Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Becca Editorial FINAL Stage 1

539 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Becca Editorial FINAL Stage 1

  1. 1. • 2 •
  2. 2. Foreword Introduction Rationale Aims & Objectives Methodology Chapter 1 - The Proliferation of Wellness Chapter 2 – Do More, Have Less Chapter 3 – Emotionally Invested Chapter 4 - #Lifeaholics The Insight The Future: Opportunities and Recommendations Conclusion References and Bibliography 4 6 8 10 12 18 23 31 39 48 51 56 58 contents • 3 •
  3. 3. Working at 110%, with a propensity for party season hedonism; compensating with a fitness and green juice obsession. Don’t be alarmed – it’s sustainable – for now. But these fast paced, endorphin fuelled habits are deep-rooted and persistent. Competitive job markets, rising living costs and FOMO (fear of missing out) do nothing to offer relief. I’m the lucky one though – to be reaching maturity and eyeing up the dizzy heights of a career ladder in an age where Buddhist meditation practice is embraced by even laggards and asking for ‘dressing on the side’ no longer results in a raised eyebrow. As with any trend, it’s interesting to consider how exactly it will impact yourself directly and the fast growth of the wellness movement is one that subconsciously looks to have changed my lifestyle. I’m a healthonist. foreword • 4 •
  4. 4. There’s now no denying what’s bad for us; the digital revolution ensured answers to most questions are only a click away and thanks to this people are exercising more, adopting flexitarian- ism, washing on 30oC and frankly; avocado is the new orange. I choose oat milk over cows’ milk, strong over skinny, and wouldn’t think twice about hopping on a plane to immerse in a brand new culture. After all, my generation is fuelling the experience economy. So in a day where living a meaningful and happy life, is fraught with info-overload, distraction and temptation, it begs the question; will the divergent ways of myself and my peers be accountable for changing the model of a consumerist society? • 5 •
  5. 5. introduction • 6 • Wellness is a key growing sector in the western economy, representing 5.1% of global economic output and in 2015 valued as a $3.7 trillion market. The societal trend for establishing long term, sustainably happy lifestyles via finding optimal mental and physical health, has arguably fuelled the growth of the industry. An explanation for this could be that the collective idea of the ‘American Dream’ is shifting from one ultimately chasing materialism, to one understanding what it means to“live the good life.”– resulting in a mass devaluation of the dominant cultural force that is consumerism. (Gregoire 2013) Defined as a theory that assumes progressively greater consumption of product, is economically beneficial, it has underpinned a capitalist culture that encouraged consumers to develop attachment to materialistic values or possessions, for decades. Historically, consumers understood this belief system could address personal dissatisfaction as“it promotes consuming as the path to self and social improvement.” (Gregoire 2013) Upon entering 2017, however, it’s expectant that cultural norms in western society are going to witness a period of great change.
  6. 6. • 7 • The millennial generation is coming of age to reach peak spending power; and as a result of technological development, globalisation and economic disruption, they have vastly different priorities, expectations and values to the generation before them. Consequently, a new meaning of consumerism is being unearthed, as research suggests consumers are searching for the root of true wellbeing and happiness, not more‘stuff’. (Hutton 2016) This raises the question therefore; How will companies respond to this shift, and to what extent are consumer concerns regarding their wellbeing, tangibly changing habits of consumption?
  7. 7. rationale • 8 • Since the financial crash in 2008, politicians have openly discussed the meaning of quality of life. (The Economist 2014) In 2010, former British Prime Minister David Cameron spoke about the importance of the ‘phenomena’ at the Google Zeitgeist conference, he said;“Wellbeing can’t be measured by money or traded in markets. It’s about the beauty of our surroundings, the quality of our culture and, above all, the strength of our relationships. Improving our society’s sense of wellbeing is, I believe, the central political challenge of our times.“ Subsequently, conversations on topics of happiness, work-life balance and the acclaimed revolutionary ‘work-life integration’ have intensified, particularly among the millennial generation born between 1980 and 2000 (Sarti 2016). This report will purposefully focus on the behaviours and opinions of this key generation, as in the next decade, they are set to move into the peak of their careers and prime spending years; overtaking the‘baby boomers’to become the largest generation in western history. As a cohort, they are arguably redefining what it means to be successful; as they witnessed the decade above them struggle under pressure to feel fulfilled by‘having it all’. As a result, health (both mental and physical) is a matter of necessity, not superficiality. (Reyner 2013) Millennials’ pragmatic approach, therefore suggests they treasure memories and relationships over money, which has fuelled a transition towards post materialist values; placing priority on belonging, self- expression, opportunity, diversity, community, the environment and quality of life. (Beaton 2016)
  8. 8. • 9 • Essentially, understanding the behaviours and motivates of Millennials, is crucial for estab- lishing what will influence the economy in the not so distant future. (Hoey 2016) Therefore, the research in this report aims to understand millennials’priorities and opinions, concluding with an appreciation for the extent to which the prioritisation of wellbeing is re-defining what and how they buy. The implications of this study will ultimately provide an insight in how the wellness trend is impacting millennials’values and behaviours, which in turn, can be used to inform brands strategic and creative decisions.
  9. 9. aims & objectives • 10 •
  10. 10. • To understand how consumers perceive wellbeing; and what the benefits and consequences are to achieving‘optimal wellness’in their lifestyles. • To realise what is driving millennials’awareness of their wellbeing • To investigate if consumers desire for a healthy way of life translates in their purchase decisions and lifestyle choices • To understand the value of experience Vs material goods; and the impact it has on wellbeing • To explore how retailers are responding to consumers’wellness goals • 11 • AIM: To investigate the extent to which millennials’prioritisation of wellbeing is influencing consumerism in the western world.
  11. 11. Secondary research was advantageous within this study as it provided context and allowed for comparison with data collected by the researcher, therefore permitting triangulation of findings which increased the generalisability of conclusions. (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2012) However, limitations have been acknowledged. To a certain degree, there is lack of control over data quality and bias of data presentation, if the purpose of the reviewed research was different to the research aim of this project. With this in mind, only reputable sources have been examined and a critical approach was taken when evaluating secondary data and documents to ensure maximised reliability and validity. Extensive secondary research was firstly conducted by examining existing literature written on the topic area, to establish a deep level of knowledge and understanding of societal trends. It underpinned a thorough appreciation of what is happening on a wide-scale global setting and the current state of the impacts of the lucrative wellness industry. A review of academic journals, books, case studies, industry reports, news articles and documentaries allowed for the emergence of clear themes and a framework to base a primary research study upon. methodology • 12 •
  12. 12. Semi structured individual interviews were conducted with 9 participants born between 1980 and 1995. This interview style was purposefully chosen to gain opinion and allow discussion to flow whilst conversation could be lead with some keys questions and themes. This method allows for data to be analysed qualitatively, which is insightful in understanding why consumers make the lifestyle choices they do, rather than simply which choices they make. Conducting the interviews in a relaxed setting allowed for participants to give more in depth description which allowed for a degree of subjective understanding concerning human motives. Limitations to this design have been noted however; the lack of standardised questions in semi structured interviews raises concerns about data reliability, validity and generalisability. For the nature of this research project however, where flexibility is key to gaining insight into a complex topic area, attempts made to increase the rigour of the research to allow for its replication would undermine the strength of the method, since the purpose is to reflect the opinions and realities of the participants lives at a moment in time. 1. To understand how consumers’perceive wellbeing; and what the benefits and consequences are to achieving‘optimal wellness’in their lifestyles. • How do consumers articulate what wellbeing means to them? • Do consumers know how to achieve‘optimal wellness’? • Understand whether decisions regarding career and lifestyle are driven by intrinsic or extrinsic motives. • 13 • Gaps in secondary research were stimulus for further study of specific areas. These gaps allowed for the formulation of research objectives, to be achieved through the following primary studies;
  13. 13. A questionnaire was distributed online to 145 respondents born between 1980 and 1995. The sample was sourced via social media platforms and gender ratio was 60:40 female: male. This was identified as the best research method for this objective as it allowed for collection of quantitative, quantifiable, comparable data and the variability of different influences on wellbeing could be indicted from analysing results. It was useful in gaining initial insight into the topic, to gauge an understanding in what specifically is most forceful in driving awareness to millennials, with regards to the state of their wellbeing. A limitation of this research method is lack of detail, as answers were dictated by multiple choice or ratings. There was little scope for respondents to supply answers which precisely reflect their true feelings or justify reasoning, therefore qualitative research was necessary in addition, to offer deeper insight into consumers’ behaviour. A second questionnaire was distributed to participants of the qualitative research studies, prior to meeting them, to understand their lifestyles, behaviours and opinions before deeper questioning. 2. To realise what is driving millennials’awareness of their wellbeing • As social media is responsible for an increase in access to information, does the recent proliferation of usage influence millennial lifestyles? • Does the increasing understanding of what it means to be healthy actually lead to behavioral change? • Are brands having an influence over millennials wellbeing? If so, how? • 14 • methodology
  14. 14. A diary study was conducted with 3 participants from millennial generation, examining their lifestyle choices. The purpose of this was to establish whether there is dissonance between attitudes and behaviours when it comes to their wellbeing. The participants were asked to keep a diary for 3-5 days; specifying what they ate and what they wore and articulate explanations. This length of study produced enough data to reduce the chances of behaviour being a one-time anomaly, and assume its reliability. However, limitations include the Hawthorne Effect, whereby participants normal behaviour may have altered due to their awareness of their behaviour being observed and analysed. It could also be critiqued, that a larger number of participants would be desirable to allow for greater generalisability. 3. To investigate if consumers’desire for a healthy way of life translates in their purchase decisions and lifestyle choices • With information and education so readily available and accessible; is there conflict between attitude and behaviour with regard to heathy lifestyles? • Are millennials buying brands that aren't agreeable with their belief systems? • Is wellbeing a factor that impacts purchase decisions? Is this conscious or subconscious? • 15 • methodology
  15. 15. Two qualitative discussion groups with millennials at differing life stages (30’s vs 20’s), were conducted. Each group was made of four participants and included both men and women. Debatably, this was an ideal ratio and size as the topic explored included emotionally involved constructs, thus; it was important for the atmosphere to be open-minded, so each participants’view could be heard. (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2012) The purpose of this research was to gain a deep understanding as to whether material- ism and materialistic goals are something more or less prevalent in younger millennials than older millennials. Video clips, proverbs and images were used as stimulus to start discussion. Set questions were however designed before discussion started, so results could be compared and contrasted between each group. • 16 • 4. To understand the value of experience Vs material goods; and the impact it has on wellbeing • Investigate to what degree the‘experience economy’influences consumer spending habits • Understand millennials’disposable income spending priorities • Are brands who offer added value from experience, more successful than those who don’t? • Establish detailed understanding of consumers’values, lifestyles and opinions methodology
  16. 16. Industry interviews with 5 marketers were conducted to gain insight across sectors; retail, lifestyle, fashion and beauty. Email interviews were chosen as the most appropriate method due to the speed and flexibility of which they could be conducted. The impersonal nature and briefness of this method however was recognised as a limitation and face to face meetings would have been the preferred method, had practicalities allowed. Nonetheless, written interviews were still advantageous to gain real time industry perspective on how consumers’increasing regard for their wellbeing is impacting brand behaviour, and to what extent brands are realising and responding to this. 5. To explore how retailers are responding to consumers’wellness goals • Do consumers consider brands to have a role with regard to their wellbeing? • Can brands play a role in improving wellbeing for millennials? • Which brands have successfully responded to consumer demands with regard to improving their wellbeing? • Are there profitable benefits for brands who communicate values of authenticity and community to their consumer? • 17 • methodology
  17. 17. the proliferation of wellness • 18 •
  18. 18. ellness is defined as “an active process through which people become aware of, and make choices toward, a more successful existence. It goes beyond mere freedom from disease or infirmity and emphasises the proactive maintenance and improvement of health and well-being.” (Global Wellness Institute 2016). Hence, arguably conceptualised as a process whereby individuals can aim to reach full potential, through a series of conscious, self-directed behaviours. The theory of wellness therefore originates from a health perspective, but has arguably evolved into a phenomenon, since the birth of the National Wellness Institute in California in 1978, when Dr Travis’ insightful publications on the topic brought it to mainstream attention. It could be claimed the “Tipping Point” to mainstream came about when Travis identified;“If people have reached material success and they are not happy, maybe they will try something else.” (British Vogue 2016) Thereafter, western society has gradually seen wellness develop to a fully commercialised industry; debatably consumers now spend with the intention of their actions enriching their quality of life and increasing their wellbeing. • 19 • W eligman’s (2011), hypothesis of well-being theory; is explained though a model of positive psychology, measured through five elements; positive emotion, engagement, positive relationships and meaning and accomplishment. (See appendix 4) He stipulates no singular element determines wellbeing, rather each contribute to it. It could be argued, this holistic framework, acts as a key contributor to understanding how well an individual is, and the relatively recent wellness boom has subconsciously increased awareness of these five elements among millennials. Results from a primary research questionnaire illustrated that 78% of millennial consumers view their wellbeing as a priority. It’s likely therefore, this demographic have been influenced chiefly, as the trend for enhanced wellbeing has developed exponentially in the same decade they grew into adulthood and cemented lifestyle choices. Participant 3 in discussion group 1 (see appendix 9) suggested accessibility of information due to technological advances this decade, offers an explanation as to why consumers are increasingly striving to enhance their health and wellbeing. “People are becoming more aware of their general health and fitness and are prioritising that, probably due to accessibility of information, they want to be the best they can be and constantly improve, be strong, fitter and healthier.“ the proliferation of wellness S
  19. 19. • 20 • the proliferation of wellness “People are becoming more aware of their general health and fitness and are prioritising that, probably due to accessibility of information, they want to be the best they can be and constantly improve, be strong, fitter and healthier.” Participant 3 in discussion group 1 (see appendix 9)
  20. 20. • 21 • O n the other hand, Watt Smith (2015) debates that the concept of ‘emodiversi- ty’ is somewhat responsible for driving the wellness boom; “Stronger physical and mental health is correlated with experiencing a range of emotions, instead of just being happy or content all the time. That means allowing yourself to feel sad, angry, irritable, bored, all the things we’ve been told we ought not to.” Believing therefore, there is an underlying trend concerned with a generational obsession with feelings and the journey of emotion, not just contentment, that is increasing con- sumers’ awareness of their feelings. Consequently, it could be argued, consumer attitudes point towards expecting a senseofholisticrealismfrombrands.Thiscanbe witnessed via the adoption of an emotive focus from brands outside the wellness sector such as fashion retailer Missguided, who use light hearted and relatable meme images and mottostoprovideconsumerswith‘lifereassur- ance’, as a key element in their social strategy; Furthermore,inthepast12monthsanambition has been to intensely incorporate campaigns with wellness bloggers into their marketing.; “As a brand we are now seeing a shift in what the consumer wants, and that shift has been to lifestyle and fitness. More and more girls are interested in this culture.”(See appendix 8) “As a brand we are now seeing a shift in what the consumer wants, and that shift has been to lifestyle and fitness. More and more girls are interested in this culture.”(See appendix 8) the proliferation of wellness
  21. 21. ccording to Schlossberg (2016) social media has spurred the biggest shift in consumers’ healthy lifestyles. However, survey results demonstrate how only 30% of respondents rank Instagram as being the most influential factor in increasing awareness of their wellbeing. This suggests disparity in understanding how millennials are motivated to increase their wellbeing. The influence of social media indicates extrinsic motivation to be a key driver in lifestyle choice, yet primary research revealed that intrinsic self-motivation plays a larger part in inspiring millennials to be healthier. Perhaps signifying therefore, the media portray an inaccurate stereotype of millennial motivations, which has a large impact on understanding how best to market to them. The following chapters therefore aim to uncover the truthful consequences a heightened regard for wellbeing has on consumption. A • 22 • the proliferation of wellness
  22. 22. do more, have less • 23 •
  23. 23. s a society, Sorensen (2013) argues “We have now reached a stage where self-realisation needs can be fulfilled via experiences.” Therefore, theorising that the experience economy has led to a new wave of commercial activity, as it’s recognised millennials value experience over material possession; as ‘doing’ has a more desirable impact on happiness, than buying. It could be claimed therefore, that value placed on material possession is decreasing as consumers’ priority of their wellbeing is increasing. According to Weinswig (2016) they are a generation more concerned with the“style of life, rather than the stuff of life”and the effect of this will arguably force an increase in companies “providing consumers, with services that fit into minimalist and socially conscious lifestyles.” Weinswig (2016) A • 24 • do more, have less t could be assumed, this is a result of societal development; where commodity goods that fulfil basic physiological and safety needs are easily accessible. (See Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Appendix 4) Heckstall (2016) reinforces;“Today, owning a product is easy. Even the poorest person can own a cell phone if they really want to. Owning something means nothing. It’s possible to say that it’s become something that’s expected of people.” Converse to the baby boomer generation, millennials believe ownership of material goods is a less relevant sign of success. In a primary research interview, Participant 7 stated;“Possessions are temporary things, and mostly unnecessary. Memories connect you to people and places emotionally, and make you feel like you have spent your time doing something rather than earning money to fill your house with something.”(See appendix 7). It could therefore be suggested, millennials are a generation intrigued and empowered by the idea of minimalism, motivated by a sense of freedom and care for the environment; ultimately marking a backlash to consumerism. I
  24. 24. • 25 • do more, have less sychological studies conducted this past decade have repeatedly concluded that consumerism, and the culture that surrounds it, often has undesirable effects on individuals’ happiness. Kasser (2004) highlights; heightened material values are damaging to interpersonal and community relations - and the ecological health of the planet, which ultimately has a negative impact on an individuals wellbeing. In support of this theory, Seligman (2011) proposes a point at which having more money reaches a point of diminishing returns on life satisfaction; known as the ‘Easterlin Paradox’. Diener (2009) explains;“If life satisfaction and income was a straight linear equation, then if an individual wanted to increase life satisfaction, they should strive to create more money, irrespective of how much they already have. Or, if government policy was aimed at increasing happiness, it should generate more and more wealth, no matter how rich it becomes.” In reality, this is not proved to be the case, as primary re- search has demonstrated that millennials are lessening their desire to earn money with the intention of spending on material goods, and increasing their yearning of experiences and a well-rounded lifestyle. he value of experience was shown to be much more worthy than tangible product ownership when millennials discussed their wellbeing.“Experiences contribute far more to my wellbeing for the lessons and learning they entail: the emotions, uplifting, fun, exhilarating, astonishing, meaningful, worthwhile, terrifying, awful and tragic, you can learn from them and they contribute to who you are as a person. Material items sit in a cupboard or drawer eventually accumulating some kind of guilt and dissatisfaction.” (Participant 8, See appendix 7) This suggests therefore, they are a generation somewhat immune from traditional methods of advertising and the capitalist culture - which poses a dynamic challenge for brands’ marketing. P T
  25. 25. “Millennials are realising retail therapy does not work”.Wallman (2011) do more, have less • 26 • s a result, therefore, there is increasing demand to align with millennials’experiential mentally. According to WGSN (2016) “Millennial shoppers expect added value and one-of-a-kind experiences through in-store educational workshops, free classes, and hands-on product testing.”Thus; actively making them feel good, and justifying their purchases as indeed necessary. (See appendix 3 Lulu Lemon Case Study) In discussion group 2, participant 2 acknowledged that an immersive retail environment has the power to affect her end purchase; “…The atmosphere of a brand, you’re swept up in the moment, lately at Psycle, I spent £8 on a smoothie! Like what? I can’t afford that! I got swept up in the atmosphere and the experience. You feel the brand really thinks about you, so I guess I spent £8 to feel incredible, not just for a smoothie.”Interestingly, participant 3 in discussion group 1 commented in line with this, she sees somewhat of a revolution in retail; “Brands are changing from becoming services that sell product, to communities that bring people together, and I think that’s only a positive thing.” A
  26. 26. • 27 • do more, have less he Purchase Spiral model See appendix 4) assumes the biggest factor in purchase decision is conversation, rather than marketing communications and therefore represents an interactive loop of engagement, in contrast to a linear sales funnel which historically attempted to describe a consumer journey. The impact friends have upon wellbeing arguably acts to explain why sense of community can hold such influence; 51% of primary research survey respondents rated friends as the most influential factor in implementing a change in their behaviour. (See appendix 6) In support, Larry D. Compeau, professor of marketing and consumer psychology at Clarkson University informs; “Feeling like you’re part of an elite group—that’s a huge purchase motivator, it’s about being in a club, it’s a social topic.” (Phelan 2015) The power of community and friendships are therefore arguably, under-developed antidotes that brands could leverage further to retain millennial transactions, as the cult trend of minimalism is providing millennials with validation for owning less. T
  27. 27. do more, have less he minimalist lifestyle is increasingly appealing to millennials and can arguably be explained through conclusions drawn from research by Gilorich andVan Boven which advised;“to be happy, individuals should spend their money, time and energy on experiences rather than material possessions.”(Wallman 2011) On the contrary, however, Worstall (2014) suggests material and financial wealth remain in having significance on an individual’s wellbeing. Offering a conflicting perspective on the Easterlin Paradox, he reasons;“It’s not the level of economic wealth that makes people happy or unhappy (above that basics level that is). Rather, it’s the direction of change of it. If a country is gradually getting richer then people will be happier than if the economy is stagnant or shrinking. The association of greater happiness with the richer countries is not really because they are richer, but because in becoming rich those countries have had decades, if not centuries, of gradually rising incomes: that very thing that makes people happy. The promise of positive progression.” Hence; suggesting happiness is not as a result of material wealth itself, rather the idea of growth in affluence. “What is going to serve a purpose or bring me joy?” (The Minimalists 2016) T • 28 •
  28. 28. do more, have less • 29 •
  29. 29. his theory perhaps explains why millennials are increasingly looking for positive affirmation and progression - to advance in enhancing intangible affluence and in turn, their wellbeing. Research suggested that activities which allow such productivity, such as fitness and cultural experienc- es, are favorable to millennials’ spending decision. Not unexpectedly therefore, results from a primary research survey revealed 73% were in agreement or strong agreement with the statement: “Generally I would rather spend money on an experience than a possession.”This attitude can be quantified by examining the increase in millennials spending on travel. According to research by Deloitte,“Leisure Is attracting 1.5 times more discretionary spending than retail and the sector is growing twice as fast.”(Vandevelde 2016) Additionally, The Global Wellness Institute reported a 14% rise in wellness tourism between 2013 and 2015, crediting millennial spending as key driver. do more, have less • 30 • rimary research illustrated that millennials rank ability to travel above financial wealth when considering factors that are important for a happy life. Furthermore, when questioned about spending of disposable income, travel and holidays were referenced by all participants in discussion groups as a key priority. This suggests that millennials increasingly value shared experiences and opportunities for relaxation, perhaps as an antidote to their fast paced lifestyles. An opposing perspective suggests the 2008 recession was influential in consumers’ reluctance to overtly spend on material possessions which encouraged a culture of ‘stealth wealth’, where- by eating right and being well travelled arguably credited consumers with a sense of moral superi- ority and responsibility. Phelan (2016), therefore debates that it was this emergence of opinion that strengthened the association of experience being a greater luxury than‘things’. T P
  30. 30. emotionally invested • 31 •
  31. 31. onspicuous consumption that perhaps enabled the success of the advertising industry for almost a century, is lessening among millennials, as arguably, unnecessary purchases do little to relieve stress in modern day life. Somerville (2015) critiques traditional methods of propaganda as being irrelevant to increasingly mindful millennials and suggests the shift to mindful behaviour is unleashing a new conscious consumer culture. Whilst still underpinned by emotion, behaviour is more proactive and less reactive, compared to previous generations. (The Hartman Group 2015) Arguably, this is a result of increasingly accessible information that has inspired a generation to be wary of their choices. When questioned, 45% of participants stated that usually they“only buy products and services that appeal to my beliefs, values or ideals, and would like to more.” which demonstrates a demand for greater transparency and accountability. (See Appendix 6) emotionally invested C • 32 •
  32. 32. esearch suggests the quest for enhanced wellbeing, has had significant influence in millennials valuing honesty from brands, as the“transformation economy”is reported to be a rapidly-growing segment. Pine (2011) defines product innovation to be a multi-staged progression of economic value, that has evolved from commodities to goods to services to experiences to now personal transformations. (See appendix 4) Honesty and authenticity are consequently critical principles. “Now people are looking to recharge, revitalise or improve well-being: A better you becomes the product.”(Sherman 2016) Therefore, consumers are consciously prioritising spending money on physically and psychologically enhancing experiences. (Sherman 2016) R emotionally invested • 33 •
  33. 33. emotionally invested • 34 • eeper exploration of behaviour revealed millennials’ mindful attitudes extend beyond their own health, to the wellbeing of the planet. Arguably, they are a generation that have internalised a responsibility to purchase products that not only make themselves feel good but that are good for the environment and society. (Bailey 2015) Participant 1 in discussion group 2 explained how he is aware he is increasingly thinking through this purchases before buying; “I recently watched that Leonardo DiCaprio documentary ‘Before The Flood’ which educated me, and I think millions of other people, about how harmful cattle farming and beef production is for climate change. I think when you understand how specifically your individual behaviour effects things you are more likely to change it - now I eat much less beef and dairy.” uch awareness is undeniably changing the food industry, as the proliferation of millennials watching documentaries such as Cowspiracy (which also educates on the profound connection between the production of beef and acceleration of climate change) has arguably been a catalyst for the increase in consumers adopting plant based diets. Marsh (2016) reports the number of vegans in the UK has risen by 350% in the past decade, as an increasing number of young adults adopt lifestyles more favourable for their personal health and the environment; To quantify, 42% of all UK vegans are millennials. (Quinn 2016) D S
  34. 34. emotionally invested • 35 • ine (2011) therefore suggests, that actions reflective of societal trends and aid in educating consumers, is how communicative focus is likely to shift. An interview with the Soap and Glory brand manager Laura Henshaw, revealed that millennial consumers now enquire more about product ingredients, quality and sustainability, than older consumers, who were previously the more curious consumer group. She therefore identified an opportunity in beauty retailing was to “empower the consumer in his/her choices, via full transparency and honesty.” (See appendix 8) Furthermore, in interview, Founder of The Happi- ness Planner, Mo Seetubtim reasoned; “With the increase in pollution and the catastrophes like tsunami, we (millennials) realised that we’ve been destroying the world which will end up destroying us... o now I guess we just go back to nature, to simple living, to the core of self, earth, and who we are.”which therefore informs, retailers are appreciating a consumer backlash to negligent, rash consumption and as a result are striving to inspire healthier lifestyles and more responsible buying in their consumers. In primary research, participant 3 discussed her cautious buying behaviour; “I try and do this thing where If there’s something I really like or want, I’ll bookmark it online, then check back in a few days and If I still really, really want it, and it’s still available, maybe then I will buy it. So I am very conscious and considered in what I buy.” P S
  35. 35. n reaction to conscious consumer attitudes, Bailey (2015) reports deep relationships are key; “Consumers are looking to deepen new relationships by connecting with likeminded people that stand for the same things they do, thus, …brands must be sure to link customers to the people behind the company’s vision, rather than just privy to a product.”Primary research survey results revealed that on average 7/10 consumers believe relationships have a positive impact on their wellbeing, hence, it could be assumed this provides an explanation as to why millennials are increasingly buying from brands that provide them with a meaningful connection. emotionally invested • 36 • This perspective supports opinions found in discussion groups, as participants revealed they would be more interested in buying a brands’products or services, if what they communicated, matched their values and helped them meet their lifestyle aspirations. Participant 2, explained specifically that Free People and Ace and Jig, make her feel good, as “They are brands that have a sense of respect for the greater good and real values.“ (See appendix 9) An interview with Missguided Merchandiser Lizzie Russell highlighted the importance of selling a lifestyle, opposed to just a product, as consumers are increasingly sceptical and cautious before buying into a new brand; “Missguided isn’t just a fashion brand, it is a lifestyle brand. We feel it allows our consumers to connect with us on a much more raw and grounded level.” Stipulating it’s increasingly important for customers that brands demonstrate they “go the extra mile.” (See appendix 8). I
  36. 36. emotionally invested • 37 • n agreement, Euromonitor suggest businesses which place social responsibility as priority, have huge opportunity for growth as consumers want to choose brands that “have a clear purpose and act in the best interests of society”. Interestingly however; “50% of those questioned, could not name a single brand that reflected a deeper sense of purpose.”This arguably highlights a demand for better communication and relevance from brands, to empower customers in their choices. In conflict to industry opinion, primary research found the extent to which social responsibility influenced purchases in fashion, was questionable due to impacting factors such as price, accessibility and practicality. Participant 1 in discussion group 1 revealed quality and function of a product were still his priority, regardless of how responsibly made it is. Furthermore, 45% of surveyed participants rated price as the greatest debilitating factor that had influence on their ability to only buy from brands that“make them feel great”, despite them desiring to ideally shop that way more frequently. (See appendix 6) A tension between millennials preferred behaviour and actual behaviour, can therefore be assumed. A diary study exposed lack of time and money as factors largely causing moral conflict, which was found to fuel feelings of inadequacy. I
  37. 37. ltimately, it could therefore be suggested there is potential for brands to benefit by reducing conflict for consumers.“Brands can become a key element in helping consumers reach their goals by staging experiences that help them.”(Hoang 2016) An interview with Sweaty Betty’s Senior Marketing Manager Laura Rushe, revealed how brands providing customers with solutions that enable them to live a healthy lifestyle, will be the ones with greater loyalty, as ultimately they help close the gap between desired behaviour and practical behaviour. (See appendix) However, it could be argued, millennials’ ambitions to live so responsibly, are in fact of detriment to their health and wellbeing, as a result of existing incompatible cultural norms and societal pressure. emotionally invested • 38 • verall, only 9% of survey respondents thought their current lifestyle positively contributed towards their wellbeing. Marsh (2016) argues that such efforts to live consciously are fuelling anxiety, overthinking and exhaustion, in a generation who are already more susceptible to stress, sleep deprivation and depression. Hence; living well is considered a luxury that few millennials can financially and practically afford to fully embrace. U O
  38. 38. #LIFEaholics • 39 •
  39. 39. #LIFEaholics organ (2015) suggests happiness is not a result of career status or possessions, rather about creating, capturing and sharing memories. Primary research demonstrated an agreement with this principle, as only 13% of millennials credit a successful career to happiness. (See appendix 6) An explanation for this could be that millennials are a generation experiencing a competitive job market, low starting salaries and as a result, delayed house ownership, hence, they feel their career ambitions are no longer driven solely by salary, but orientated to be more holistically fulfilling. Gani (2016) explains this is unlike Generation X, “whom could be assured if they were slaving away at a job they didn’t enjoy, at least they were paying off a mortgage and that eventually there would be some return on hard work.” It could be assumed, therefore, that the millennial trend to strive towards health and wellbeing affluence has emerged as it offers an opportunity to excel in an area within the realms of control, when perhaps financial prospects are stagnant. • 40 • M elatedly, research suggests therefore, that millennials are less concerned with achieving a tangible status that denotes happiness, and more concerned with conquering an integrated and satisfying way of life, that feels happy. Interviews revealed that for the majority of millennials, life aspirations are not articulated by a specific status or destination, rather a state of overall wellbeing and contentment. Such outlooks were proved to have substance, as discussion group conversations informed that millennials would be willing to sacrifice a higher salary, for their dream job. One participant explained his reasoning “The pros of a better quality of life outweigh the cons of a reduced standard of living.” (See appendix 9) In agreement of this, studies by the London School of Economics that suggest elevated job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing are of greater importance than money. (BBC news 2016) R
  40. 40. #LIFEaholics • 41 • his positively correlates with results from a primary research survey, which revealed 79% of survey participants rate a sustainable work life balance as the most important factor in living a happy life. The issue arguably underpinning this priority, is that of freedom. Landrum (2016) reports: “Millennials simply want the freedom to mix-and-match their working and personal lives as they fit.”. Hence; for millennials, success is not the driving force in their careers, rather it’s a consequence of holding a career that is already fulfilling and contributes to their happiness. Macdonald (2016) revealed millennials are the first generation to comprehend that work is a subset of life, not an equal to it, therefore, the notion of balance is not relevant. “It’s part of what we do and who we are; we are life-working, we are lifeaholics.”It could be, as a result of this shift, there are subsequent de- mands for corporate and domestic freedom, whereby millennials’desire for services, that are efficient in enhancing self-discovery and satisfy the need for convenience, are increasing. T
  41. 41. • 42 • #LIFEaholics t is possible therefore, that essentially the prominent desire for work life integration, has arisen as a result of craving freedom to achieve wider aspirations, and has been influential in driving new consumption models. As millennials look to blur the lines between work and play, convenience and simplicity are increasingly important values, which are key in enabling a more seamless lifestyle, and, crucially, contribute to the success of the collaborative economy. To assist in greater life fulfillment, consumers crave relationships with brands that offer efficiency, flexibility and help them make wiser consumption choices. Thus, leveraging the emergence of businesses within the collaborative economy, as they seemingly work to fit millennials’needs. (See article appendix 3) I
  42. 42. #LIFEaholics illennials are reported to idealise the notion of‘Playbour’, (work that feels like pleasure) as working long hours and stress were ranked as factors most commonly impacting wellbeing negatively. The‘always on’culture, is perhaps significant in driving these opinions. A participant in Gani’s (2016) research explained how a 9-5 day is incomprehensible. “Finish working at five? How can you finish work at five? Some people are just waking up at 5pm – I have to Skype people in NewYork at that time, and stay up late waiting for people to wake up in Tokyo.” In addition, in primary research, interviewee 4 stated she may be tempted to take a stressful job, despite claiming wellbeing was also a priority to her; “I probably wouldn’t turn down a stressful job if the salary and benefits were good enough, it would just mean I’d have to be more organised to make sure I can still feel satisfied in other areas of my life.”It could be suggested therefore, that these findings expose millennials to possess conflicting priorities, which may account for the rise in divergent lifestyle trends and behaviours such as‘detox-retox’. M • 43 •
  43. 43. #LIFEaholics • 44 • uch divergence has arguably been influential in driving the growth of products and services that aim to enhance consumer wellbeing. According to WGSN, businesses such as Class Pass will continue to project profitability, as millennials favour shorter, more intense and varied workouts, which are compatible with their schedules and efficiently enhance both mental and physical wellbeing. Class Pass is a new model of gym membership, that grants access to thousands of different classes and studios around the world. They effectively meet the needs of millennials consumers via collaborative and flexible membership options, which allows for exploration of new experiences. “We live for that ahhh-mazing feeling after a good hard sweat: Recharged, refreshed, and reconnecting you to yourself and other great people around you — always sweat in good company).”(Class Pass 2016) It could be suggested therefore, such business models successfully internalise the modern consumerist need for freedom, as constraints of commitment and ownership are absent. Thus; appealing to millennials’convenience needs, yet satisfying their tribal mentality. onsequently, the lust for spontaneity and work life integration has enabled the fashion industry to capitalise on a greater need for functionality and versatility in clothing. Well To Do London (2016) predict demand for work apparel, with performance qualities, will rise, as it’s predicted the desirability for freedom in the workplace will continue to re-define work culture norms. Similarly, it’s suggested brands leveraging attributes of the sharing economy, offering access over ownership, will appeal to millennials on-demand, value-driven mindsets. “Women who hop on planes like they’re taxis and race between meetings need workwear with activewear DNA. So for each new collection, we include pieces that can transition from the bicycle to the boardroom”. Katie Warner Johnson, co-founder of Carbon38 cited in Well and Good (2016) C S
  44. 44. n interviews, however, a potentially harmful side to such lifestyle flexibility was revealed; Participant 2 explained her experience of limitless availability to exercise and living ‘balanced’eventually had a negative effect on her wellbeing. “I’ve been training really hard lately, too hard, because fitness for me helps me feel good, it’s kind of therapy for my mental health, it makes me feel #LIFEaholics • 45 • Whatpeopledon’tunderstandisthatthebody is one organism and exercise is another form of stress on it. Over exercising may not feel like over exercising, especially if everyone else is doing it, but too much stress on the body ac- tually causes it to retain fat.”(Crimmems 2016) strong and capable, but it’s recently burnt me out and I’ve retracted that a bit, to protect my overall wellbeing. My body was exhausted. Sleep and relaxation had to become more of a priority.” In addition, personal trainer and Author Lucy Fry acknowledges; “I see women who are already stressed out and trying to fit in their workouts who then go and get wasted at the weekend… I
  45. 45. s a result, there is an increasing trend towards fatigue among millennials, and brands are striving to aid in enabling individuals to thrive on overworked schedules; this can be seen via the rise in consequence-reducing products and services, such as Hangover Heaven.“They offer next-day services to treat the after-effects of a heavy night out, with IV fluids, oxygen and vitamin shots.”In reaction however, Williams (2015) suggests consumers now desire a genuine balance in their lifestyles;“People are tiring of life in the fast lane. They are increasingly interested in slowing down to engage with the here and now”. Confirming this, Well and Good (2017) report social culture to be “sobering up”, as it’s suggested millennials are intent on drinking less alcohol and reducing hedonism altogether in a bid to increase their wellbeing. In discussion group 2, participant 3 explained her recent lifestyle choice was reflective of precisely that; “In the past year I have started to drink a lot less alcohol; Like I was thinking why am I doing this to myself? Feeling awful mentally and physically the day of a hangover - just for a few hours of fun, I can have fun sober!”This highlights therefore, consumers are aiming to establish greater happiness, by living more maintainable lifestyles. Euromonitor (2016) suggest this shift in behaviour isn’t a selfish pursuit, but rather “a behavioural change encompassing the desire for authenticity, the search for wellbeing and the desire to live a freer, more simple life” which in turn works explains the emergence of the‘caring economy’and unearths opportunity for new business models that satisfy the notion of ‘work-better-not-longer’opposed to‘work hard, play hard.’ #LIFEaholics • 46 • A
  46. 46. n spite of the trend towards slower living, primary research demonstrated that dissonance between optimal and actual wellbeing is still apparent. In discussion group 1, participant 3 identified her ‘full-throttle’ lifestyle as un-sustainable; “I’ve worked hard to get to a good place in my career, but if that had been at the expense of my marriage it wouldn’t have necessarily made me happy, so I’m always workingonfindingthatbalance.Igetsucharushfrompullingoffsuccess- ful work projects, but last year that meant I neglected my relationships, #LIFEaholics • 47 • so I’m trying to learn better work life integration this year to feel calmer and not run down.” (See appendix 9) It could be interpreted therefore, the motive to consider work and life more holistically has ultimately been inspired by the movement towards simplicity. The conflict between primacies evident in millennials lifestyles, arguably has been the catalyst for the adoption of Danish concept ‘Hygge’, a notion that perhaps has potential to be embraced by brands, and further impact consumerist norms. I
  47. 47. the insight: a self optimisation addiction • 48 •
  48. 48. • 49 • valuation of research has unearthed a key insight; An apparent addiction to self optimisation, is the compulsion which underpins millennials prioritisation of their wellbeing. In turn, this has had a powerful role in somewhat redefining traditional consumerism. he appetite towards fulfillment is apparent in the behaviour and attitudes of millennials alike and, ultimately, research has established this is evident through 3 central trends. Millennials are firstly, buying less, secondly, buying mindfully, thirdly, looking for lifestyles that integrate work and play holistically. Arguably, these trends are not purely as a result of pursuing enhanced wellbeing, but can be justified more deeply by understanding there is an underlying, insatiable motive for progression. E T The Insight
  49. 49. nalysing millennial lifestyle choices and ambitions, revealed that the quest for optimal wellbeing is markedly impacting how and what millennials buy in multiple industries. Interestingly, research found consumers to be confident and passionate in justifying how their food, travel and beauty purchases affect their own wellbeing - and the wellbeing of the planet and others around them, yet, less so with regard to their fashion consumption. • 50 • This suggests, the future of consumerism is likely to be driven by a greater demand for information across all industries, though transparency, authenticity, relationships and community as millennials increasingly self- educate and become empowered; potentially increasing their activity in sharing and circular economies that contribute to enhancing their wellbeing. A rguably, however, their pragmatic approach and idealistic views reveal a gap; therefore, carving out opportunity for brands to aid this generation in living a fulfilled and sustainable life. A “Brands must remember that consumers are looking to become better people.” (Sherman 2016) The Insight
  50. 50. • 51 • opportunities and recommendations: the future
  51. 51. • 52 • ormillennialsenthusedbythegoalofbetterment,theyultimatelywant approaches, tools and resources that will be of use to them through their pursuit to live in true health and happiness. (Portera 2016) In response to this key insight, a proactive approach from brands is deemed necessary, to appeal to consumers’aspirations. Arguably, behaviours that sabotage health and lifestyle goals provide opportunity for brands to intervene, which is increasingly opening up chances for companies both inside and outside the health and fitness industry, to innovate. (Sarti 2016) Taking discoveries from research into consideration, recommendations for future concepts and business strategies have been made, that align with consumer behaviours identified in this report and aim to project brands into millennials’ spotlight. F Opportunities and Recommendations
  52. 52. • 53 • illennials don’t want work to be the opposite of play, they want fulfillment and enjoyment from work to contribute to a holistically positive life, as a 24/7 connected culture has blurred the lines between parts of life. Bearing this in mind, a recommendation is therefore to explore how innovations in corporate culture could work to bring mutually beneficial progression to companies and employees, alike. Millennials entrepreneurial mindsets are arguably driven by a want for flexibility, F-Employment and as they perfect their ability to effectively intertwine personal and professional passions, it looks to open up opportunities for companies to design their principles, with the aim of generating greater productivity and satisfaction from and within their workforce, through a focus on initiatives encouraging independence, activity, relaxation, enrichment and ultimately, personal progression. M Opportunities and Recommendations
  53. 53. • 54 • A Relationship Revival s previously established, friendships and relationships are key influences regarding millennials wellbeing. This filters down to demonstrate greater loyalty and respect towards retailers whom demonstrate concern for community, locality and pack mentality. In light of this, there is room for further research investigat- ing how seemingly large impersonal brands could collaborate with smaller, local and artisanal retailers, to encourage relation- ships and build meaningful networks with consumers and their local communities. There is perhaps opportunity for unlikely partnerships that resonate with consumer lifestyles and hobbies through seminars, workshops, socials and hybrid retail concepts. A Key recommendation for stage 2 would be to explore the feasibility of launhing a mini series of ‘festivals’ that connect retailers in the food and fashion industries. With a particular focus on pairing activewear brands and health cafes, to aid consumers in facilitating more active, yet sober social experiences. This would arguably appeal to millennials appetite to self-educate and cement brand loyalty via increased engagement, and measure of value-for-experience. A Opportunities and Recommendations
  54. 54. • 55 • A Sustainable Self s research established, there is significant hunger from millennials for personal growth, but an overwhelming accessibility to information and media is arguably causing a regression in their wellbeing. Fast paced lifestyles and conflict- ing advice, has perhaps hindered the ability for millennials to confidently be in tune with their own bodies, which opens up an avenue for oppor- tunity. Aligning with the trend for a slower pace, there is potentially room for growth in the beauty industry in the form of ingestible product ranges. As consumers look for long term solutions, and increasinly understand feeling good comes from within, a reccommendation for stage 2 is to research the idea of supplement subscription box- es; personalised to the individual nourishment needs of the consumer and based on the under- standing that hormones, digestion and lifestyles play a part in both mental and physical wellbeing. Ultimately, therefore, working to minimalise the chances of low self esteem and tiredness harming wellbeing. A Opportunities and Recommendations
  55. 55. conclusion n conclusion, it is apparent consumer attitudes and behaviours have changed as a result of wellbeing becoming a high priority for millennials; which indicates focus on educating and empowering consumers to be better and do better, must be integral parts of brands’ strategy for success. The findings in this report conclude that traditional norms of consumerism theory are deemed derogatory to quite considerable extent, and this can be seen via analysis of millennials informed opinions and lifestyle aspirations. I • 56 • s a generation, they are buying less, buying more consciously, and above all else, are increasingly willing to sacrifice standard of living for the exchange of a better quality of life. The exploration of wellbeing suggests happiness can be bought; but as it stands; at the expense of balancing financial affluence, moral conscience and arguably impractical ideals. Research has demonstrated that true wellbeing, is founds through unapologetic authenticity and freedom. A
  56. 56. • 57 • hen looking to the future, it’s likely millennials will continue to show little tolerance for untrustworthy, hollow brands and high regard for depth and originality, as meaning and connection remains significant in contributing to the development of new norms in the orders of consumerism. If these values are internalised, then arguably, there is potential for this shift to be of virtue to brands, so long as innovations are aligned with genuinely improving consumers’quality of life. hus; as the population continues to rise and western economic forces look to widen inequality; access to good health and wellbeing is more imperative than ever, to satisfy the millennial obsession with self-improvement. Arguably, a potential tipping point is on the horizon, where the elite cults and trends driving the wellness phenomena will lose their appeal, unless they work to offer accessibility, opposed to exclusivity; as their associated euphoria is increasingly achievable via millennials own accord. T W Conclusion
  57. 57. References & Bibliography • 58 • British Vogue (2016) What on earth is wellness? With Camille Rowe. [Video] British Vogue. Available at: http://www.vogue.co.uk/video/what-on-earth-is-wellness-full-series (Accessed: 20 October 2016). ClassPassInc (2016) Work out at the best studios in your city. Class Pass. [online]. Available at: https://classpass.com/get (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Crimmens, T. (2016) ‘We definitely reached peak wellness in 2016. The Debrief. [online]’, Available at: http://www.thedebrief.co.uk/things-to-do/food-and-drink/2016-was-the-year-we- definitely-reached-peak-wellness-20161265962 (Accessed: 12 January 2017). Diener, E. (2009) Well-being for public policy. New York: Oxford University Press. Euromonitor International (2016) The New Consumer; The data Behind The Trends. [online]. Available at: https://www.portal.euromonitor.com/portal/analysis/tab (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Gani, A. (2016) Millennials at work: Five stereotypes - and why they are (mostly) wrong. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/15/millenni- als-work-five-stereotypes-generation-y-jobs (Accessed: 21 December 2016). GlobalWellness Institute (2016)Ten predictions for the future of wellness, travel, spa and beauty in Europe. Available at: http://static1.squarespace.com/static/54306a8ee4b07ea66ea32c- c0/t/5764618bbebafb3c282d5b0d/1466196365710/TenPredictions-Europe_v4.pdf (Accessed: 1 November 2016). Gregoire, C. (2013) The Psychology Of Materialism, And Why It’s Making You Unhappy. Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/12/15/psycholo- gy-materialism_n_4425982.html (Accessed: 14 December 2016). Heckstall, V. (2016) Experience over goods:The Millennial shift in spending. [online]. Available at: http://www.business.com/business-opportunities/experience-over-goods-the-millenni- al-shift-in-spending/ (Accessed: 20 December 2016). Hoang, L. (2016) Is health and wellness the new luxury? Business Of Fashion. [online]. Available at: https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/intelligence/is-health-wellness-the-new- luxury (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Hoey, K. (2016) More than marketing, Millennials are the economic future. Inc. [online]. Available at: http://www.inc.com/kelly-hoey/more-than-marketing-millennials-are-the-econom- ic-future.html (Accessed: 14 December 2016). Hutton, W. (2016) If having more no longer satisfies us, perhaps we’ve reached ‘peak stuff’. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/ jan/31/consumerism-reached-peak-stuff-search-for-happiness (Accessed: 16 January 2017). Kasser, T. (2004) Psychology and Consumer Culture. Washington DC.: American Psychological Association. Landrum, S. (2016) How Millennials are changing how we view success. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/sarahlandrum/2016/12/30/how-millennials-are-chang- ing-how-we-view-success/#41d1ca333798 (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Marsh, S. (2016) All that striving for healthiness is making millennials more anxious than ever. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/ mar/11/striving-for-healthiness-makes-us-unhappy-millennials (Accessed: 15 December 2016). McDonald, T. (2016) Dispelling the myth of work-life. Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tim-mcdonald/dispelling-the-myth-of-wo_b_9311220.html (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Morgan, B. (2015) NOwnership, no problem:Why Millennials value experiences over owning things. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/blakemorgan/2015/06/01/ nownershipnoproblem-nowners-millennials-value-experiences-over-ownership/2/#312392131881 (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Phelan, H. (2015) Looking like money: How wellness became the new luxury status symbol. Vogue. [online]. Available at: http://www.vogue.com/13273135/health-wellness-luxury-sta- tus-symbol/ (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Pine, J.B. and Gilmore, J.H. (2011) The experience economy, updated edition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. Quinn, S. (2016) Number of vegans in Britain rises by 360% in 10 years. The Telegraph. [online]. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/food-and-drink/news/number-of-vegans-in-brit- ain-rises-by-360-in-10-years/ (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Reyner, M. (2013) The Health Report. Protein Forecast Agency. [online]. Available at: https://www.prote.in/journal/articles/the-health-report (Accessed: 6 January 2017). Rosen, M. (2016) A plant-based diet can help save the planet. Crave. [online]. Available at: http://www.craveonline.com/culture/1187221-future-now-plant-based-diet-can-help-save- planet (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Citations
  58. 58. • 59 • Rosen, M. (2016) A plant-based diet can help save the planet. Crave. [online]. Available at: http://www.craveonline.com/culture/1187221-future-now-plant-based-diet-can-help-save- planet (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Saunders, M.N.K., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2012) Research methods for business students (6th edition). 6th edn. Harlow, England: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Sarti, N. (2016) UK Millennials Report. Inkling. [online]. Available at: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/566824117086d7d425e48806/t/575e873f8259b5bbefd5e6da/1465812805335/ Inkling+Millennial+Report.pdf (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Schlossberg, M. (2016) Instagram is spurring the biggest shift the fitness world has seen in decades. The Independent. [online]. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/ health-and-families/instagram-is-spurring-the-biggest-shift-the-fitness-world-has-seen-in-decades-a6990001.html (Accessed: 19 December 2016). Seligman, M. (2011) Flourish: A new understanding of happiness and well-being - and how to achieve them. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Sherman, L. (2016) Transformation Economy. Business Of Fashion. [online]. Available at: https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/tags/topics/transformation-economy (Accessed: 11 January 2017). Sørensen, F. (2013) Handbook on the experience economy. Edited by Jon Sundbo and Flemming Sorensen. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Somerville, M. (2016) You know you’re consuming too much – how to stop before it consumes you too. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeand- style/2015/nov/03/advertising-overconsumption-psychology (Accessed: 2 January 2017). Vandevelde, M. (2016) Clothes buying goes out of fashion in the UK. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/5c274b28-7f3d-11e6-8e50-8ec15fb462f4 (Accessed: 20 December 2016). Weinswig, D. (2016) Millennials go minimal: The Decluttering lifestyle trend that is taking over. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/deborahweinswig/2016/09/07/ millennials-go-minimal-the-decluttering-lifestyle-trend-that-is-taking-over/#49c09d5b4c1a (Accessed: 4 January 2017). Well+Good (2017) The top wellness trends of 2017 are here! Well+Good. [online]. Available at: https://www.wellandgood.com/fitness-wellness-trends/ (Accessed: 10 January 2017). WGSN (2016) The Beauty Buzz: Self Acceptance. WGSN. [online]. Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/content/board_viewer/#/69799/page/7 (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Williams, C. (2015) Going Slow. WGSN. [online]. Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/content/board_viewer/#/61139/page/5 (Accessed: 11 January 2017). Illustrations Natalie Glaze. Personal Best. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: http://www.na- talieglaze.com/power-your-personal-best- with-sweaty-betty-x-neom-organics/ Nuzman, Lucy. Bathtub. Accessed on 15/01/2017. Accessed at: http://anouska. net/2016/03/the-secret-to-beautiful-skin- while-travelling/ References & Bibliography Zhara. The Tortoise. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pinterest.com/ pin/375417318922162183/ Chouquette, Claire. Chanel look. Accessed on 15/01/2017. Accessed at: http://www.chou- quette.co.uk/the-same-look-day-to-night-rita- ora-x-teens-launch/ Finding Pink. Pink Flamingo. Accessed on 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pinterest. com/pin/243898136045247901/ We Heart It. Girl With Orange Flair. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: http://weheart- it.com/entry/group/107530607
  59. 59. • 60 • References & Bibliography Issy Croker. Food Photography. UO Blog. Ac- cessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: http:// blog.urbanoutfitters.co.uk/?p=26127 Well and Good. Blame It On Equinox. Ac- cessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https:// www.wellandgood.com/good-advice/if-you- make-bad-decisions-in-2014-blame-it-on- equinox/ Skinny Bitch Collective. Snow Ru. Accessed on: 15/01/2015. Accessed at: https://suitcase- mag.com/skinny-bitch-collective-new-work- out/ Dolphin Jazz. Fog. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pinterest.com/ pin/529454499922770873/ Treasures and travels. Well and Good. Ac- cessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https:// www.wellandgood.com/fitness-well- ness-trends/ Well and Good. Not all sunshine and rainbows. Accessed on: 15/01/2016. Ac- cessed at: https://www.wellandgood.com/ good-advice/microdosing-for-depres- sion-ayelet-waldman/slide/4/ Pheobe Soup. Pinterest. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://blog.bloglo- vin.com/blog/10-apps-to-simplify-your-ev- eryday-life Anon. Balanced stones. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pinterest. com/macropeople/zen-shiatsu-symbol/ Lucca Magazine. Bed Head. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pinterest. com/pin/304907837253025274/ Jane Travis. It’s OK to say no. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pinter- est.com/pin/576320083546418702/ Anon. Silk Sleep Mask. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pinterest. com/pin/422845852494051858/ Carbon 38. Palms to Pines. Accessed on: 15/01/2016. Accessed at: http://www.palms- to-pines.com/carbon-38-work-out-go-out/ Ashley Olsen. The Florentine. Accessed on: 15.01/2017. Accessed at: http://www.theflo- rentine.net/news/2016/12/ashley-olsen-fi- nal-verdict-florence/ g//rebel-rebel-for-lfw Career Girl Daily. Cafe Culture. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://www. bloglovin.com/blogs/career-girl-dai- ly-13517561/best-apps-for-career-girls-with- too-much-4395699647
  60. 60. • 61• Bibliography Books Biron, C., Burke, R.J. and Cooper CBE, P.C.L. (2016) Psychological and Behavioural Aspects of Risk : Creating HealthyWorkplaces : Stress Reduction, ImprovedWell-being, and Organizational Effectiveness. England: Routledge. Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2011) Business Research Methods. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Day, A., Kevin Kelloway, E. and Hurrell, J.J. (2014) Workplace Well-being : How to Build Psychologically Healthy Workplaces. Wiley-Blackwell. Diener, E. (2009) Well-being for public policy. New York: Oxford University Press. Gladwell, M. (2001) Tipping Point, the: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston, MA: Abacus. Inglehart, R. (1977) The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among western publics. United States: Princeton University Press. James, J. (1996) Thinking In The Future Tense. New York City, NY: Touchstone Kasser, T. (2004) Psychology and Consumer Culture. Washington DC.: American Psychological Association. Pine, J.B. and Gilmore, J.H. (2011) The experience economy, updated edition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. Raymond, M. (2010) The trend forecaster’s handbook. London: Laurence King Publishing. Saunders, M.N.K., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2012) Research methods for business students (6th edition). 6th edn. Harlow, England: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Seligman, M. (2011) Flourish: A new understanding of happiness and well-being - and how to achieve them. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Stephens, D. (2013) The retail revival: Reimagining business for the new age of consumerism. Toronto, ON, Canada: Wiley. Sørensen, F. (2013) Handbook on the experience economy. Edited by Jon Sundbo and Flemming Sorensen. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. References & Bibliography RebelRebel,SBLive.Accessedon:15/01/2017. Accessed at: http://www.rebelrebel.co.uk/blo g That Gent. Favourite Spaces. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pinterest. com/pin/256705247489294307/ Lydia Millen. Couture Skincare. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: http://lydiaelisemi- llen.com/2017/01/why-im-using-haute-cou- ture-skincare-in-2017/ Germany Next Top Model. Vogue. Accessed on: 15/01/2017. Accessed at: https://uk.pin- terest.com/pin/447263806722658736/
  61. 61. • 62 • Journals Brown H.S and Vergragt P.J (2016) From consumerism to wellbeing: toward a cultural transition? Journal of Cleaner Production, 132 p. 308-317 Dunn, H.L. (1959)‘High-level wellness for man and society’, American Journal of Public Health, 49(6). Escobar Rios, A. (2016)‘The impact of the digital revolution in the development of market and communication strategies for the luxury sector (fashion luxury)’, Central European Business Review, 5(2), p. 17–36. Huang, R., Lee, S.H., Kim, H. and Evans, L. (2015)‘The impact of brand experiences on brand resonance in multi-channel fashion retailing’, Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 9(2), p. 129–147. Jones, N. (2016)‘A genetic-based algorithm for personalized resistance-training’, Biology of Sport, 33(2), pp. 117–126. Machek, O. (2016)‘The impact of the digital revolution in the development of market and communication strategies for the luxury sector. Central European Business Review, 5(2), p. 17–36. Mulhern, F. (2009)‘Integrated Marketing Communications: From Media Channels To Digital Connectivity’, Journal of Marketing Communications, 15(2-3), pp. 85–101. Ozkan, M. (2015)‘The Changing Face of the Employees – Generation Z and Their Perceptions of Work’, Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, pp. 476–483. Pomeranz, J. (2014)‘Workplace Wellness Programs: How Regulatory Flexibility Might Undermine Success’, American Journal of Public Health, 104(11), pp. 2052–2056. Shaw, S.J. (2015)‘The good life: unifying the philosophy and psychology of well-being’, Choice, 52(11), pp. 1850–1851. Van Boven, L. and Gilovich, T. (2003)‘To do or to have? That is the question’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(6), pp. 1193–1202. Virtanen et al, M. (2015) ‘Long working hours and alcohol use: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data’, British Medical Journal, 350, p. 7772. TV/Video Andersen, K. and Kuhn, K. (2014) Cowspiracy: The sustainability secret. . British Vogue (2016) What on earth is wellness? With Camille Rowe. [Video] British Vogue. Available at: http://www.vogue.co.uk/video/what-on-earth-is-wellness-full-series (Accessed: 20 October 2016). The Minimalists (2016) Minimalism: A documentary about the important things. Available at: Neflix. Websites Ali, A. (2016) Students more likely to fill spare time with ’sensible and healthy hobbies’over visiting the pub. Independent. [online]. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/student/ student-life/students-choosing-healthy-hobbies-going-to-the-gym-over-pub-visits-freshers-week-unidays-a7220371.html (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Allchin, J. (2013) Case study: Patagonia’s ‘don’t buy this jacket’ campaign. Marketing Week. [online]. Available at: https://www.marketingweek.com/2013/01/23/case-study-patagonias- dont-buy-this-jacket-campaign/ (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Ashoka (2016) 3 ways the conscious fashion movement is raising its game with Millennials.Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/ashoka/2016/03/01/3-ways-the- conscious-fashion-movement-is-raising-its-game-with-millennials/#2851404a497e (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Baker, J. (2015) The rise of the conscious consumer: Why businesses need to open up. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/women-in-leadership/2015/ apr/02/the-rise-of-the-conscious-consumer-why-businesses-need-to-open-up (Accessed: 10 January 2017). Balance Festival (2016) Balance festival journal - the rise of boutique fitness. [online]. Available at: http://www.balance-festival.com/Journal/July-2016/boutique-fitness (Accessed: 21 December 2016). BBC (2016) Mental health and relationships‘key to happiness’. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38285223 (Accessed: 12 December 2016). BBC News (2016) Mental health and relationships‘key to happiness’. BBC News. [online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38285223 (Accessed: 21 December 2016). References & Bibliography
  62. 62. • 63 • Beaton, C. (2016) Never good enough: Why Millennials are obsessed with self-improvement. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/carolinebeaton/2016/02/25/nev- er-good-enough-why-millennials-are-obsessed-with-self-improvement/#2a7050943182 (Accessed: 15 December 2016). Beauchamp, A. (2016) What is hygge & how do you pronounce it? Hygge House. [online]. Available at: http://hyggehouse.com/hygge (Accessed: 16 January 2017). Bell, A. (2015) Doing Beats Buying. WGSN. [online]. Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/content/board_viewer/#/57319/page/1 (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Bhagat, A. (2016) A little is alot: Health and Wellness Trends 2016. Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alisha-bhagat/a-little-is-a-lot-health-and-well- ness-trends-2016_b_9393638.html (Accessed: 14 December 2016). Burn-Callander, R. (2016) Sausage brand heck gambles on meat-free range as Millennials suddenly turn veggie. The Telegraph. [online]. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/busi- ness/2016/05/30/sausage-brand-heck-gambles-on-meat-free-range-as-millennials-sud/ (Accessed: 9 January 2017). Calder, S. (2016) British airways has patented a‘digital pill’to make flying easier - but is it really necessary? Independent. [online]. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news- and-advice/british-airways-ba-digital-pill-patent-in-flight-services-cabin-crew-a7451771.html (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Chamary, J. (2016) ‘Work hard, play hard’ lifestyle is real, says science. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jvchamary/2016/06/30/science-work-play- hard/#2680238419c2 (Accessed: 21 December 2016). ClassPassInc (2016) Work out at the best studios in your city. Class Pass. [online]. Available at: https://classpass.com/get (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Cohen, K.S. (2016) Defaulting to a green planet: Being environmentally conscious by doing nothing. Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/karthi- ka-muthukumaraswamy/defaulting-to-a-green-pla_b_13570752.html (Accessed: 2 January 2017). Crimmens, T. (2016) ‘We definitely reached peak wellness in 2016. The Debrief. [online]’, Available at: http://www.thedebrief.co.uk/things-to-do/food-and-drink/2016-was-the-year-we- definitely-reached-peak-wellness-20161265962 (Accessed: 12 January 2017). Delaney, B. (2016)Time to roll up the yoga mats and man the barricades.The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/nov/23/time-to-roll-up- the-yoga-mats-and-man-the-barricades (Accessed: 14 December 2016). Dove, R. (2015) Anxiety: The epidemic sweeping through generation Y. The Telegraph. [online]. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/health/anxiety-the-epidemic-sweep- ing-through-generation-y/ (Accessed: 19 December 2016). Dover, S. (2016) EBay puts the emotion back into Christmas shopping. Mintel. [online]. Available at: http://academic.mintel.com/display/805733/?highlight (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Duckett, J. (2016a) Hygge as a solution to Britain’s stress epidemic’. Available at: http://academic.mintel.com/display/802997/?highlight (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Duckett, J. (2016b) Hygge as a solution to Britain’s stress epidemic’. Mintel. [online]. Available at: http://academic.mintel.com/display/802997/?__cc=1&highlight (Accessed: 21 December 2016). Dunn, L. (2016) Women in business Q&A: Shivika Sinha, director of digital marketing, Alex & ani. Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/laura-dunn/wom- en-in-business-qa-shiv_b_12260948.html (Accessed: 4 January 2017). EcoWatch (2016) 5 trends in 2017 that are going to be huge. EcoWatch [online]. Available at: http://www.ecowatch.com/health-trends-2017-2170354333.html (Accessed: 4 January 2017). Euromonitor International (2016) The New Consumer; The data Behind The Trends. [online]. Available at: https://www.portal.euromonitor.com/portal/analysis/tab (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Eventbrite (2016) Millennials fueling the experience economy. Eventbrite. Available at: https://eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com/marketing/Millennials_Research/Gen_PR_Final.pdf (Ac- cessed: 20 December 2016). Ferguson, D. (2016) Dreaming of a frugal Christmas? Meet the people who’ve stopped shopping.The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/money/2016/dec/12/ frugal-christmas-people-stopped-shopping-minimalism-movement (Accessed: 4 January 2017). FMB (2016) Hot brands 2016. Pinterest. [online]. Available at: https://uk.pinterest.com/fmbntu/hot-brands-2016/ (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Fus Mickiewicz, M. (2015) The Slow Report. Protein Forecast Agency. [online]. Available at: https://www.prote.in/journal/articles/the-slow-report (Accessed: 6 January 2017). References & Bibliography
  63. 63. • 64 • Gani, A. (2016) Millennials at work: Five stereotypes - and why they are (mostly) wrong. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/15/millenni- als-work-five-stereotypes-generation-y-jobs (Accessed: 21 December 2016). GlobalWellness Institute (2016)Ten predictions for the future of wellness, travel, spa and beauty in Europe. Available at: http://static1.squarespace.com/static/54306a8ee4b07ea66ea32c- c0/t/5764618bbebafb3c282d5b0d/1466196365710/TenPredictions-Europe_v4.pdf (Accessed: 1 November 2016). Goldman Sachs (2015) Millennials Infographic. Goldman Sachs. [online]. Available at: http://www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/pages/millennials/ (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Gregoire, C. (2013) The Psychology Of Materialism, And Why It’s Making You Unhappy. Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/12/15/psycholo- gy-materialism_n_4425982.html (Accessed: 14 December 2016). Gross, E.L. (2017) How this founder created the Airbnb of high-end fashion. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/elanagross/2017/01/10/how-this-founder-created- the-airbnb-of-high-end-fashion/#255b2ea938ac (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Halliday, S. (2016) Gen Z are leisure shoppers who buy-and-return and love a markdown. Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/news/gen-z-are-leisure-shoppers-who-buy-and-return- and-love-a-markdown-report/ (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Haynes, S. (2016) Hygge, the Nordic trend that could help you survive 2016. Available at: http://time.com/4579894/hygge-denmark-nordic-trend-survive-2016/ (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Heck (2016) Our Story. Heck. [online]. Available at: https://www.heckfood.co.uk (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Heckstall, V. (2016) Experience over goods:The Millennial shift in spending. [online]. Available at: http://www.business.com/business-opportunities/experience-over-goods-the-millenni- al-shift-in-spending/ (Accessed: 20 December 2016). Hill, L. (2016a) 10 industry insights from theWaitrose food & drink report 2016.WellTo Do. [online]. Available at: http://www.welltodolondon.com/10-industry-insights-from-the-waitrose- food-drink-report-2016/ (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Hill, L. (2016b) British airways to develop ‘digital pill’ to monitor wellness. Well To Do London. [online]. Available at: http://www.welltodolondon.com/british-airways-to-develop-digi- tal-pill-to-monitor-wellness/ (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Hoang, L. (2016) Is health and wellness the new luxury? Business Of Fashion. [online]. Available at: https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/intelligence/is-health-wellness-the-new- luxury (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Hoey, K. (2016) More than marketing, Millennials are the economic future. Inc. [online]. Available at: http://www.inc.com/kelly-hoey/more-than-marketing-millennials-are-the-econom- ic-future.html (Accessed: 14 December 2016). Housley, S. (2015) Being Together. WGSN. [online]. Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/content/board_viewer/#/61497/page/13 (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Hub Seventeen (2016) About Hub Seventeen NYC. LuluLemon. [online]. Available at: http://www.hubseventeennyc.com/about/ (Accessed: 20 December 2016). Hutton, W. (2016) If having more no longer satisfies us, perhaps we’ve reached ‘peak stuff’. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/ jan/31/consumerism-reached-peak-stuff-search-for-happiness (Accessed: 16 January 2017). Israel, I. (2016) Mindful consumerism. Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ira-israel/if-its-free-how-much-does_b_10727872.html (Accessed: 4 January 2017). Kazura, A. (2015) Millennials: Marketing for instant gratification.The Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/young-entrepreneur-council/millennials-mar- keting-for_b_8831582.html (Accessed: 20 December 2016). Keaney, M. (2016) Consumers are willing to pay more for purposeful brands. Marketing Week. [online]. Available at: https://www.marketingweek.com/2016/09/19/consumers-are-will- ing-to-pay-58-more-for-purposeful-brands/?nocache=true&adfesuccess=1 (Accessed: 2 January 2017). Kelly, J. (2016) The evolution of wellness tourism August 2016 ; A market research report. Mintel. [online]. Available at: http://academic.mintel.com/display/748349/ (Accessed: 20 Decem- ber 2016). Landrum, S. (2016) How Millennials are changing how we view success. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/sarahlandrum/2016/12/30/how-millennials-are-chang- ing-how-we-view-success/#41d1ca333798 (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Libby, C. (2015) The healthy lifestyle effect: Will it impact the skincare market in the UK? Mintel. [online]. Available at: http://www.mintel.com/blog/beauty-market-news/the-healthy-life- style-effect-will-it-impact-the-skincare-market-in-the-uk (Accessed: 16 December 2016). References & Bibliography
  64. 64. • 65 • Mann, L.D. (2015) Our thinking - Millennials: Changing consumer behaviour. [online]. Available at: http://www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/pages/millennials-changing-consum- er-behavior.html (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Marsh, S. (2016) All that striving for healthiness is making millennials more anxious than ever. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/ mar/11/striving-for-healthiness-makes-us-unhappy-millennials (Accessed: 15 December 2016). McCullough, M. (2016) Lululemon CEO Laurent Potdevin on building a mindful business. Canadian Business. [online]. Available at: http://www.canadianbusiness.com/leadership/laur- rent-potdevin-lululemon-interview/ (Accessed: 4 January 2017). McDonald, T. (2016) Dispelling the myth of work-life. Huffington Post. [online]. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tim-mcdonald/dispelling-the-myth-of-wo_b_9311220.html (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Mickelsen, K. (2013) From point A to purchase – how consumer behavior is changing. Bozell. [online]. Available at: http://bozell.com/from-point-a-to-purchase-how-consumer-behavior- is-changing/ (Accessed: 13 January 2017). Morgan, B. (2015) NOwnership, no problem:Why Millennials value experiences over owning things. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/blakemorgan/2015/06/01/ nownershipnoproblem-nowners-millennials-value-experiences-over-ownership/2/#312392131881 (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Murray, J. (2010) Smile or die: How positive thinking fooled America and the world by Barbara Ehrenreich.The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2010/ jan/10/smile-or-die-barbara-ehrenreich (Accessed: 14 December 2016). Nielsen Global (2015) Green generation: Millennials say sustainability is a shopping priority. Nielsen Global. [online]. Available at: http://www.nielsen.com/uk/en/insights/news/2015/ green-generation-millennials-say-sustainability-is-a-shopping-priority.html (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Niemtzow, E. (2016) Chanel, Gucci and luxury fashion’s sustainability crossroads. [online]. Available at: https://www.greenbiz.com/article/gucci-chanel-kering-luxury-fashions-sustainabil- ity (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Phelan, H. (2015) Looking like money: How wellness became the new luxury status symbol. Vogue. [online]. Available at: http://www.vogue.com/13273135/health-wellness-luxury-sta- tus-symbol/ (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Pike, H. (2016) Will the ’sharing economy’work for fashion? Business Of Fashion. [online]. Available at: https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/fashion-tech/will-the-sharing-economy-work-for-fashion-rent-the-runway-rental (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Portera, A. (2016) About Best Me.Com [online]. Available at: http://www.bestme.com/ (Accessed: 9 January 2017). Quinn, S. (2016) Number of vegans in Britain rises by 360% in 10 years. The Telegraph. [online]. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/food-and-drink/news/number-of-vegans-in-brit- ain-rises-by-360-in-10-years/ (Accessed: 17 January 2017). Reyner, M. (2013) The Health Report. Protein Forecast Agency. [online]. Available at: https://www.prote.in/journal/articles/the-health-report (Accessed: 6 January 2017). Rosen, M. (2016) A plant-based diet can help save the planet. Crave. [online]. Available at: http://www.craveonline.com/culture/1187221-future-now-plant-based-diet-can-help-save- planet (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Sarti, N. (2016) UK Millennials Report. Inkling. [online]. Available at: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/566824117086d7d425e48806/t/575e873f8259b5bbefd5e6da/1465812805335/ Inkling+Millennial+Report.pdf (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Schawbel, D. (2015) The Millennial consumer study. Elite Daily. [online]. Available at: http://millennialbranding.com/2015/millennial-consumer-study/ (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Schlossberg, M. (2016) Instagram is spurring the biggest shift the fitness world has seen in decades. The Independent. [online]. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/ health-and-families/instagram-is-spurring-the-biggest-shift-the-fitness-world-has-seen-in-decades-a6990001.html (Accessed: 19 December 2016). Seurat Group (2016) PLANNING FOR 2020: ARE YOU READY FOR THE MILLENNIALS? [online]. Available at: http://www.seuratgroup.com/uploads/files/planning-for-2020-are-you-ready- for-the-millennials-8.pdf (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Sherman, L. (2016) Transformation Economy. Business Of Fashion. [online]. Available at: https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/tags/topics/transformation-economy (Accessed: 11 January 2017). Somerville, M. (2016) You know you’re consuming too much – how to stop before it consumes you too. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeand- style/2015/nov/03/advertising-overconsumption-psychology (Accessed: 2 January 2017). References & Bibliography
  65. 65. • 66 • Stein, J. (2013) Millennials: The me me me generation. Time. [online]. Available at: http://time.com/247/millennials-the-me-me-me-generation/ (Accessed: 19 December 2016). The NPD Group (2016) Food Consumption. A generation study. NPD. [online]. Available at: https://www.npd.com/lps/pdf/Food_Consumption.pdf (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Tomlinson, C. (2016) ‘The expensive soul. Huffington Post. [online]’, Huffington Post, 3 February. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/chloe-tomlinson/the-expen- sive-soul_b_9138462.html (Accessed: 15 December 2016). Trendwatching (2016) The future of betterment. Trendwatching. [online]. Available at: http://trendwatching.com/trends/the-future-of-betterment/ (Accessed: 14 December 2016). Turner, C. (2016)‘Feeling beautiful not just looking beautiful. The Beauty Economy.’, Raconteur, 24 November, pp. 10–11. Van Dijk, Z. (2017) 7 changes I’m making in 2017 - Zanna Van Dijk Blog. [online]. Available at: http://www.zannavandijk.co.uk/blogs/-7-changes-i-m-making-in-2017 (Accessed: 10 January 2017). Vandevelde, M. (2016) Clothes buying goes out of fashion in the UK. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/5c274b28-7f3d-11e6-8e50-8ec15fb462f4 (Accessed: 20 December 2016). Weed, K. (2016) Brands must become sustainable or risk irrelevance. The Guardian. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/media-network/2016/mar/21/unile- ver-keith-weed-brands-sustainable-business (Accessed: 3 January 2017). Weinswig, D. (2016) Millennials go minimal: The Decluttering lifestyle trend that is taking over. Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/deborahweinswig/2016/09/07/ millennials-go-minimal-the-decluttering-lifestyle-trend-that-is-taking-over/#49c09d5b4c1a (Accessed: 4 January 2017). Well+Good (2017) The top wellness trends of 2017 are here! Well+Good. [online]. Available at: https://www.wellandgood.com/fitness-wellness-trends/ (Accessed: 10 January 2017). WGSN (2015) Millennial Anti Hedonists. WGSN. [online]. Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/content/board_viewer/#/58256/page/2 (Accessed: 21 December 2016). WGSN (2016) The Beauty Buzz: Self Acceptance. WGSN. [online]. Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/content/board_viewer/#/69799/page/7 (Accessed: 16 December 2016). Wilkinson, H. (2016) The Scandinavia report: Wellness trends, growth and market opportunities. Well To Do. [online]. Available at: http://www.welltodolondon.com/the-scandinavia-re- port-wellness-trends-growth-and-market-opportunities/ (Accessed: 12 December 2016). Williams, C. (2015) Going Slow. WGSN. [online]. Available at: https://www.wgsn.com/content/board_viewer/#/61139/page/5 (Accessed: 11 January 2017). Worstall, T. (2014) The Easterlin paradox is Disproved; economic growth really does make us happy. Forbes. [Online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2014/10/27/ the-easterlin-paradox-is-disproved-economic-growth-really-does-make-us-happy/#bacf3ed1a90a (Accessed: 10 January 2017). Zimmerman, K. (2016) Do top dollar salaries really matter to Millennials? Forbes. [online]. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/kaytiezimmerman/2016/11/20/do-top-dollar-sala- ries-really-matter-to-millennials/2/#2f266b0a59b7 (Accessed: 20 December 2016). References & Bibliography
  66. 66. • 67 • Word Count 6485 FMBR30001 Fashion Marketing & Branding Strategic and Creative Solutions

×