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BUSINESS MODELS FOR PSI RE-USE
                                          Hype, Hope or the Next Big Thing?




                                                                www.ismb.it


Enrico Ferro - Michele Osella
Business Model & Policy Innovation Unit
Study financed by




    Join the debate via Social Media!



    #psi4profit

2         Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Foreword


      “Venture capitalists and entrepreneurs should not
      underestimate the value of government data. […]

    As governments democratize data, there is a potential
     for hundreds of startups and the birth of billion dollar
               businesses based on this data.”


                                                    Vivek Kundra
                             Former U.S. Chief Information Officer




3           Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
The Scenario


Public bodies are by far the largest producers
of information in Europe and not only.
 “Commercial exploitation of Europe's public sector information” – Pira International for the European Commission (2000)




However:
• The role of public agencies in creating, elaborating,
  consuming and releasing information is often not
  completely understood.
• PSI is recognized as a major, but so far under-exploited
  asset, which could and should be a fundamental building
  block of the “new economy” in the Information Society.


4                       Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Prominent Gaps in the Literature

       Paucity of
      studies on
     «downstream
     information»


                     Focus on
                  «how much»
                in lieu of «how»




5             Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Different Perspectives on the PSI Realm




  6       Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Boundaries of Public Sector Information


                                                       Open
                                 Public Sector      Government           Open Data
                                 Information           Data




Our perspective: all the broad spectrum of PSI

Public Sector Information               Open Government Data                            Open Data
    Information generated,                    Data produced or                  “Works” which are “open” in
created, collected, processed,         commissioned by government                      terms of: access,
    preserved, maintained,               or government controlled              redistribution, reuse, absence
disseminated, or funded by or           entities which can be freely             of technological restriction,
for the Government or public           used, reused and redistributed             attribution, integrity, no
          institution.                           by anyone.                        discrimination, license.

       Source: OECD                  Source: Open Knowledge Foundation       Source: Open Knowledge Foundation
 [Recommendation C(2008)36]                  [opendefinition.org]                    [opendefinition.org]


   7                    Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Research Questions

                                 1.     Are      there     profit-oriented
                                        organizations      capable       of
                                        generating      revenues      from
                                        information produced by the
                                        public sector?
                                 2.     What are the value creation
                                        mechanisms present in this
                                        sector? How is value created
                                        and appropriated?
                                 3.     In light of non-rivalry and non-
                                        excludability characterizing PSI
                                        - when released as Open Data -
                                        which are the key factors
                                        playing a pivotal role in the
                                        pursuit       of      sustainable
                                        competitive advantages?
8    Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Methodological Overview

                                    Adopted research approach:
                                    qualitative research

                                    Predominant research method:
                                    case study

                                    Type of case study:
                                    exploratory

                                    Unit of analysis:
                                    single company

                                    Case design:
                                    multiple case design

                                    Distribution of units of analysis:
                                    holistic



9      Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Sampling Overview
          Long list of enterprises re-using PSI or enabling the re-use
(mainly in the EU landscape) obtained through an extensive market research
                                   ~ 139 items




  Mixed sampling approach
                                                                                  Criteria for the theoretical
                                                                                  sampling
  • Empirical sampling
    (spontaneous collection of
                                                                                  • Geographical location
    exceptional cases “in the
                                                                                    (Italy, Europe, Rest of the World)
    limelight”)
                                                                                  • Position in the value chain
  • Theoretical sampling
                                                                                    (Re-Users, Enablers)
    (“structured” collection of
    cases in light of the
    prearranged research
    purposes)




                           13 enterprises under the lens

 10                       Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Units of Analysis

Long list distribution




                                                                  Sample distribution

  11              Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
The Framework


Resource-driven
    design
                                             PSI-based
                                               Value
                                            Proposition




     Enterprise-    PSI Processed
      specific           Data
     resources

       Public
     resources      PSI Raw Data




                                                                      PSI-based
                                                                      Revenues




12                 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
The Framework (cont’d)
                                                       Make money
                                                        from data


                                                    Price Mechanisms

                                                                       Create value
                                                                        from data


                                                                 Role of PSI in the
                                                                 Value Proposition

                                                                                 Make sense
                                                                                   of data

                                                                              Types of Data
                                                                              Elaboration




13      Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
The Framework (cont’d)
     Types of Data Elaboration                          Role of PSI in the Value Proposition
     Data aggregation
                                                              Final good itself
     Data structuring and classification
                                                              Key ingredient of a product
     Data geo-referencing
                                                              Key ingredient of a service
     Data validation
                                                              Marginal ingredient of a product
     Data mash-up
                                                              Marginal ingredient of a service
     Visual analytics



                                       Price Mechanisms
       Premium                            Freemium                               Free
           À la carte                          Feature limited                    Advertising powered

           Subscription fee                    Time limited                       Cross subsidization

           Royalties                           Size limited                       Zero marginal cost




14                Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Main Findings

                          • Changes in governmental
                            boundaries
                          • The multi-actor PSI-centric
                            value ecosystem
                          • Archetypal actors
                          • Archetypal business models
                          • Entry barriers and sources
                            of competitive advantage
                          • Upside-down price logic
                          • Dissimilar market structures
                            for different re-users

15   Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
From “Monolithic” Government …

                                   Back-end                 Front-end

               Policy sphere
                                                                                    Operative sphere




                         System       Data       Decision     Data       Service
                       integration integration   making     provision   provision




                                Private sector
                                 enterprises
     Data sphere                                                                            GOV 1.0




16                   Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
… To “Extended” Government

                                   Back-end                  Front-end

               Policy sphere
                                                                                       Operative sphere
                                                            Spontaneous
                                                            civil initiatives


                                     Spontaneous
                                     civil initiatives



                         System       Data       Decision       Data       Service
                       integration integration   making       provision   provision


                                  Private sector
                                   enterprises
                                                                      Private sector
                                                                       enterprises
                               Private sector
                                enterprises

     Data sphere
                                                                                               GOV 2.0




17                   Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
The Multi-Actor Value Ecosystem
                                                                   “Fit-for-purpose”
                    Raw data               Refined data         products and services



           PSI                   PSI retrieval,
        generation                 storage,                      PSI                  PSI
           and                  categorization                 re-use             consumption
      dissemination             and exposure




     Governmental                                                                Business
                          Non-profit enablers         Core re-users
        bodies                                                                   end-users



                               Private sector              Service             Governmental
                                  enablers                advertisers           end-users
                                                                                                  Legend


                                                          Advertising                           Profit-oriented
                                                                                Consumers
                                                           factories                                actors



                                                    Spontaneous civil                             Non-profit
                                                       initiatives                                 actors




18                        Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
From Archetypal Actors …



                             On the
                           front line


     Position in the value
      creation process


                            Behind
                         the scene



                                             PSI as                       PSI as
                                        «bread and butter»           «attraction tool»

                                            Strategic vision of the PSI realm


19                Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
… To Archetypal Business Models
#1 Premium product / service
#2 Freemium product / service
                                                                               #7 Free as branded advertising
#3 Open Source like




#4 Infrastructural razors & blades                                              #8 White-label development
#5 Demand-oriented platform
#6 Supply-oriented platform

 20                   Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#1 Premium Product / Service




21       Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#1 Premium Product / Service



              Data retrieval                                    Long or
              and structuring,                                  medium term,     Mostly
                                        Provision of
              development of                                    standardized     business
                                        high-value
              the application                                   or customized    clients (B2B)
                                        features based
              logic                     on PSI




             Creativity,                                        Web,
             technical                                          traditional
             expertise, financial                               channels
             resources                                          (rarely)



     Software
                                                                  Lump sums or
     development and
                                                                  subscription
     maintenance,
                                                                  fees
     CRM




22                Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#2 Freemium Product / Service




23      Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#2 Freemium Product / Service



              Data retrieval                                    Medium or
                                       Provision of PSI-                           Mostly
              and structuring,                                  short term,
                                       based features                              consumers
              development of                                    standardized
                                       according to the                            (B2C)
              the application
                                       “value for
              logic
                                       money” principle




             Creativity,
                                                                Web, mobile
             technical
                                                                apps
             expertise, financial
             resources



     Software                                                    Charges for
     development and                                             additional data
     maintenance,                                                or advanced
     CRM                                                         features




24                Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#3 Open Source Like




25             ISMB – Copyright 2012
#3 Open Source Like



              Data retrieval                                    Long, medium
              and structuring,          Provision of                                       Heterogeneous
                                                                or short term,
              development of            PSI-based                                          customers (B2B,
                                                                standardized
              the application           features in an                                     B2G, B2C)
                                                                or customized
              logic                     “open“ manner




             Creativity,
                                                                Web
             technical
             expertise, financial
             resources



     Software                                                     Payments for added-
     development and                                              value services and
     maintenance,                                                 for license variations
     CRM




26                Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#4 Infrastructural Razors & Blades




 27       Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#4 Infrastructural Razors & Blades



                 Data exposure                                         Short term,
                 via APIs,                                             standardized     Developers,
                                               Facilitation in
                 provision of                                                           scientists
                                               access to PSI
                 computing
                                               resources
                 capacity




                 Storage
                                                                       Cloud
                 resources,
                                                                       computing
                 computing
                                                                       platforms
                 resources



      Management                                                        On-demand
      and evolution                                                     payments for
      of the IT estate                                                  computing
                                                                        power




 28                      Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#5 Demand-Oriented Platform




29       Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#5 Demand-Oriented Platform



                        Data structuring                                  Long or
Providers of            and                                               medium term,     Developers
                                                  Facilitation in
cloud                   classification,                                   standardized
                                                  access to PSI
computing               data exposure
                                                  resources
services                via APIs




                        Storage
                                                                          “One stop
                        resources,
                                                                          shopping” data
                        computing
                                                                          platforms
                        resources



               Management of                                               Payments for
               the IT estate,                                              advanced
               data                                                        features or
               maintenance                                                 refined data




     30                     Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#6 Supply-Oriented Platform




31          Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#6 Supply-Oriented Platform



                 Data structuring                                  Long term,
                                           Facilitation in
                 and classification,                               customized                PSI holders
                                           management
                 data exposure via                                 Long, medium              (charged side
                                           and exposure
                 APIs, data                                        or short term,            of the market)
                                           of PSI
                 exposure via GUI                                  standardized
                                           resources




                                           Facilitation in                                   Developers
                 Storage                   access to PSI                                     (non-charged
                                                                   Two-sided data            side of the
                 resources,                resources               management                market)
                 computing
                                                                   platforms
                 resources


      Management and                                               "Parametric" payments
      evolution of the IT                                          based on data storage,
      estate, data                                                 bandwidth
      maintenance                                                  requirements, API calls




32                   Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#7 Free as Branded Advertising




33       Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#7 Free as Branded Advertising



                     Data retrieval,                                   Short term,
Software                                       Provision of                                 Wide audience
                     development of                                    standardized
development                                    PSI-based                                    of customers
                     the application
companies,                                     services of
                     logic, brand
communication                                  general
                     promotion
agencies                                       usefulness




                     Creativity,                                       Web, mobile
                     technical                                         apps
                     expertise



          Software                                                       Revenue streams
          development,                                                   coming from non-
          marketing,                                                     PSI-based
          service evolution                                              business lines




    34                   Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#8 White-Label Development




35          Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
#8 White-Label Development


                Customer
                negotiation, data                                  Long or
                                           Development                                   Companies
                retrieval,                                         medium term,
                                           and delivery of                               willing to use
                development of                                     customized
                                           white-label                                   PSI as
                the application            solutions                                     "attraction tool"
                logic                      based on PSI




                Creativity,
                technical
                expertise



      Software                                                       Lump sum or
      development,                                                   recurring
      CRM                                                            payments for
                                                                     crafted solutions




36                   Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Sources of Competitive Advantage

                                                      Vision at a glance

 Dynamic perspective

                                                                 Learning curve
                                                        Cumulated experience (acquired also
                                                        outside the PSI world) coupled by
                                                        absorption capacity that enhances an
                                                        effective use of knowledge acquired from
     Static perspective                                 external sources.




                                             Efficiency

                               Presence of already established internal
                               resources which are usable without
                               incurring incremental costs.



37               Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Entry Barriers…



Extent of barriers
 to PSI re-use



                                     Effort for differentiating the value proposition




                     Effort for accessing PSI


                      Closed PSI                Grey area                    OGD        Degree of PSI openness




    38                 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
… and Sources of Competitive Advantage



                              High



      Extent of price
         barriers



                               Low



                                               Low                         High

                                          Extent of technological barriers



 39             Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Pricing Paradigm: the “Old-Style”

         Locus:
     the “Closed by
     Default” realm




40                    Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Pricing Paradigm: the “New-Style”

        Locus:
     the “Open by
     Default” realm




41                    Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Dissimilar Market Structures …
                                           Impregnable strongholds            Fluid markets

     Prominent business driving force      Data volumes                       Application logic

     Key success factor                    Aggregation                        Creativity

     Amount of PSI encompassed in          Slew of datasets                   Few chunks of data
     re-use operations
     Degree of data diversity              Homogenous data                    Heterogeneous data

     Main barriers to the re-use           Price barriers                     Technological barriers    (not
                                                                              always present)
     Market concentration                  High                               Low

     Target customers                      Mainly B2B and B2G entities        Chiefly B2C audience

     Re-users’ profile                     Well-structured companies          Mainly start-ups

     Re-users’ business approach           “Evergreen” businesses             “Groundbreaking” businesses

     Pricing mechanism                     Premium pricing model              Free / freemium pricing model



42                       Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
… For Different Re-Users
                                               High                  Low
                                   Stars                               Question marks

                                                                                                “Ground-
                                                                                                breaking”




                                                                                        High
                                                                                               businesses
                                                                                               operating in
                                                                                                  fluid
                   Market growth
                                                                                                 markets




                                                                                        Low
“Evergreen”
businesses
operating in
                                   Cash cows                                    Dogs
oligopolistic
  regimes
                                                      Market share

                                                                       Growth-Share Matrix (a.k.a. BCG Matrix)

 43                      Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Conclusions

     PSI re-use for profit purposes is not a
     marginal phenomenon at a European level.

     Two "ideal types" of market have been found
     out: fluid markets vs. oligopolistic markets.

     Four main positions have emerged along the
     PSI value chain.

     Eight archetypal business models have been
     depicted.

     A paradigm shift in terms of pricing is
     appearing at the horizon.



44            Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Policy Guidelines

     Why opening data?
     Extended Gov.
 PSI is a pivotal pillar in the
                                  Business opportunities
 reshaping of governmental                                 Competition
 boundaries, creating more        The opening up of public
 room for spontaneous civil       data (in legal, technical and
 initiatives and private          pricing terms), despite           The increasing degree of
 business endeavors.              reinforcing the nature of         openness and accessibility
                                  public good, is compatible        shifts the sources of
                                  with its use in profit-           competitive advantage to
                                  oriented activities.              functional aspects as well
                                                                    as to knowledge of vertical
                                                                    domains, strengthening the
                                                                    competition in PSI-related
                                                                    market arenas and
                                                                    weeding out rent seeking.




45                  Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Policy Guidelines (cont’d)

     How opening data?
     Scale
 The presence of a
                              Most wanted
 minimum efficient scale
                              Information sources
                                                                 Italian scenario
 (national or
 international) calls for     taking the lion’s share
                              regard geography and              In the Italian
 coordination activities                                        ecosystem, noteworthy
 aimed at promoting           cartography, companies
                              and finance, law and              opportunities may stem
 local initiatives.                                             from the immense
                              legislation.
                                                                cultural heritage, which
                                                                nowadays seems to
                                                                represent a largely
                                                                untapped potential.




46              Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Policy Recommendations

     Tackling major                      Clear and long-term
     roadblocks on                         legal framework
     the way to PSI
        re-use …




                                                                     Distinction between
                Continuity in the            Enabling                   ownership and
                 update of data
                                              factors                stewardship of data




                                          Guarantees about
                                            data quality




47              Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
Let us Have Your Opinion!


     ferro@ismb.it                                           osella@ismb.it


      @egferro                                             @MicheleOsella



                 “We believe that changing the world is the only way to make it a better place”
                                   “We believe in building the future we want to live”


                        “We create value-driven and socially relevant technological innovations
                                in close collaboration with industry and government”

                                 “Do you want to be part of our next research venture?”




48           Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society

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Business Models in PSI Reuse

  • 1. BUSINESS MODELS FOR PSI RE-USE Hype, Hope or the Next Big Thing? www.ismb.it Enrico Ferro - Michele Osella Business Model & Policy Innovation Unit
  • 2. Study financed by Join the debate via Social Media! #psi4profit 2 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 3. Foreword “Venture capitalists and entrepreneurs should not underestimate the value of government data. […] As governments democratize data, there is a potential for hundreds of startups and the birth of billion dollar businesses based on this data.” Vivek Kundra Former U.S. Chief Information Officer 3 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 4. The Scenario Public bodies are by far the largest producers of information in Europe and not only. “Commercial exploitation of Europe's public sector information” – Pira International for the European Commission (2000) However: • The role of public agencies in creating, elaborating, consuming and releasing information is often not completely understood. • PSI is recognized as a major, but so far under-exploited asset, which could and should be a fundamental building block of the “new economy” in the Information Society. 4 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 5. Prominent Gaps in the Literature Paucity of studies on «downstream information» Focus on «how much» in lieu of «how» 5 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 6. Different Perspectives on the PSI Realm 6 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 7. Boundaries of Public Sector Information Open Public Sector Government Open Data Information Data Our perspective: all the broad spectrum of PSI Public Sector Information Open Government Data Open Data Information generated, Data produced or “Works” which are “open” in created, collected, processed, commissioned by government terms of: access, preserved, maintained, or government controlled redistribution, reuse, absence disseminated, or funded by or entities which can be freely of technological restriction, for the Government or public used, reused and redistributed attribution, integrity, no institution. by anyone. discrimination, license. Source: OECD Source: Open Knowledge Foundation Source: Open Knowledge Foundation [Recommendation C(2008)36] [opendefinition.org] [opendefinition.org] 7 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 8. Research Questions 1. Are there profit-oriented organizations capable of generating revenues from information produced by the public sector? 2. What are the value creation mechanisms present in this sector? How is value created and appropriated? 3. In light of non-rivalry and non- excludability characterizing PSI - when released as Open Data - which are the key factors playing a pivotal role in the pursuit of sustainable competitive advantages? 8 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 9. Methodological Overview Adopted research approach: qualitative research Predominant research method: case study Type of case study: exploratory Unit of analysis: single company Case design: multiple case design Distribution of units of analysis: holistic 9 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 10. Sampling Overview Long list of enterprises re-using PSI or enabling the re-use (mainly in the EU landscape) obtained through an extensive market research ~ 139 items Mixed sampling approach Criteria for the theoretical sampling • Empirical sampling (spontaneous collection of • Geographical location exceptional cases “in the (Italy, Europe, Rest of the World) limelight”) • Position in the value chain • Theoretical sampling (Re-Users, Enablers) (“structured” collection of cases in light of the prearranged research purposes) 13 enterprises under the lens 10 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 11. Units of Analysis Long list distribution Sample distribution 11 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 12. The Framework Resource-driven design PSI-based Value Proposition Enterprise- PSI Processed specific Data resources Public resources PSI Raw Data PSI-based Revenues 12 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 13. The Framework (cont’d) Make money from data Price Mechanisms Create value from data Role of PSI in the Value Proposition Make sense of data Types of Data Elaboration 13 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 14. The Framework (cont’d) Types of Data Elaboration Role of PSI in the Value Proposition Data aggregation Final good itself Data structuring and classification Key ingredient of a product Data geo-referencing Key ingredient of a service Data validation Marginal ingredient of a product Data mash-up Marginal ingredient of a service Visual analytics Price Mechanisms Premium Freemium Free À la carte Feature limited Advertising powered Subscription fee Time limited Cross subsidization Royalties Size limited Zero marginal cost 14 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 15. Main Findings • Changes in governmental boundaries • The multi-actor PSI-centric value ecosystem • Archetypal actors • Archetypal business models • Entry barriers and sources of competitive advantage • Upside-down price logic • Dissimilar market structures for different re-users 15 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 16. From “Monolithic” Government … Back-end Front-end Policy sphere Operative sphere System Data Decision Data Service integration integration making provision provision Private sector enterprises Data sphere GOV 1.0 16 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 17. … To “Extended” Government Back-end Front-end Policy sphere Operative sphere Spontaneous civil initiatives Spontaneous civil initiatives System Data Decision Data Service integration integration making provision provision Private sector enterprises Private sector enterprises Private sector enterprises Data sphere GOV 2.0 17 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 18. The Multi-Actor Value Ecosystem “Fit-for-purpose” Raw data Refined data products and services PSI PSI retrieval, generation storage, PSI PSI and categorization re-use consumption dissemination and exposure Governmental Business Non-profit enablers Core re-users bodies end-users Private sector Service Governmental enablers advertisers end-users Legend Advertising Profit-oriented Consumers factories actors Spontaneous civil Non-profit initiatives actors 18 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 19. From Archetypal Actors … On the front line Position in the value creation process Behind the scene PSI as PSI as «bread and butter» «attraction tool» Strategic vision of the PSI realm 19 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 20. … To Archetypal Business Models #1 Premium product / service #2 Freemium product / service #7 Free as branded advertising #3 Open Source like #4 Infrastructural razors & blades #8 White-label development #5 Demand-oriented platform #6 Supply-oriented platform 20 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 21. #1 Premium Product / Service 21 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 22. #1 Premium Product / Service Data retrieval Long or and structuring, medium term, Mostly Provision of development of standardized business high-value the application or customized clients (B2B) features based logic on PSI Creativity, Web, technical traditional expertise, financial channels resources (rarely) Software Lump sums or development and subscription maintenance, fees CRM 22 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 23. #2 Freemium Product / Service 23 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 24. #2 Freemium Product / Service Data retrieval Medium or Provision of PSI- Mostly and structuring, short term, based features consumers development of standardized according to the (B2C) the application “value for logic money” principle Creativity, Web, mobile technical apps expertise, financial resources Software Charges for development and additional data maintenance, or advanced CRM features 24 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 25. #3 Open Source Like 25 ISMB – Copyright 2012
  • 26. #3 Open Source Like Data retrieval Long, medium and structuring, Provision of Heterogeneous or short term, development of PSI-based customers (B2B, standardized the application features in an B2G, B2C) or customized logic “open“ manner Creativity, Web technical expertise, financial resources Software Payments for added- development and value services and maintenance, for license variations CRM 26 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 27. #4 Infrastructural Razors & Blades 27 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 28. #4 Infrastructural Razors & Blades Data exposure Short term, via APIs, standardized Developers, Facilitation in provision of scientists access to PSI computing resources capacity Storage Cloud resources, computing computing platforms resources Management On-demand and evolution payments for of the IT estate computing power 28 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 29. #5 Demand-Oriented Platform 29 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 30. #5 Demand-Oriented Platform Data structuring Long or Providers of and medium term, Developers Facilitation in cloud classification, standardized access to PSI computing data exposure resources services via APIs Storage “One stop resources, shopping” data computing platforms resources Management of Payments for the IT estate, advanced data features or maintenance refined data 30 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 31. #6 Supply-Oriented Platform 31 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 32. #6 Supply-Oriented Platform Data structuring Long term, Facilitation in and classification, customized PSI holders management data exposure via Long, medium (charged side and exposure APIs, data or short term, of the market) of PSI exposure via GUI standardized resources Facilitation in Developers Storage access to PSI (non-charged Two-sided data side of the resources, resources management market) computing platforms resources Management and "Parametric" payments evolution of the IT based on data storage, estate, data bandwidth maintenance requirements, API calls 32 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 33. #7 Free as Branded Advertising 33 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 34. #7 Free as Branded Advertising Data retrieval, Short term, Software Provision of Wide audience development of standardized development PSI-based of customers the application companies, services of logic, brand communication general promotion agencies usefulness Creativity, Web, mobile technical apps expertise Software Revenue streams development, coming from non- marketing, PSI-based service evolution business lines 34 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 35. #8 White-Label Development 35 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 36. #8 White-Label Development Customer negotiation, data Long or Development Companies retrieval, medium term, and delivery of willing to use development of customized white-label PSI as the application solutions "attraction tool" logic based on PSI Creativity, technical expertise Software Lump sum or development, recurring CRM payments for crafted solutions 36 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 37. Sources of Competitive Advantage Vision at a glance Dynamic perspective Learning curve Cumulated experience (acquired also outside the PSI world) coupled by absorption capacity that enhances an effective use of knowledge acquired from Static perspective external sources. Efficiency Presence of already established internal resources which are usable without incurring incremental costs. 37 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 38. Entry Barriers… Extent of barriers to PSI re-use Effort for differentiating the value proposition Effort for accessing PSI Closed PSI Grey area OGD Degree of PSI openness 38 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 39. … and Sources of Competitive Advantage High Extent of price barriers Low Low High Extent of technological barriers 39 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 40. Pricing Paradigm: the “Old-Style” Locus: the “Closed by Default” realm 40 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 41. Pricing Paradigm: the “New-Style” Locus: the “Open by Default” realm 41 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 42. Dissimilar Market Structures … Impregnable strongholds Fluid markets Prominent business driving force Data volumes Application logic Key success factor Aggregation Creativity Amount of PSI encompassed in Slew of datasets Few chunks of data re-use operations Degree of data diversity Homogenous data Heterogeneous data Main barriers to the re-use Price barriers Technological barriers (not always present) Market concentration High Low Target customers Mainly B2B and B2G entities Chiefly B2C audience Re-users’ profile Well-structured companies Mainly start-ups Re-users’ business approach “Evergreen” businesses “Groundbreaking” businesses Pricing mechanism Premium pricing model Free / freemium pricing model 42 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 43. … For Different Re-Users High Low Stars Question marks “Ground- breaking” High businesses operating in fluid Market growth markets Low “Evergreen” businesses operating in Cash cows Dogs oligopolistic regimes Market share Growth-Share Matrix (a.k.a. BCG Matrix) 43 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 44. Conclusions PSI re-use for profit purposes is not a marginal phenomenon at a European level. Two "ideal types" of market have been found out: fluid markets vs. oligopolistic markets. Four main positions have emerged along the PSI value chain. Eight archetypal business models have been depicted. A paradigm shift in terms of pricing is appearing at the horizon. 44 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 45. Policy Guidelines Why opening data? Extended Gov. PSI is a pivotal pillar in the Business opportunities reshaping of governmental Competition boundaries, creating more The opening up of public room for spontaneous civil data (in legal, technical and initiatives and private pricing terms), despite The increasing degree of business endeavors. reinforcing the nature of openness and accessibility public good, is compatible shifts the sources of with its use in profit- competitive advantage to oriented activities. functional aspects as well as to knowledge of vertical domains, strengthening the competition in PSI-related market arenas and weeding out rent seeking. 45 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 46. Policy Guidelines (cont’d) How opening data? Scale The presence of a Most wanted minimum efficient scale Information sources Italian scenario (national or international) calls for taking the lion’s share regard geography and In the Italian coordination activities ecosystem, noteworthy aimed at promoting cartography, companies and finance, law and opportunities may stem local initiatives. from the immense legislation. cultural heritage, which nowadays seems to represent a largely untapped potential. 46 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 47. Policy Recommendations Tackling major Clear and long-term roadblocks on legal framework the way to PSI re-use … Distinction between Continuity in the Enabling ownership and update of data factors stewardship of data Guarantees about data quality 47 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society
  • 48. Let us Have Your Opinion! ferro@ismb.it osella@ismb.it @egferro @MicheleOsella “We believe that changing the world is the only way to make it a better place” “We believe in building the future we want to live” “We create value-driven and socially relevant technological innovations in close collaboration with industry and government” “Do you want to be part of our next research venture?” 48 Technology Intelligence for Government, Business and Society