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vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
by William Mougayar	
​ General Partner
​ Virtual Capital Ventures
Blockchain 2015: Strategic
Analysis in Financial Services
December 22 2015
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
It All Started with the Internet…
3© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
§  It signaled the end of IT, and the beginning
of the Internet era
§  Technology became a slippery slope since
then
§  For 10 years, financial institutions didn’t
innovate much with the Internet
§  It could be argued that FinTech was a
response to that lack of innovation during
the early Internet years
[At the end of 1999, only 20% of US national banks were offering
Internet banking, although it represented 90% of banking system]
​  1994 was a BadYear for Banking
4
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  In the mid-2000’s FinTech Attacked the Banks,
and it was called “Unbundling Banking”	
U.S.
Europe
u  In startup fashion,
most attacks
aren’t head-on,
start small & look
harmless at first
sights, therefore
are ignored
u  So, the banks
didn’t feel
FinTech initially,
because it crept
up
Graphs Source: CB Insights
5
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Source: https://www.fmsinc.org/documents/CSI_BankingPrioritiesSurvey2015.pdf
Which of the following
areas will be a strategic
focus in 2015?
Choose three:
​  In 2014, Banks Didn’t Plan for the Blockchain
6
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Actually, they had plans to continue being focused on other priorities:	
Source: Deloitte 2015 Banking Outlook
http://www2.deloitte.com/global/en/pages/financial-services/articles/2015-banking-outlook.html
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Then, the Blockchain Happened…
…and Suddenly, it’s Becoming the New Internet
8© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
①  Some blockchain companies will attack
your business, although peripherally at first
②  Some blockchain technologies/companies
are for you, to strengthen or defend your
positions
è Blockchain is helpful, doesn’t signal the end of
banks, but innovation must permeate faster than
Internet did in 1995-2000. Early years are formative.
Banks shouldn’t just see blockchain as cost savings.
It’s also about new opportunities.
​  But there is Good News: Two Outcomes for Banks
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
What is the Blockchain?
10
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Self
Publishing
E-
Commerce
Social
Interactions
IT Supremacy Internet Years
​  Defining Technology Eras	
Personal
Communications
Blockchain Promise
1994 2015
Data
computation
Database
applications
Transaction
processing
Business
Intelligence
Global
operations
Enabling
Decentralization
of
Trust
Value Flow
without
Intermediaries
11
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Taking an ATOMIC DDDive in Explaining the Blockchain	
1. Programmable
3D’s
Decentralization
Disintermediation
Distributed Ledgers
“Exchanging Assets Without Central Intermediaries”
Everything about the blockchain touches the core of banking.
This is why it will be a challenging encounter.
Governance
Value Creation
ASSETS
TRUST
OWNERSHIP
MONEY
IDENTITY
CONTRACTS
2. Based on:
3. Affecting:
12© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Consumers Ask Why?	
When it comes to covering their risk, banks and
credit card companies will give consumers
instantaneous answers/settlements (like for
purchase authorizations or withdrawing money
from an account); but when it comes to our
own transactions (e.g. depositing a check or
transferring money), we typically have to wait
days before receiving confirmations.
è Can the blockchain help?
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
The Startup Dilemma
14
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Banks see startups like this strange
beast that needs to be examined
Investing in startup ecosystems and
accelerators gives them a spectator
seat, not a participating one
By staying “close” to them, they think
they will benefit from symbiosis, but
they are degrees removed from them
in reality, because they are only
visiting the animals in the zoo
​  Banks and FinTech Startups: A Strange Relationship
15
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  The Reality isYou Need to Take the Animal Home …	
​  … to see if they will survive	
This is a common dilemma for large corporations when faced with
external innovations that surpass their internal abilities to absorb or usurp
it.
16© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Because the Perceived “Tech” Threats Are Real
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Themes that Emerged in 2015
18© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Blockchain and old constructs, such as
clearing houses and private exchange
networks (SWIFT, CCP, FIX, DTCC) are like oil
and water: they will not mix well because one
is based on centrally trusted intermediaries,
and the other is based on “no” intermediaries
and peer-to-peer trust.
è Warning: Retrofitting the blockchain will be
challenging, and may not yield significant benefits.
​  Blockchain vs. Establish Methods/Networks
19
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Having the Blockchain without Bitcoin	
§  Banks rejected Bitcoin as a knee-jerk
reaction, rooted by regulatory compliance
requirements, and loss of control fears; both
valid concerns in the short term.
§  But Bitcoin is a rich blockchain laboratory.
Bypassing it would result in a steeper.
learning curve for adopting the blockchain
è Reality Check: Blockchain without Bitcoin is a valid
construct
20
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Doing Proof of Concepts (POC’s)	
§  POCs are timid experiments that don’t
show commitments.
§  POCs won’t always allow you to see the
potential benefits.
§  It’s better to implement smaller projects
end-to-end, where you can see results.
§  But POC’s can be used to narrow down
the portfolio of committed projects.
21
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Integrations with Current Systems	
§  It is easier to start implementing
blockchain solutions in new segments,
without internal integrations.
§  If your starting position is your current
systems, then you are looking at 18-24
months for full implementations.
è Insight: Why not start with no baggage, and earn
new customers that want to try something new?
22
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Role of External Consultancies	
§  They can help you re-engineer change,
and implement large projects, once you
know what you need to do.
§  But they may not have all the answers, nor
the required thought leadership.
§  You need to learn the basic minimums of
blockchain capabilities, e.g. don’t
outsource smart contracts experiments,
rather work with smart contracts
yourselves.
23
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Blockchain Rushes to Capital Markets	
§  Many pivots lead to Capital Markets: iTBit,
TradeBlock, Chain pivots, and DAH’s
iterations are all gunning towards the
opportunities capital markets
§  Major Consortia are also targeting that
space, e.g. R3 CEV and Linux Foundation
§  2016 Question: Will the blockchain make a
dent in capital markets, or will it experience
organ transplant rejection?
24
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  HighVenture CapitalValuations	
§  The Capital Markets segment is where most of the
large valuations are found.
§  These are large bets. Some will materialize, but
others will fail.
§  Early stage startups are generally more
reasonable, except for some that are birthed in
Silicon Valley, as they start with higher than
normal valuation expectations.
§  Some newcomer VCs and PE investors (including
some corporates) are fueling this over-valuation,
due to fears of missing out.
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Sector Analysis	 Applications &
Solutions
Middleware &
Services
Infrastructure
& Protocols
26
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Due to country financial
regulations, there are many
Exchanges (at least 1 per
country, theoretically)
u  They are playing a useful
role for consumers today,
but their future is
undetermined
u  Questions for 2016:
Will a bank purchase an
Exchange? Or will banks
offer similar services?
Cryptocurrency Exchanges
27
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  There’s a blurring line
between Brokerage and
Exchanges
u  The difference is they hold
your assets centrally, like a
bank would
u  But their fate is tied to the
Exchanges
u  Some Bitcoin purists say their
central functionality is
counter Bitcoin’s
decentralization ethos
Brokerage Services
28
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Many choices and variations
u  Some are smartphone based,
others web-based
u  Some let you hold your
currency in the wallet itself,
others use a key on the wallet
to unlock access to your funds
u  There is a race to add
functionality to wallets
u  Question for 2016: Will our
wallets be our mini-bank?
Software Wallets
29
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Adoption of hardware
wallets has been timid
in 2015
u  Some are adding
identity, shopping,
security linkages
u  Question for 2016: Will
adoption take off?
Hardware Wallets
30
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Made to fit for the
blockchain
u  Adoption in 2015 is showing
signs of hope
u  Innovative use cases being
tried, including ones with
publishers
u  2016 Challenge: Will the
killer app for
cryptocurrency
microtransactions emerge?
Microtransactions
31
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Embryonic market in
2015
u  Expecting lots of
innovation in 2016 with
newer players
u  Some Robo-advisor
startups might get
challenged by
blockchain ones, unless
they add blockchain to
their offerings
Investments and Loans
32
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  The gigantic size global
remittances is making this segment
very crowded
u  Reality is each global corridor has
unique characteristics, and global
approaches will be challenging
u  Many are gunning for Western
Union, the largest player every
startup dreams of unseating
u  But a number of non-
cryptocurrency companies also
have a shot at making a dent
u  2016 Question: Will a contender
emerge?
Money Services
33
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  It’s the quadrillion dollar
opportunity that is the most
obvious
u  But disrupting the current clearing
networks will not be easy
u  Startups are raising their stakes by
raising a lot of money in this
segment, but not all will survive
u  There is a gap between where
vendors want to go and how fast
banks/markets can move
u  2016 Question: What volume of
transactions will flow through
blockchains?
Capital Markets
34
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  This is where the next
cryptocurrency stock
exchange might come
from
u  Startups are imagining a
mirrored world with a
plethora of financial
instruments like derivatives,
bonds, stocks, etc.
u  2016 Challenge: Achieving
viable market-making
liquidity
Trading Platforms
35
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  They facilitate Bitcoin e-
commerce
u  That segment’s growth
depends on the growth of
Bitcoin e-commerce
u  Integrations with websites
are still tricky
u  2016 Question: Will
traditional merchant
processors add Bitcoin to
their arsenal?
Merchant Services
36
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Exciting space
u  Startups are still developing their
products
u  Customers are banks who want
to keep an eye on their Bitcoin
clients, and LE’s who want to
learn how to tame AML on the
blockchain
u  Trend toward monitoring vs.
compliance
u  2016 Question: Will traditional
AML vendors integrate these
offerings?
Compliance
37
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Financial data analysis
is still an embryonic
market
u  Cryptocurrency
markets are still running
outside traditional
money markets
u  2016: Will the
Bloomberg of Crypto
emerge?
Financial Data
38
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Not a very visible area yet,
but it promises more
transparency in supply
chains, reducing fraud and
assuring authenticity and
origin of products
u  In theory, tracking the
provenance and
authenticity of products
makes sense, but…
u  2016 Question: Will it be a
utility feature or a game
changer?
Trade Finance
39
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  There are about 20 ATMs
manufacturers
u  Their vision is to add
more services
u  They rub shoulders with
the alternative money
service providers
segment
u  2016: Will they become
indispensible or remain
a curiosity?
ATM’s
40
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  These are some of the pioneers
u  They are serious about the
blockchain
u  They are doing extra-ordinary
things: fund accelerators, formal
internal committees, publish
thought leadership, speak at
conferences, serious about
innovating and testing proofs of
concepts, leading consortia, and
not afraid of new ideas
u  Question for 2016: Will their skunk
work permeate the rest of their
banks footprint?
Banks
41
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Timid activity, but there
is potential for 2015
u  Some interesting seed
ideas percolating in the
Insurance space
Payroll and Insurance
42
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Several use cases, but
fragmented usage
u  Consumer experience
not there yet for the
mainstream
u  Both B2B and B2C
solutions exist
u  Challenge is to getting
embedded inside
popular use cases
Payments
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Sector Analysis	 Applications &
Solutions
Middleware &
Services
Infrastructure
& Protocols
44
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Embryonic start for 2015
u  Potential upside
because banks like to
be hand-held
u  2016: Will the Big
Consultancies and IT
Outsourcing
companies claim this
segment, or wait a little
longer?
Blockchain Services
45
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  They make it easier to
develop blockchain apps
without worrying about the
underlying infrastructure
u  Some blurred lines with
Services, because they
offer that too
u  No big winners yet
u  2016: Will standard
development practices
emerge?
Software Development
46
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  That’s where Bitcoin
programmability
started
u  They offer the nuts and
bolts of the Bitcoin API
u  Question for 2016: Can
they evolve?
General APIs
47
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Tackling specific
functionality around
digital assets creation,
tokenization of assets,
notarization/verifiability
of data/processes
u  Challenge for 2016: Will
real, end-to-end use
cases emerge?
Specialized APIs
48
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  They are one step above
the protocols, and insulate
developers from the nitty-
gritty of cryptography
constructs
u  2016 Challenge: Will they
reach a critical mass of
adoption as they compete
with the native capabilities
of blockchains?
Blockchain Platforms
49
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  Smart Contracts are
the big promise of
blockchains
u  They are still hard to
master for the average
developer
u  2016 Challenge: Will a
leader emerge?
Smart Contracts
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Sector Analysis	 Applications &
Solutions
Middleware &
Services
Infrastructure
& Protocols
51
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  That’s where it all
started
u  Today, Bitcoin is the
largest blockchain and
will continue to be
u  But Ethereum is
emerging as a very
viable alternative
Public Blockchains
52
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  The jury is still out on the
longevity of special
purpose blockchains
u  They might make sense
as private blockchains
(e.g. Ripple)
Special Blockchains
53
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  They carry the promise
of native
microtransactions on
the blockchain, with
flexible
programmability
capabilities
u  Still early to tell, but we
should expect
advances in 2016
Payment Protocols
54
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
u  There are hundreds of miners
running thousands “nodes”
u  They get rewarded for solving
mathematical equations that
validate transactions on the
blockchain networks (proof-
of-work)
u  Mostly confined to Bitcoin
mining, but emerging with
other blockchain mining (e.g.
Ethereum)
Miners
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
What Should Banks Do?
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
Implementing the blockchain is:
80% Business Process / 20% Technology
[it’s not the other way around]
57
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Challenges	
§  Good intentions are not good enough
§  Get your own hands dirty, don’t outsource the
learning
§  Get your minds dirty, try some ideas even if
they fail
§  Failing is OK for startups, but can banks learn to
fail?
§  Integrations will not be easy
§  Blockchain applications are different; but they
must be written
58
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Opportunities	
§  Don’t think “what problem is the
blockchain solving”; rather “what
opportunities can we create with it”- it
takes a paradigm shift
§  Starting in new fields will be easier (forget
integration, initially)
§  A bank without a blockchain strategy is a
laggard
59
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Recommendations	
§  Invest in learning blockchain technologies
§  Learn how to:
§  Write smart contracts
§  Create/Tokenize assets and notarize data/processes on
the blockchain
§  Interact with blockchain APIs
§  Program a blockchain
§  Don’t outsource these tasks, or you’d be
outsourcing your learnings
§  Pair a business manager with a technical person
to uncover innovations
60
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Institute the Blockchain Czar Role	
§  Brings focus into blockchain-related activities
§  Role:
§  Removes obstacles to blockchain implementations
§  Shares what every department is doing
§  Lubricates best practices adoptions
§  Project-manages across various implementations
§  Paired with an IT person for ad-hoc experimentations that don’t
require approvals
§  External and internal spokesperson and evangelist
§  Qualifications:
§  Knows banking operations and technology implementations
§  Experienced in reengineering/change management
§  Blockchain enthusiast
61
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Can Banks Evolve their AML/KYC for the Blockchain Era?	
“Today's AML paradigm is based on heavy customer due diligence
and light (intra-company) transaction monitoring. Blockchain tech
enables enhanced transactional analyses that were not possible,
before. In the pre-blockchain era, regulated financial institutions
could only do intra-company transactional analysis, and had to
share information via analog or documentary methods. Network-
wide analytics that are possible with blockchains transcend
industries and jurisdictional borders. There is now an opportunity to
trade-off reduced KYC requirements (thus fomenting financial
inclusion) for the increased behavioral transparency afforded by
the blockchain.”
- Juan Llanos, Certified AML Specialist and Risk / Fintech / Crypto Expert
è 2016 Question: Can Law Enforcement Authorities / Regulators
embrace this paradigm shift?
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
There is no Try. Do or Lag.
It’s better to shoot yourself in the foot, than to have
someone else shoot you in the head.
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
2016 Predictions
64
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  What Might Happen in 2016?	
§  Compliance will move to intelligence
§  Regulation will show signs of re-invention
§  Companies will use the blockchain like having a website
§  $1.5B of non-currency assets will be transacted on
blockchains
§  VC investments in blockchain related startups will exceed
$2.5B
§  Some FinTech companies will also be challenged by
Blockchain contenders
§  Some consortia will start delivering, but it’s not a panacea
for everything
§  Some blockchain startups will start to fail (visibly)
§  Bitcoin as a cryptocurrency will enter online banking
65
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  Final Thoughts	
The blockchain is not a lethal threat to the banks,
but it presents challenges and signals turbulent
times for technology adoption. It might be the last
chance for banks to ride a significant technology-
based innovation cycle. If the banking sector fails
to embrace the blockchain, the field of
“alternative financial services” (aka FinTech) will
accelerate its growth even more.
66
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​  AboutVirtual CapitalVentures	
Virtual Capital Ventures (VcapV) is a
boutique-style, early-stage technology
venture capital firm, focused on
decentralized peer-to-peer technologies
and applications. Based in Toronto, VcapV
invests in North American startups that think
big, and act bigger. Founded by William
Mougayar, a veteran entrepreneur, mentor
to startups, board member and experienced
operator, the fund is advised and backed by
some of the industry’s top players.
vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures
​ William Mougayar
​ Investor . Entrepreneur
​ Blogger . Board Member
​ General Partner
​ Virtual Capital Ventures
​ william@vcapv.com
​ 1-416-648-7010
​ http://startupmanagement.org/blog
​ http://vcapv.com
​ @wmougayar
thank you	

	

Also, check:
Global Landscape of Blockchain Companies in Financial Services
Dear Big Bank CEO, Re: Blockchains: Obliterate, don’t Automate

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Blockchain 2015: Analyzing the Blockchain in Financial Services

  • 1. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures by William Mougayar ​ General Partner ​ Virtual Capital Ventures Blockchain 2015: Strategic Analysis in Financial Services December 22 2015
  • 2. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures It All Started with the Internet…
  • 3. 3© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures §  It signaled the end of IT, and the beginning of the Internet era §  Technology became a slippery slope since then §  For 10 years, financial institutions didn’t innovate much with the Internet §  It could be argued that FinTech was a response to that lack of innovation during the early Internet years [At the end of 1999, only 20% of US national banks were offering Internet banking, although it represented 90% of banking system] ​  1994 was a BadYear for Banking
  • 4. 4 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  In the mid-2000’s FinTech Attacked the Banks, and it was called “Unbundling Banking” U.S. Europe u  In startup fashion, most attacks aren’t head-on, start small & look harmless at first sights, therefore are ignored u  So, the banks didn’t feel FinTech initially, because it crept up Graphs Source: CB Insights
  • 5. 5 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Source: https://www.fmsinc.org/documents/CSI_BankingPrioritiesSurvey2015.pdf Which of the following areas will be a strategic focus in 2015? Choose three: ​  In 2014, Banks Didn’t Plan for the Blockchain
  • 6. 6 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Actually, they had plans to continue being focused on other priorities: Source: Deloitte 2015 Banking Outlook http://www2.deloitte.com/global/en/pages/financial-services/articles/2015-banking-outlook.html
  • 7. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Then, the Blockchain Happened… …and Suddenly, it’s Becoming the New Internet
  • 8. 8© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ①  Some blockchain companies will attack your business, although peripherally at first ②  Some blockchain technologies/companies are for you, to strengthen or defend your positions è Blockchain is helpful, doesn’t signal the end of banks, but innovation must permeate faster than Internet did in 1995-2000. Early years are formative. Banks shouldn’t just see blockchain as cost savings. It’s also about new opportunities. ​  But there is Good News: Two Outcomes for Banks
  • 9. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures What is the Blockchain?
  • 10. 10 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Self Publishing E- Commerce Social Interactions IT Supremacy Internet Years ​  Defining Technology Eras Personal Communications Blockchain Promise 1994 2015 Data computation Database applications Transaction processing Business Intelligence Global operations Enabling Decentralization of Trust Value Flow without Intermediaries
  • 11. 11 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Taking an ATOMIC DDDive in Explaining the Blockchain 1. Programmable 3D’s Decentralization Disintermediation Distributed Ledgers “Exchanging Assets Without Central Intermediaries” Everything about the blockchain touches the core of banking. This is why it will be a challenging encounter. Governance Value Creation ASSETS TRUST OWNERSHIP MONEY IDENTITY CONTRACTS 2. Based on: 3. Affecting:
  • 12. 12© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Consumers Ask Why? When it comes to covering their risk, banks and credit card companies will give consumers instantaneous answers/settlements (like for purchase authorizations or withdrawing money from an account); but when it comes to our own transactions (e.g. depositing a check or transferring money), we typically have to wait days before receiving confirmations. è Can the blockchain help?
  • 13. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures The Startup Dilemma
  • 14. 14 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Banks see startups like this strange beast that needs to be examined Investing in startup ecosystems and accelerators gives them a spectator seat, not a participating one By staying “close” to them, they think they will benefit from symbiosis, but they are degrees removed from them in reality, because they are only visiting the animals in the zoo ​  Banks and FinTech Startups: A Strange Relationship
  • 15. 15 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  The Reality isYou Need to Take the Animal Home … ​  … to see if they will survive This is a common dilemma for large corporations when faced with external innovations that surpass their internal abilities to absorb or usurp it.
  • 16. 16© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Because the Perceived “Tech” Threats Are Real
  • 17. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Themes that Emerged in 2015
  • 18. 18© William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures.vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Blockchain and old constructs, such as clearing houses and private exchange networks (SWIFT, CCP, FIX, DTCC) are like oil and water: they will not mix well because one is based on centrally trusted intermediaries, and the other is based on “no” intermediaries and peer-to-peer trust. è Warning: Retrofitting the blockchain will be challenging, and may not yield significant benefits. ​  Blockchain vs. Establish Methods/Networks
  • 19. 19 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Having the Blockchain without Bitcoin §  Banks rejected Bitcoin as a knee-jerk reaction, rooted by regulatory compliance requirements, and loss of control fears; both valid concerns in the short term. §  But Bitcoin is a rich blockchain laboratory. Bypassing it would result in a steeper. learning curve for adopting the blockchain è Reality Check: Blockchain without Bitcoin is a valid construct
  • 20. 20 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Doing Proof of Concepts (POC’s) §  POCs are timid experiments that don’t show commitments. §  POCs won’t always allow you to see the potential benefits. §  It’s better to implement smaller projects end-to-end, where you can see results. §  But POC’s can be used to narrow down the portfolio of committed projects.
  • 21. 21 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Integrations with Current Systems §  It is easier to start implementing blockchain solutions in new segments, without internal integrations. §  If your starting position is your current systems, then you are looking at 18-24 months for full implementations. è Insight: Why not start with no baggage, and earn new customers that want to try something new?
  • 22. 22 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Role of External Consultancies §  They can help you re-engineer change, and implement large projects, once you know what you need to do. §  But they may not have all the answers, nor the required thought leadership. §  You need to learn the basic minimums of blockchain capabilities, e.g. don’t outsource smart contracts experiments, rather work with smart contracts yourselves.
  • 23. 23 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Blockchain Rushes to Capital Markets §  Many pivots lead to Capital Markets: iTBit, TradeBlock, Chain pivots, and DAH’s iterations are all gunning towards the opportunities capital markets §  Major Consortia are also targeting that space, e.g. R3 CEV and Linux Foundation §  2016 Question: Will the blockchain make a dent in capital markets, or will it experience organ transplant rejection?
  • 24. 24 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  HighVenture CapitalValuations §  The Capital Markets segment is where most of the large valuations are found. §  These are large bets. Some will materialize, but others will fail. §  Early stage startups are generally more reasonable, except for some that are birthed in Silicon Valley, as they start with higher than normal valuation expectations. §  Some newcomer VCs and PE investors (including some corporates) are fueling this over-valuation, due to fears of missing out.
  • 25. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Sector Analysis Applications & Solutions Middleware & Services Infrastructure & Protocols
  • 26. 26 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Due to country financial regulations, there are many Exchanges (at least 1 per country, theoretically) u  They are playing a useful role for consumers today, but their future is undetermined u  Questions for 2016: Will a bank purchase an Exchange? Or will banks offer similar services? Cryptocurrency Exchanges
  • 27. 27 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  There’s a blurring line between Brokerage and Exchanges u  The difference is they hold your assets centrally, like a bank would u  But their fate is tied to the Exchanges u  Some Bitcoin purists say their central functionality is counter Bitcoin’s decentralization ethos Brokerage Services
  • 28. 28 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Many choices and variations u  Some are smartphone based, others web-based u  Some let you hold your currency in the wallet itself, others use a key on the wallet to unlock access to your funds u  There is a race to add functionality to wallets u  Question for 2016: Will our wallets be our mini-bank? Software Wallets
  • 29. 29 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Adoption of hardware wallets has been timid in 2015 u  Some are adding identity, shopping, security linkages u  Question for 2016: Will adoption take off? Hardware Wallets
  • 30. 30 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Made to fit for the blockchain u  Adoption in 2015 is showing signs of hope u  Innovative use cases being tried, including ones with publishers u  2016 Challenge: Will the killer app for cryptocurrency microtransactions emerge? Microtransactions
  • 31. 31 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Embryonic market in 2015 u  Expecting lots of innovation in 2016 with newer players u  Some Robo-advisor startups might get challenged by blockchain ones, unless they add blockchain to their offerings Investments and Loans
  • 32. 32 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  The gigantic size global remittances is making this segment very crowded u  Reality is each global corridor has unique characteristics, and global approaches will be challenging u  Many are gunning for Western Union, the largest player every startup dreams of unseating u  But a number of non- cryptocurrency companies also have a shot at making a dent u  2016 Question: Will a contender emerge? Money Services
  • 33. 33 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  It’s the quadrillion dollar opportunity that is the most obvious u  But disrupting the current clearing networks will not be easy u  Startups are raising their stakes by raising a lot of money in this segment, but not all will survive u  There is a gap between where vendors want to go and how fast banks/markets can move u  2016 Question: What volume of transactions will flow through blockchains? Capital Markets
  • 34. 34 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  This is where the next cryptocurrency stock exchange might come from u  Startups are imagining a mirrored world with a plethora of financial instruments like derivatives, bonds, stocks, etc. u  2016 Challenge: Achieving viable market-making liquidity Trading Platforms
  • 35. 35 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  They facilitate Bitcoin e- commerce u  That segment’s growth depends on the growth of Bitcoin e-commerce u  Integrations with websites are still tricky u  2016 Question: Will traditional merchant processors add Bitcoin to their arsenal? Merchant Services
  • 36. 36 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Exciting space u  Startups are still developing their products u  Customers are banks who want to keep an eye on their Bitcoin clients, and LE’s who want to learn how to tame AML on the blockchain u  Trend toward monitoring vs. compliance u  2016 Question: Will traditional AML vendors integrate these offerings? Compliance
  • 37. 37 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Financial data analysis is still an embryonic market u  Cryptocurrency markets are still running outside traditional money markets u  2016: Will the Bloomberg of Crypto emerge? Financial Data
  • 38. 38 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Not a very visible area yet, but it promises more transparency in supply chains, reducing fraud and assuring authenticity and origin of products u  In theory, tracking the provenance and authenticity of products makes sense, but… u  2016 Question: Will it be a utility feature or a game changer? Trade Finance
  • 39. 39 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  There are about 20 ATMs manufacturers u  Their vision is to add more services u  They rub shoulders with the alternative money service providers segment u  2016: Will they become indispensible or remain a curiosity? ATM’s
  • 40. 40 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  These are some of the pioneers u  They are serious about the blockchain u  They are doing extra-ordinary things: fund accelerators, formal internal committees, publish thought leadership, speak at conferences, serious about innovating and testing proofs of concepts, leading consortia, and not afraid of new ideas u  Question for 2016: Will their skunk work permeate the rest of their banks footprint? Banks
  • 41. 41 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Timid activity, but there is potential for 2015 u  Some interesting seed ideas percolating in the Insurance space Payroll and Insurance
  • 42. 42 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Several use cases, but fragmented usage u  Consumer experience not there yet for the mainstream u  Both B2B and B2C solutions exist u  Challenge is to getting embedded inside popular use cases Payments
  • 43. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Sector Analysis Applications & Solutions Middleware & Services Infrastructure & Protocols
  • 44. 44 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Embryonic start for 2015 u  Potential upside because banks like to be hand-held u  2016: Will the Big Consultancies and IT Outsourcing companies claim this segment, or wait a little longer? Blockchain Services
  • 45. 45 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  They make it easier to develop blockchain apps without worrying about the underlying infrastructure u  Some blurred lines with Services, because they offer that too u  No big winners yet u  2016: Will standard development practices emerge? Software Development
  • 46. 46 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  That’s where Bitcoin programmability started u  They offer the nuts and bolts of the Bitcoin API u  Question for 2016: Can they evolve? General APIs
  • 47. 47 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Tackling specific functionality around digital assets creation, tokenization of assets, notarization/verifiability of data/processes u  Challenge for 2016: Will real, end-to-end use cases emerge? Specialized APIs
  • 48. 48 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  They are one step above the protocols, and insulate developers from the nitty- gritty of cryptography constructs u  2016 Challenge: Will they reach a critical mass of adoption as they compete with the native capabilities of blockchains? Blockchain Platforms
  • 49. 49 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  Smart Contracts are the big promise of blockchains u  They are still hard to master for the average developer u  2016 Challenge: Will a leader emerge? Smart Contracts
  • 50. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Sector Analysis Applications & Solutions Middleware & Services Infrastructure & Protocols
  • 51. 51 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  That’s where it all started u  Today, Bitcoin is the largest blockchain and will continue to be u  But Ethereum is emerging as a very viable alternative Public Blockchains
  • 52. 52 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  The jury is still out on the longevity of special purpose blockchains u  They might make sense as private blockchains (e.g. Ripple) Special Blockchains
  • 53. 53 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  They carry the promise of native microtransactions on the blockchain, with flexible programmability capabilities u  Still early to tell, but we should expect advances in 2016 Payment Protocols
  • 54. 54 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures u  There are hundreds of miners running thousands “nodes” u  They get rewarded for solving mathematical equations that validate transactions on the blockchain networks (proof- of-work) u  Mostly confined to Bitcoin mining, but emerging with other blockchain mining (e.g. Ethereum) Miners
  • 55. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures What Should Banks Do?
  • 56. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures Implementing the blockchain is: 80% Business Process / 20% Technology [it’s not the other way around]
  • 57. 57 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Challenges §  Good intentions are not good enough §  Get your own hands dirty, don’t outsource the learning §  Get your minds dirty, try some ideas even if they fail §  Failing is OK for startups, but can banks learn to fail? §  Integrations will not be easy §  Blockchain applications are different; but they must be written
  • 58. 58 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Opportunities §  Don’t think “what problem is the blockchain solving”; rather “what opportunities can we create with it”- it takes a paradigm shift §  Starting in new fields will be easier (forget integration, initially) §  A bank without a blockchain strategy is a laggard
  • 59. 59 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Recommendations §  Invest in learning blockchain technologies §  Learn how to: §  Write smart contracts §  Create/Tokenize assets and notarize data/processes on the blockchain §  Interact with blockchain APIs §  Program a blockchain §  Don’t outsource these tasks, or you’d be outsourcing your learnings §  Pair a business manager with a technical person to uncover innovations
  • 60. 60 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Institute the Blockchain Czar Role §  Brings focus into blockchain-related activities §  Role: §  Removes obstacles to blockchain implementations §  Shares what every department is doing §  Lubricates best practices adoptions §  Project-manages across various implementations §  Paired with an IT person for ad-hoc experimentations that don’t require approvals §  External and internal spokesperson and evangelist §  Qualifications: §  Knows banking operations and technology implementations §  Experienced in reengineering/change management §  Blockchain enthusiast
  • 61. 61 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Can Banks Evolve their AML/KYC for the Blockchain Era? “Today's AML paradigm is based on heavy customer due diligence and light (intra-company) transaction monitoring. Blockchain tech enables enhanced transactional analyses that were not possible, before. In the pre-blockchain era, regulated financial institutions could only do intra-company transactional analysis, and had to share information via analog or documentary methods. Network- wide analytics that are possible with blockchains transcend industries and jurisdictional borders. There is now an opportunity to trade-off reduced KYC requirements (thus fomenting financial inclusion) for the increased behavioral transparency afforded by the blockchain.” - Juan Llanos, Certified AML Specialist and Risk / Fintech / Crypto Expert è 2016 Question: Can Law Enforcement Authorities / Regulators embrace this paradigm shift?
  • 62. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures There is no Try. Do or Lag. It’s better to shoot yourself in the foot, than to have someone else shoot you in the head.
  • 63. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures 2016 Predictions
  • 64. 64 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  What Might Happen in 2016? §  Compliance will move to intelligence §  Regulation will show signs of re-invention §  Companies will use the blockchain like having a website §  $1.5B of non-currency assets will be transacted on blockchains §  VC investments in blockchain related startups will exceed $2.5B §  Some FinTech companies will also be challenged by Blockchain contenders §  Some consortia will start delivering, but it’s not a panacea for everything §  Some blockchain startups will start to fail (visibly) §  Bitcoin as a cryptocurrency will enter online banking
  • 65. 65 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  Final Thoughts The blockchain is not a lethal threat to the banks, but it presents challenges and signals turbulent times for technology adoption. It might be the last chance for banks to ride a significant technology- based innovation cycle. If the banking sector fails to embrace the blockchain, the field of “alternative financial services” (aka FinTech) will accelerate its growth even more.
  • 66. 66 vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​  AboutVirtual CapitalVentures Virtual Capital Ventures (VcapV) is a boutique-style, early-stage technology venture capital firm, focused on decentralized peer-to-peer technologies and applications. Based in Toronto, VcapV invests in North American startups that think big, and act bigger. Founded by William Mougayar, a veteran entrepreneur, mentor to startups, board member and experienced operator, the fund is advised and backed by some of the industry’s top players.
  • 67. vcapv.com © William Mougayar, Virtual Capital Ventures ​ William Mougayar ​ Investor . Entrepreneur ​ Blogger . Board Member ​ General Partner ​ Virtual Capital Ventures ​ william@vcapv.com ​ 1-416-648-7010 ​ http://startupmanagement.org/blog ​ http://vcapv.com ​ @wmougayar thank you Also, check: Global Landscape of Blockchain Companies in Financial Services Dear Big Bank CEO, Re: Blockchains: Obliterate, don’t Automate