 1999); can be trained (Delong, 1978) „ Implications for retail marketing & consumer education could support sustainable consumption
  • 10. The relationship between fashion and style orientation & well-being 1.  Explore the conceptual distinction between style and fashion orientations and their relationship with subjective well-being 2.  Investigate the role of materialism in the relationships between style and fashion orientation and subjective well-being Tina Müller Copenhagen Business School
  • 11. Fashion vs. style orientation •  Focus on consumers with high interest and involvement in fashion Fashionorientation • Up-to-date on the latest fashion trends • Emphasize the material and possession components of clothing acquisition • View clothing as a means to achieve social positioning and status Styleorientation • Select clothing that reflects one’s personal taste, interests, and characteristics (i.e. expressing individuality) • Emphasize longevity, authenticity and uniqueness • Acquire fewer products than fashion-oriented consumers
  • 12. Materialism Materialism … •  refers to the importance a person places on possessions and their acquisition as a necessary or desirable form of conduct to reach desired end states •  is characterized by three facets: Acquisition centrality Happiness through acquisition Success (i.e. success evaluated by possessions) •  has consistently been found negatively linked to subjective well-being
  • 13. Subjective well-being •  relates to how people feel and think about their life •  comprises both cognitive and affective well- being Cognitive well-being (CWB) refers to domain- specific and global evaluations of life Affective well-being (AWB) refers to the frequency and intensity of positive and negative emotions and mood
  • 14. 1.  Materialism is more strongly related to fashion orientation than style orientation 2.  Consumers with a style orientation exhibit higher levels of SWB than fashion-oriented consumers 3.  Materialism mediates the relationship between fashion as well as style orientation and SWB 1.  Materialism is more strongly related to fashion orientation than style orientation 2.  Consumers with a style orientation exhibit higher levels of SWB than fashion-oriented consumers 3.  Materialism mediates the relationship between fashion as well as style orientation and SWB Hypotheses and results
  • 15. A fashion orientation is more strongly related to materialism than a style orientation Style-oriented consumers exhibit higher levels of SWB than fashion-oriented consumers When the materialistic aspect of a fashion orientation is controlled for, both clothing orientations are positively related to SWB Conclusions
  • 16. FUTURE RESEARCH „ Reduced clothing consumption „  Prevalence, motivations and outcomes „ Diary data on consumption „ Can we strengthen positive attitudes towards and consequentially foster reduced clothing consumption behaviours with interventions?
  • 18. Scaling up fashion upcycling businesses in the UK Multi-stakeholder perspectives from 16 practitioners and 7 consumers in the UK on: 1.  Challenges for scaling up 2.  Success factors for scaling up 3.  Potential actors to make changes Kyungeun Sung De Montfort University NottinghamTrent University http://ethicalfashionblog.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2013/07/newspaper-print-parka.jpg Tim Cooper, Johanna Oehlmann, Mollie Painter- Morland, Usha Ramanathan, Jagdeep Singh NottinghamTrent University
  • 19. Research methods §  Semi-structured interviews (face-to-face or phone) with 23 stakeholders of upcycling-based SMEs conducted between April and June 2017 (30-60 mins) §  Purposive sampling (dimensional) −  16 practitioners: 2 material suppliers, 2 supplier-retailers, 1 upcycler, 10 upcycler-retailers, and 1 retailer −  7 consumers: 4 females + 3 males (2 under 35; 3 between 35 and 54; 2 55 and over) §  Questions: Challenges, success factors, suitable actors §  Analysis: Thematic analysis (QSR Nvivo 10)
  • 20. Material suppliers’ perspective unsteady inflow of sufficient, affordable materials Decreasing donations (for selling materials) Complicated laws and legislations Being financially unstableBad macro-economic situation Promotion Law and legislation help and support Financial support for lease/ rent Individual activists and volunteers National organisations (e.g. Reuseful UK) Local councils
  • 21. Upcycling designers and makers’ perspectives Limited access to a variety of affordable, used materials with quality and quantity −  Limited by the materials −  Difficult to find a right equipment Time-consuming handmade process small volume production Limited product variety High labour cost −  Difficult to build reputation −  High cost for attending markets and fairs High price for sales −  Unaffordable space −  A lack of space Having employees and apprentices §  Online marketing support §  Connections with right buyers §  Press coverage Financial support Upcyclers
  • 22. Retailers’ perspectives Varied quality of products Consumers’ negative perception −  Difficult to get the right narratives and keywords −  Difficult social media use −  Difficult to attract suitable consumers −  No time for market research A lack of funding −  Shop with insufficient display space and in a bad location −  High rent High quality (e.g. aesthetics, longevity, desirability) Good exposure of the shop and products -  Effective online marketing -  Good story/history behind products -  Right wording -  Good product photos -  Good product reviews -  Celebrity involvement -  Building trust -  Appreciation of the skills and time for upcycling Retailers Social media, celebrities, consumers, volunteers
  • 23. Consumers’ perspectives −  Limited availability of products −  Finding good quality products −  Suitability −  Warranty −  High price −  Price justification −  Access to the products −  Convenience in shopping −  A lack of awareness −  A loss of appreciation of the value of handmade products −  Personal situation Bespoke Lowered price by VAT reduction Increasing availability and access to products -  More physical shops embedded in local shopping environment -  Financial support and incentives for retailers -  Incentives or grants for designers, makers, manufactures. -  Information -  Training and education Consumers, designers, makers, businesses (including media) and government
  • 24. FUTURE RESEARCH „ Critically discuss (or validate) the findings throughout a workshop with practitioners, consumers and experts „ Suggest promising interventions for scaling up upcycling SMEs in the UK and beyond „ Implications will impact upon progress towards sustainability: a) contribution to academic and policymaking communities; b) change of consumer awareness and purchasing preferences; and c) improvement of business practices à scaling up of upcycling SMEs à reduce waste + employment
  • 25. Catalysts  for  sustainable  clothing  consump5on:     New  value  proposi5ons  for  over  consumers       Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:   Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers Associate  Professor  Lisa  McNeill   lisa.mcneill@otago.ac.nz
  • 26. •  This  study  explores  consumer  a4tude  and  behavioural  inten7on  toward   collabora7ve  consump7on  generally,  as  well  as  exploring  the  fashion  context  in   light  of  several  fashion-­‐sharing  models  of  consump7on  (e.g.  ren7ng,  borrowing,   trading  and  community  ownership).     •  The  sharing,  or  access,  economy  has  been  seen  as  a  hybrid  market  model   between  owning  and  giA  giving;  characterised  by  mul7ple  modes  of  exchange   that  operate  at  the  intersec7on  between  market  and  non-­‐market  economies   (Scaraboto  2015).       •  In  this  way,  the  sharing  economy  is  characterised  by  temporarily  accessing   goods  and  services  in  place  of  owning  them,  and  is  ideal  for  assets  that  have   frequent  idle  capacity,  such  as  fashion  items  (Botsman  and  Rogers  2010,   Hamari,  Sjöklint  and  Ukkonen  2015).   Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:     Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
  • 27. Findings   •  Par7cipants  were  mo7vated  to  use  alterna7ve  consump7on  models  to  express  a   unique  and  dis7nct  sense  of  individuality.  They  perceived  that  they  could  be   more  self-­‐expressive  using  alterna7ve  consump7on  models,  which  is  an   important  implica7on  for  the  marke7ng  of  collabora7ve  consump7on  op7ons.     •  The  current  study  found  that  many  consumers  were  mo7vated  to  par7cipate  in   alterna7ve  forms  of  consump7on  due  to  a  desire  for  personal  change,  a  chance   to  be  crea7ve  and  alterna7ve  means  to  develop  their  iden7ty.  External   influences,  such  as  the  environmental  benefit  of  alterna7ve  fashion   consump7on,  was  not  a  mo7va7ng  factor  in  their  decision,  despite  the   par7cipants  showing  informed  awareness  of  the  detrimental  effects  the  fashion   industry  has  on  the  environment.   •  Par7cipants  were  predominantly  intrinsically  mo7vated,  therefore,  future   research  of  alterna7ve  consump7on  models  could  examine  mo7va7ons  with   regard  to  self-­‐determina7on  theory,  to  beVer  understand  the  balance  between   consumer  values  regarding  sustainability  and  fashion  consump7on.     •  A  unique  contribu7on  that  this  study  provides  is  the  concept  of  place-­‐iden7ty  as   a  mo7va7ng  factor  for  one  to  par7cipate  in  alterna7ve  forms  of  consump7on.   Much  of  the  preceding  literature  on  fashion  consump7on  is  focused  on  the  use   of  clothing  in  forming  an  iden7ty,  the  current  study  7es  the  emo7onal  sense  of   place  to  alterna7ve  models  of  consump7on  iden7ty  development.   Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:     Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
  • 28. Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:     Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers Mo*va*ons  (+ve)   ü Uniqueness/ Difference/Variety   ü Crea7vity  (in  self-­‐ expression)   ü Confidence  (by   collabora7on)   ü Experimenta7on  (>risk)   ü Learning  experience   (<gain)   Mo*va*ons  (-­‐ve)   § Ac7on  ‘unfashionable’   § Not  exci7ng   § Preconceived  style   no7ons  for  model   § Ownership  no7ons   (reluctant  to  give  back)   § Fear  of  failure  (system   and  self)  
  • 29. Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:     Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers     Mo*va*ons  (+ve)     Mo*va*ons  (-­‐ve)     •  “A  place  like  Dunedin  or  Wellington,  I  think   there's  a  lot  of  people  that  are  interested  in   fashion,  but  it  does  feel  more  like  a   community.  Even  though  you'd  have  less   choice  in  places  that  are  smaller  like   Dunedin  and  Wellington,  because  there's   that  sense  of  community,  I  think  it  would   have  a  stronger  founda-on  to  grow   from”  (Lily).       •  “Yes,  I  would  probably  parFcipate  more  for   the  community,  or  more  for  the  people   rather  than  the  clothes  themselves,  but   yeah.  I  see  how  that's  really  appealing.  It   sounds  really  fun.  Plus,  you  could  possibly   gain  inspiraFon  from  that,  too,  so  yeah,   definitely.”  (Deborah)   •  “a  group  of  like-­‐minded  people”  (Lily)   •  “Say  for  a  subscripFon  you  got  a  this   white  shirt  that  you're  like,  "This  is   amazing.  This  is  the  best  white  shirt   I've  ever  worn."  Then  you  can't  get  it.   You  get  it  one  week,  and  then  you   can't  get  it  for  a  month.  You  are  like,   "Well,  I  can't  get  it."  Maybe  you  just   want  to  go  and  buy  it.”  (Alex).         •  “Yeah,  you'd  be  gu6ed.  You'd  be  like,   "Bye,  white  shirt.  I  don't  know  if  I'll   ever  see  you  again,  but  you  were  a   good  shirt."(Alex).    
  • 30. Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:     Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers Support  Mechanisms  (+ve)   ü Place  iden7ty/ community   ü Community   ü Limited  finances   ü Social  structures   Support  Mechanisms  (-­‐ve)   •  Ageing/life  changes   •  Earning   •  Role  enforcement   •  Lack  of  place  iden7ty/ community  
  • 31. •  “Ooh.  It  sounds  like  a  lot  of  fun.  Yes,  I   would  probably  parFcipate  more  for   the  community,  or  more  for  the   people  rather  than  the  clothes   themselves,  but  yeah.  I  see  how  that's   really  appealing.  It  sounds  really  fun.   Plus,  you  could  possibly  gain   inspira-on  from  that,  too,  so  yeah,   definitely.”  (Deborah  )   •  I  think  it’s  very  much  where  we’re   at  at  the  moment,  and  the  living  style,   and  the  culture  we’re  all  in  at  the   moment,  like  at  this  age.  I’d  say  all  my   friends  that  [got  full-­‐Fme  jobs]  at  the   end  of  last  year  and  are  working  now,   I’d  say  they  don’t  wear  each  other’s   clothes  nearly  as  much  as  they  used   to.”  (Holly)   Support  Mechanisms  (+ve)   Support  Mechanisms  (-­‐ve)   Par%cipa%on  in  Collabora%ve  Fashion  Consump%on:     Young  Female  Over-­‐Consumers
  • 32. Q& A ? „  Cosette M. Joyner Armstrong „  Oklahoma State University „  Cosette.armstrong@okstate.edu „  Katherine Townsend „  Nottingham Trent University „  Katherine.townsend@ntu.ac.uk „  Tina Müller „  Copenhagen Business School „  Tm.msc@cbs.dk „  Tim Cooper „  Nottingham Trent University „  T.h.cooper@ntu.ac.uk „  Kyungeun Sung „  De Montfort University „  Kyungeun.sung@dmu.ac.uk „  Lisa McNeill „  University of Otago „  Lisa.mcneill@otago.ac.nz