SlideShare a Scribd company logo
• Belgian Hydrogen Council, Role & Ac5vi5es so far – Isabel François
and Cédric Brüll, WaterstofNet and Cluster Tweed
• Belgium as a key player in hydrogen - Tom Hautekiet, CCO Port of
Antwerp-Bruges & President of Belgian Hydrogen Council
• Global hydrogen developments - Dr. Steven Libbrecht, Hydrogen
Council, Director OperaNons and PMO / Interim ExecuNve Director
• Namibia & Belgium : Building a Green Hydrogen Partnership - Dr
Mekondjo Kaapanda-Girnus, Ambassador of the Republic of
Namibia to Belgium
• Hydrogen : promises and challenges - Dr. Aurore Richel, Full
Professor, University of Liège
Conference
Role &
Activities so far
Belgian Hydrogen Council
Two existing clusters in Belgium work
together
A Flemish hydrogen strategy 2025 –
2030 (2020)
Coordinated by WIC, WaterstofNet
Two existing clusters in Belgium work
together
“Hydrogen Roadmap” for Wallonia
(2018)
Coordinated by TWEED (H2Hub
Wallonia)
Two existing clusters in Belgium work
together
Creation of the Belgian Hydrogen Council
Starting Point
Belgian federal Hydrogen
Strategy has been launched
on October 2021 & has been
updated on October 2022
• Pillar 1 – Positioning Belgium as an import and transit hub for renewable molecules in Europe
• Pillar 2 – Expanding Belgian leadership in hydrogen technologies
• Pillar 3 – Establishing a robust hydrogen market
• Pillar 4 – Investing in cooperation as a key success factor
Role of the Belgian Hydrogen Council
Acting as a
spokesperson for
Belgian H2 ecosystem
equivalent to National
H2 organisations in
neighbouring countries
Profiling & promotion
of the Belgian
Hydrogen Industry
Advising our policy
makers on roll-out of
Regional & Federal
hydrogen strategies
Connecting existing
industrial ecosystems
on H2 in Flanders &
Wallonia
Policy & infrastructure
7
• Interregional dialogue on certification
• Memorandum for the 2024 elections
• BHC position on quality specification of the H2 backbone
• Rationale for hydrogen mobility
• …
Promotion & international collaboration
8
• Streamlining international activities,
link between FPS, FIT, AWEX, Agoria…
• Represent Belgium at international events
• Create one ‘BE narrative’ with our strengths on H2
• Belgian H2 Company directory
Education & training
9
• Inventory of available H2 courses and trainings in BE
• Inquiry: what do our companies need?
• Connect to other initiatives
10
11
12
Belgium as an important H2
consumer,
developing its supply chain
Belgium has key
technology suppliers
Belgian research &
innovation in hydrogen
Belgium & its neighbours
international collaborations
WaterstofNet
Isabel François
Isabel.François@waterstofnet.eu
Adwin Martens
Adwin.Martens @waterstofnet.eu
Stefan Van Laer
stefan.vanlaer@waterstofnet.eu
Cluster TWEED
Cédric Brüll
cbrull@clustertweed.be
Valère Counet
vcounet@clustertweed.be
Contact data
BHC Secretariat
info@belgianhydrogencouncil.be
Belgian Hydrogen
Council
Belgium as a key
player in hydrogen
Tom Hautekiet -
CCO Port of Antwerp-Bruges
& President of Belgian
Hydrogen Council
Belgium as global leader and frontrunner in the
hydrogen economy
• Strong federal and regional policy support
by strategies and roadmaps
• Existing and expanding infrastructure
• Central location in the industrial heartland
of Europe and globally connected
• International collaboration
• Technology leadership
• Research and innovation cluster
Belgian Hydrogen Council
members & board
• Founded this year and bringing together all
hydrogen stakeholders in Belgium
• Waterstof Industrie Cluster and Cluster Tweed
as program office
• Elected board for first two years
• Representation and promotion of the Belgian
hydrogen ecosystem
• Collaboration with other Hydrogen Councils
• Working groups, memorandum and company
directory
Five key tasks of the Council
Representatives of all members in
the working groups
• Task 1 - Policy
• Task 2 - Infrastructure
• Task 3 - Promotion
• Task 4 - Internationalization
• Task 5 - Education
Belgium as a hydrogen hub
Infrastructure
Hydrogen Import Coalition – a scenario for 2030 volumes
Applications and technology
Key messages of the memorandum
• Ensure sufficient and competitive funding/support for
clean hydrogen
• Develop a fully-fledged open access hydrogen
infrastructure
• Create a liquid market for clean hydrogen
• Unlock the hydrogen decarbonisation potential in the
transport sector
• Stimulate hydrogen research & development
• Organise training, education and awareness on hydrogen
Global hydrogen developments
Conference of the Belgian Hydrogen Council
October 16, 2023 | Brussels, Belgium
Dr. Steven Libbrecht
Director Operations and PMO / Interim Executive Director
Hydrogen Council
The Hydrogen Council
A global, cross-sector CEO-led initiative
$5.2
T R I L L I O N
in revenues
6.8
M I L L I O N
jobs
Grown
From 13 to
ca140
companies
Founded at
in 2017
ONE
SHARED
VISION
The Hydrogen Council
Who we are
Trusted Partner to
Global Organisations
Thought Leader Unique Source of
Global Industry Data
Trusted Partner to
Global Organisations
Insights into the evolution of the
global industry based on data
from >145 industrial leaders
The Hydrogen Council
Data and insights to inform decision makers
Global hydrogen developments
Status
Prospects
Some
positives
Some
less positives
Opportunities
at the global scene
Where
our focus is needed
6
1,046 projects1
684 in May 2022
$320 B
investments required to develop
projects announced until 2030
96
112
Giga-scale
production
553
Large-scale
industrial use
191
Mobility
94
Integrated H2
economy
Infrastructure
projects
1. Focus on projects of >1 MW
China
Europe
Latin America
Japan, Korea,
rest of Asia
Middle East
North America
117
Africa
Oceania
48
46
34
21
19
18
17
2022 2023
Source: Project & Investment tracker, as of Jan 2023, McKinsey
AS OF JAN 31 2023
Positive: Strong momentum
More than 1,040 projects announced globally
7
Announced as
of Jan 2023
Announced1
Low-
carbon
hydrogen
Renewable
hydrogen
Cumulative production capacity announced, Mt p.a.
+16 Mt
additional capacity (low-
carbon and renewable)
announced for post-2030
1. Preliminary studies or at press announcement stage
2. Feasibility studies or at front-end engineering and design stage
3. Final investment decision has been taken, under construction, commissioned or operational
Source: Project & Investment tracker, as of Jan 2023, McKinsey
share of capacity of top 3
markets (Europe, North
America, Latin America)
>70%
26
23 28
21
2020
38
22 24 25 27 29 2030
Announced1
Planning2
Planning2
EoY 2020
Committed3
Committed3
EoY 2019
EoY 2021
May 2022
AS OF JAN 31 2023
Positive: Clean hydrogen production capacity up
Announced capacity up 40% compared to 2022
8
Supply Transmission Manufacturing capacity End-use
Source: Hydrogen Council; McKinsey
9 GW
Electrolyzer mfg.
capacity according to
OEM announcements
+5 GW since previous
publication
700 MW
Electrolysis capacity
operational 2022 EoY,
equivalent to
~90 ktpa H2
>300 MW installed in
China
12 GW
Fuel cell mfg. capacity
today according to
OEMs
+1 GW since previous
publication
740 ktpa
Low-carbon hydrogen
capacity operational in
2022 (EoY), up from 640
ktpa in previous
publication
3 Mt
Clean hydrogen capacity
has passed FID, majority
of which is in North
America
>130
Fuel cell vehicle
models to be
assembled by
OEMs in 2023
80,000
Fuel cell vehicles on the
road,
+30% in 2022
1,070
Hydrogen refueling
station deployment:
300+ in China, >200 in
South Korea, >270 in
Europe, >160 in Japan
120
Ammonia terminals
already in place - 38
export and 88 import
terminals globally
9 GW
Electrolysis capacity at
FID
~4 GW in China, ~2 GW
in the Middle East, ~1.5
GW in US and Europe
Positive: Strong growth in deployment
across the hydrogen ecosystem
9
2025
2022 2030
Installed global renewable H2 project
capacity, GW
~120 GW
expected capacity online by 2030
when considering delays and
cancellations
225 GW
of H2 capacity required by 2030
to meet net-zero H2 demand
Risk-adjusted
announced
project pipeline
Net-Zero
demand
Less positive: the growth is not fast enough
Renewable H2 projects accelerating but still short or Net Zero
Net Zero Scenario - 2050
• 22% of global final energy demand
• 660 MT hydrogen
• 80 Gt cumulative CO2 abatement
10
Global hydrogen production cost, 2023 $/kg
70
60
0
10
20
30
40
50
80
90
100
Electrolyzer cost, 2023 = 100%
0
2020 30 35 40
25 45 2050
10
6
1
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
Renewable H2
Low-carbon H2
+30-65% increase in LCOH driven by CapEx,
financing and renewables costs
2.5-4 cost target by 2030
Prior renewable H2
Less positive: Costs have increased
Near-term renewable hydrogen costs have increased
Global hydrogen developments
Status
Prospects
Some
positives
Some
less positives
Opportunities
at the global scene
Where
our focus is needed
12
Opportunities: Future global hydrogen trade flows
There is a mismatch
between the best locations
for H2 production
and demand centers
Hydrogen will need to be
transported from supply to
demand centers
Trade based on cost
competitiveness
We can simulate and compare
potential trade routes, and look
at the resulting picture
13
3
2
5
0
6
1
7
4 60
40
80
20
100
The Net Zero 2030 cost curve sees an additional 25 mtpa of clean H2 demand with
more countries entering the mix
Global clean H2 production cost curve1 – Net Zero, 2030
Unit
production
cost, $/kg H2
65 mtpa
clean H2
demand
$1.0 $4.0
$3.0
$2.0
US
Canada
Germany
US
Australia
Middle
East
France
Norway
Chile
Of global H2 exports come
from the US due to incentives
30%
Of global H2 trade volume
is under $1.5/kg H2
50%
Cumulative
exports, %
1. Note flags are representative of producers rather then exhaustive
Ratio between lowest- and highest-
cost regions (incl. incentives)
~25x
Spain
Brazil
India
China
West
Australia
China
East
China
West
France
Italy
Mauritania
Vietnam
Argentina
Renewable H2
Low-carbon H2
Incentives
Japan
14
In Net zero, by 2030, major early trade routes from North America will already be
established
Major flows of hydrogen and derivatives 2030 – Net Zero, mtpa H2 equivalent
Net trade flows, mtpa H2
>10
5-10
1-2
Mostly piped
2-5
Mostly shipped
0.3-1
Region produces
more than it consumes
Region consumes
more than it produces
Neutral
Source: McKinsey Global Hydrogen Flow Model
Note: Arrows show trade flows between 13 regions (i.e., Latin America, North America, core Europe, peripheral Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, CIS, India + Pakistan, China,
Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia)
15
By 2050 in Net Zero, there are several trade routes over 10 million tons per year
Major flows of hydrogen and derivatives 2050 – Net Zero, mtpa H2 equivalent
Source: McKinsey Global Hydrogen Flow Model
Net trade flows, mtpa H2
>10
5-10
1-2
Mostly piped
2-5
Mostly shipped
Region produces
more than it consumes
Region consumes
more than it produces
Neutral
Note: Arrows show trade flows between 13 regions (i.e., Latin America, North America, core Europe, peripheral Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, CIS, India + Pakistan, China,
Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia)
16
Under Net Zero, over 50% of clean hydrogen is transported over long distances
Global H2 and derivative long-distance trade flows, 2050 mtpa H2 equivalent
84
62
75
48
30
36
China
70
110
25
24
20
18
32
37
Piped H2
HBI Steel
Methanol
Shipped H2
Ammonia (End Use)
Synthetic Kerosene
Offtakers
Suppliers Total: 335 Mtpa H2 equivalent of long-distance flows
Piped H2
HBI Steel
Methanol
Shipped H2
Ammonia (End Use)
Synthetic Kerosene
130
17
26
57
44
61
China
North America
Europe
Rest of world
Rest of Asia
Japan, Korea
China
North America
Europe
Rest of world
Latin America
Australia
Middle East
Africa
Opportunity: the role of hydrogen as an integrator
H2 is about decarbonization. Also: making REN investments more efficient
Electricity Gas Liquid
• high densely populated
• nuclear
• off-shore wind
• 3 different grids - hydrogen as the integrator
• Our reflections on energy need to become more holistic and
integrative instead of single grid based
• We have modelled the role and value of hydrogen integrated
in the energy system (C/W Europe, Japan, Texas)
Electrolyzers responding to market signals could reduce
the renewable capacity needed by 9% while lowering
system costs by $2.1 billion per year. (for C/W Europe)
(Source: Hydrogen in Decarbonized Energy Systems - Hydrogen Council, October 2023)
Focus item: hydrogen ecosystems don’t grow magically
Ecosystem growth is a staged process
From To
Minimum viable ecosystem Mature ecosystem
MVE: the smallest ecosystem configuration of elements that need and can be brought
together in order to operate as an ecosystem creating unique commercial value
Example
• 200 FCEV taxis in a city, with 5 HRS with
guaranteed H2 supply and OEM service point
Individuals that make a difference Many more actors brought in the game
Some conclusions & challenges
The need for Planning, Adoption, Collaboration between many actors
Governments & industry need to work together
to maximize the opportunities offered by global hydrogen trade
and the integrated role of hydrogen (building infrastructure)
Infrastructure X Products X Economics
We need to reason in terms of staged ecosystem growth
(first focus: minimal viable ecosystems)
More than supply & demand: we need to reason in terms of the
entire supply chain (synchronised rise)
1
2
3
4
Thank you
secretariat@hydrogencouncil.com
www.hydrogencouncil.com
Namibia & Belgium:
Building a Green Hydrogen Partnership
Dr Mekondjo Kaapanda-Girnus
Ambassador of the Republic of Namibia to Belgium
Joining Forces on Hydrogen– 16 October 2023
Why Green Hydrogen ?
Namibia’s Solar & Wind Potential
Namibia’s Green Hydrogen Ambitions
www.gh2namibia.com
• Namibia will focus on the export of hydrogen derivatives including ammonia,
methanol, synthetic kerosene and hot- briquetted iron.
• Namibia aspires to create an at-scale green fuels industry with a production
target of 10- 12 Mtpa hydrogen equivalent by 2050
• We could create up to 600 000 green jobs by 2040 (over 60% of Namibia’s
current employed population)
• By 2030, Namibia’s hydrogen industry could contribute US$4.1 billion (in real
2022 dollars) to GDP, 32% more than 2030 GDP estimates with no hydrogen
industry.
Non public version - © 2023
5
Cleanergy H2 production plant
20ha at Farm 58 will consist of 5MWp solar farm, H2 production area, H2 dispensing area and H2 academy
1
Non public version - © 2023 6
PRODUCTION
DISTRIBUTION
CONSUMPTION
SOLAR PARK ELECTROLYSER COMPRESSION H2 STORAGE
MOBILE REFUELER DISPENSER TUBE TRAILER
LOCOMOTIVE TUGBOAT TRUCKS PORT EQUIPMENT GENSET MINING TRUCK
H2
H2
HYDROGEN
ACADEMY
Upskilling local community
by cooperation with
Namibian and European
universities
The project covers full circle from production to consumer
Namibia’s Hydrogen Valleys
Namibia & Belgium
Thank you.
F o r m o r e i n f o
w w w . h p p i i . g o v . n a
AURORE RICHEL, PhD
Full Professor
University of Liège (Belgium)
a.richel@uliege.be
www.chem4us.be Chem.4.us
La chimie pour créer notre futur
Hydrogen : promises and challenges
From past to nowadays, review of academic
research directions
Hydrogen research
Distinct timeframes in the history of
hydrogen research
Observation and fundamental discoveries
(16th - late 19th century)
Exploration and industrial stabilization of
production routes and application fields
(transport, energy, chemistry) (1901-mid 70s)
Increasing academic knowledge,
most marked from the 1970s onwards
A long history of discoveries
Phase 1: discovery and exploration of key properties
ca 1520 1700 1783 1800 1801 1823 1836 1897
Synthesis by
dissolution
of metals in
acid
R. Boyle
1670
© 2023 Richel Aurore
1st observation
Paracelse
1670
H SO
Explosivity
with air
N. Lemery
Water-gas shift
CO + H2O ⇌ CO2 +
H2
F. Fontana
1780
Name « hydrogen » given
A. Lavoisier
1783
Hydrogen (H2)
H2-filled gas balloon
J. Charles
1783
Heat of
combustion
Lavoisier & Laplace
1783
Water electrolysis
Nicholson &
Carlisle
1800
1780 1842 1885 1900
H2-filled
airship
F. von
Zeppelin
Hydrogenation
CO2 into CH4
P. Sabatier
H2 critical
constants (T°,
P and bp)
Z. Wroblewski
Concept of Fuel
Cell
H. Davy
1st Fuel Cell
W. R. Grove
Oxy-H2
blowpipe
G. Gurney
Primary cell
J. F. Daniell
A long history of discoveries
Phase 2: mass production and commercial applications
1901 1920 1943 1949 1951 1966 2002
Ammonia
production
F. Haber
© 2023 Richel Aurore
Hydrogenation
of lipids
W. Normann
1910
Hydrocracking
coal
(Germany)
Methane steam
reforming
1928-1936 (UK)
LZ 129 Hindenburg
explosion
1937
1st 240 km H2
pipeline
Rhine-Ruhr
Liquid H2 as
rocket fuel
Ohio State
University
1938 1981 1990 2022
1st hydrail
locomotive
(Québec)
1st solar-powered
H2 production
plant
(SWB)
Space Shuttle
main engine
Hydro-
desulfurization
5 kW H2-air fuel cell
F. T. Bacon
(1959)
Underground H2
storage
Fuel cell in
Gemini
(USA)
1928 1965
1st fuel cell
automobile
General Motors
2013
Power-to-gas
2MW
(Germany)
Toyota
Mirai
(2016)
Photo-
catalytic
water
splitting
Hydrogen economy
(Bockris, Science, 1972)
« Universal energy carrier through which
nuclear energy and solar energy could
be produced and distributed
economically» (Bockris, 1972)
« Energy storage that allows continuous
base-load electricity supply in a system
relying on intermittent and variable
renewable energy resources such as
solar and wind energy » (Clark, 2006)
1972-2023
Source: SciFinder, Octobre 2023
H2
§ Production
§ Distribution
§ Applications
§ Related researches
Water
Coal
Methane
Biomass
~34,000
~
6
6
,
0
0
0
~7,300
~16,500
Transportation
Storage
~88,500
~
7
,
6
0
0
Environment
Economics
~65,600
~
1
9
,
0
0
0
Fuel cells
~69,000
~210,000
Reagent (ammonia,
methanol, hydrogenation)
Synthetic fuels, “e-fuels”
~1,000
Propulsion
~
3
,
0
0
0
Miscellaneous
??
CO2
Hydrogen in scientific publications
(1865-2023, SciFindrer – « hydrogen » and « energy »
Research on Oct 3rd, 2023)
398,658 results (patents: 7%)
2022
(31,686)
1972
(1524)
1979-1980 2012-2013
Hydrogen in scientific publications
(1865-2023, SciFindrer – « hydrogen » and « energy »
Research on Oct 3rd, 2023)
• 1972-1979: first phase of intensive research
(4%*)
• 1980-2012: steady (but typical) increase in
the number of published acts (40%*)
• 2013-2023: exponential growth in published
research works (53%*)
* Distribution based on the total number of publications, including those prior to 1972
Hydrogen research: phase 1
1972-1979
Critical decade for energy (oil crises):
definition of more resilient energy systems
Environmental concerns were not the
main motivation
Peak after 1974 following the creation of
IEA* and IAHE*
* International Energy Agency (IEA) and International
Association for Hydrogen Energy
Hydrogen research: phase 1
1972-1979
Key investigators: US (Japan, UK, Europe)
Hot topics:
- Holistic approaches
- Production routes (water and methane,
and coal or H2 from oil-refining processes)
- Role of nuclear energy
- Reagent and fuel cells
Hydrogen, energy carrier of the future? By: Langenkamp, H.; Van Velzen, D.
Chemie fuer Labor und Betrieb (1979), 30(12), 533-6
Nuclear methane reforming for coal gasification By: Rastoin, J.; Malherbe, J.; Pottier, J.;
Lecoanet, A. Advances in Hydrogen Energy (1979), 1(Hydrogen Energy Syst.), 67-76
H2
Water
Methane
~390
~
8
9
0
Storage
~1540
Fuel cells
~400
~5500
Reagent (ammonia,
methanol, hydrogenation)
Hydrogen research: phase 2
1980-2012
Steady growth in R&D initiatives
Climate considerations (UNFCC, Kyoto)
Diversification of research directions -
Exploratory and/or industrial-oriented
research (cost reduction in production)
Hydrogen research: phase 2
1980-2012
Key investigators: US/China/Russia/Japan
Hot topics:
• Production from “non-polluting” sources
(water, biomass)
• Solar energy and other alternative energy
sources – No nuclear energy inputs
• H2 storage and transportation (LOHC)
• Fuel cells and their integration to vehicles
Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers as an efficient vector for the transport and storage of renewable
energy By: Teichmann, Daniel; Arlt, Wolfgang; Wasserscheid, Peter International Journal of
Hydrogen Energy (2012), 37(23), 18118-18132
H2
Water
Coal
Methane
Biomass
~12,000
~
1
8
,
6
0
0
~2600
~4700
Transportation
Storage
~33,400
~
2
4
0
0
Environment
Economics
~27,000
~4500
Fuel cells
~31,000
~90,500 Reagent (ammonia,
methanol, hydrogenation)
Propulsion
~
1
3
0
0
CO2
Hydrogen research: phase 3
2013-2023
Change in publishing practices and digitization
of journals – data-intensive research
Hydrogen Council (2017) and international
cooperation
IPCC and environmental concerns
Policies, national strategies/roadmap for H2
Investments in R&D activities related to energy
transition
Hydrogen research: phase 3
2013-2023
Key investigators: China – US, Japan,
South Korea (Europe)
Hot topics:
• Design of new materials for water-
splitting
• Intermittent renewable energies
• Carbon capture for fossil-based
productions
• H2 storage and transportation
• Diversification of applications (“e-fuels”)
• Techno-economic analyses; regulation
H2
Water
Coal
Methane
Biomass
~21,000
~
4
5
,
0
0
0
~4200
~11,500
Transportation
Storage
~52,000
~
5
,
0
0
0
Environment
Economics
~35,800
~
1
3
,
5
0
0
Fuel cells
~37,000
~106,000
Reagent (ammonia,
methanol, hydrogenation)
Synthetic fuels, “e-fuels”
~540
Miscellaneous
??
CO2
Knowledge graphs
(« hydrogen » and « energy », SciFinder, 1972 and 2022)
1972 2022
Future research directions or recommendations
Boosting H2 production
(photocatalysts, alternative routes
without rare metals or without F-
containing membranes)
Arbitrate technological and
application chains based on
scientific data (multidisciplinarity)
Evaluating innovative nuclear
approaches for H2 production
Thoroughly study of the GWP of
H2 and reflection on controlling
the entire value chain
1972. Structured into 3 phases with different dynamics.
Research objectives specific to each phase due to
external (economic and environmental) factors.
The presence of Belgian universities is only significant
from phase 3 onward (due to related funding).
The research is scattered into clusters and runs the risk
of being labeled as a “hype”.
Fields that are still relatively unexplored but crucial for
achieving sustainable development goals and long-term
economic viability.
Hydrogen research: conclusions
AURORE RICHEL, PhD
Full Professor
University of Liège (Belgium)
a.richel@uliege.be
www.chem4us.be
Chem.4.us
La chimie pour créer notre futur

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BHC Conference : Joining forces on Hydrogen – Belgium, Benelux and its neighbours - 16 octobre 2023

  • 1.
  • 2. • Belgian Hydrogen Council, Role & Ac5vi5es so far – Isabel François and Cédric Brüll, WaterstofNet and Cluster Tweed • Belgium as a key player in hydrogen - Tom Hautekiet, CCO Port of Antwerp-Bruges & President of Belgian Hydrogen Council • Global hydrogen developments - Dr. Steven Libbrecht, Hydrogen Council, Director OperaNons and PMO / Interim ExecuNve Director • Namibia & Belgium : Building a Green Hydrogen Partnership - Dr Mekondjo Kaapanda-Girnus, Ambassador of the Republic of Namibia to Belgium • Hydrogen : promises and challenges - Dr. Aurore Richel, Full Professor, University of Liège Conference
  • 3. Role & Activities so far Belgian Hydrogen Council
  • 4. Two existing clusters in Belgium work together
  • 5. A Flemish hydrogen strategy 2025 – 2030 (2020) Coordinated by WIC, WaterstofNet Two existing clusters in Belgium work together
  • 6. “Hydrogen Roadmap” for Wallonia (2018) Coordinated by TWEED (H2Hub Wallonia) Two existing clusters in Belgium work together
  • 7. Creation of the Belgian Hydrogen Council Starting Point Belgian federal Hydrogen Strategy has been launched on October 2021 & has been updated on October 2022 • Pillar 1 – Positioning Belgium as an import and transit hub for renewable molecules in Europe • Pillar 2 – Expanding Belgian leadership in hydrogen technologies • Pillar 3 – Establishing a robust hydrogen market • Pillar 4 – Investing in cooperation as a key success factor
  • 8. Role of the Belgian Hydrogen Council Acting as a spokesperson for Belgian H2 ecosystem equivalent to National H2 organisations in neighbouring countries Profiling & promotion of the Belgian Hydrogen Industry Advising our policy makers on roll-out of Regional & Federal hydrogen strategies Connecting existing industrial ecosystems on H2 in Flanders & Wallonia
  • 9. Policy & infrastructure 7 • Interregional dialogue on certification • Memorandum for the 2024 elections • BHC position on quality specification of the H2 backbone • Rationale for hydrogen mobility • …
  • 10. Promotion & international collaboration 8 • Streamlining international activities, link between FPS, FIT, AWEX, Agoria… • Represent Belgium at international events • Create one ‘BE narrative’ with our strengths on H2 • Belgian H2 Company directory
  • 11. Education & training 9 • Inventory of available H2 courses and trainings in BE • Inquiry: what do our companies need? • Connect to other initiatives
  • 12. 10
  • 13. 11
  • 14. 12 Belgium as an important H2 consumer, developing its supply chain Belgium has key technology suppliers Belgian research & innovation in hydrogen Belgium & its neighbours international collaborations
  • 15. WaterstofNet Isabel François Isabel.François@waterstofnet.eu Adwin Martens Adwin.Martens @waterstofnet.eu Stefan Van Laer stefan.vanlaer@waterstofnet.eu Cluster TWEED Cédric Brüll cbrull@clustertweed.be Valère Counet vcounet@clustertweed.be Contact data BHC Secretariat info@belgianhydrogencouncil.be
  • 16. Belgian Hydrogen Council Belgium as a key player in hydrogen Tom Hautekiet - CCO Port of Antwerp-Bruges & President of Belgian Hydrogen Council
  • 17. Belgium as global leader and frontrunner in the hydrogen economy • Strong federal and regional policy support by strategies and roadmaps • Existing and expanding infrastructure • Central location in the industrial heartland of Europe and globally connected • International collaboration • Technology leadership • Research and innovation cluster
  • 18. Belgian Hydrogen Council members & board • Founded this year and bringing together all hydrogen stakeholders in Belgium • Waterstof Industrie Cluster and Cluster Tweed as program office • Elected board for first two years • Representation and promotion of the Belgian hydrogen ecosystem • Collaboration with other Hydrogen Councils • Working groups, memorandum and company directory
  • 19. Five key tasks of the Council Representatives of all members in the working groups • Task 1 - Policy • Task 2 - Infrastructure • Task 3 - Promotion • Task 4 - Internationalization • Task 5 - Education
  • 20. Belgium as a hydrogen hub
  • 22. Hydrogen Import Coalition – a scenario for 2030 volumes
  • 24. Key messages of the memorandum • Ensure sufficient and competitive funding/support for clean hydrogen • Develop a fully-fledged open access hydrogen infrastructure • Create a liquid market for clean hydrogen • Unlock the hydrogen decarbonisation potential in the transport sector • Stimulate hydrogen research & development • Organise training, education and awareness on hydrogen
  • 25. Global hydrogen developments Conference of the Belgian Hydrogen Council October 16, 2023 | Brussels, Belgium Dr. Steven Libbrecht Director Operations and PMO / Interim Executive Director Hydrogen Council
  • 26. The Hydrogen Council A global, cross-sector CEO-led initiative $5.2 T R I L L I O N in revenues 6.8 M I L L I O N jobs Grown From 13 to ca140 companies Founded at in 2017 ONE SHARED VISION
  • 27. The Hydrogen Council Who we are Trusted Partner to Global Organisations Thought Leader Unique Source of Global Industry Data Trusted Partner to Global Organisations Insights into the evolution of the global industry based on data from >145 industrial leaders
  • 28. The Hydrogen Council Data and insights to inform decision makers
  • 29. Global hydrogen developments Status Prospects Some positives Some less positives Opportunities at the global scene Where our focus is needed
  • 30. 6 1,046 projects1 684 in May 2022 $320 B investments required to develop projects announced until 2030 96 112 Giga-scale production 553 Large-scale industrial use 191 Mobility 94 Integrated H2 economy Infrastructure projects 1. Focus on projects of >1 MW China Europe Latin America Japan, Korea, rest of Asia Middle East North America 117 Africa Oceania 48 46 34 21 19 18 17 2022 2023 Source: Project & Investment tracker, as of Jan 2023, McKinsey AS OF JAN 31 2023 Positive: Strong momentum More than 1,040 projects announced globally
  • 31. 7 Announced as of Jan 2023 Announced1 Low- carbon hydrogen Renewable hydrogen Cumulative production capacity announced, Mt p.a. +16 Mt additional capacity (low- carbon and renewable) announced for post-2030 1. Preliminary studies or at press announcement stage 2. Feasibility studies or at front-end engineering and design stage 3. Final investment decision has been taken, under construction, commissioned or operational Source: Project & Investment tracker, as of Jan 2023, McKinsey share of capacity of top 3 markets (Europe, North America, Latin America) >70% 26 23 28 21 2020 38 22 24 25 27 29 2030 Announced1 Planning2 Planning2 EoY 2020 Committed3 Committed3 EoY 2019 EoY 2021 May 2022 AS OF JAN 31 2023 Positive: Clean hydrogen production capacity up Announced capacity up 40% compared to 2022
  • 32. 8 Supply Transmission Manufacturing capacity End-use Source: Hydrogen Council; McKinsey 9 GW Electrolyzer mfg. capacity according to OEM announcements +5 GW since previous publication 700 MW Electrolysis capacity operational 2022 EoY, equivalent to ~90 ktpa H2 >300 MW installed in China 12 GW Fuel cell mfg. capacity today according to OEMs +1 GW since previous publication 740 ktpa Low-carbon hydrogen capacity operational in 2022 (EoY), up from 640 ktpa in previous publication 3 Mt Clean hydrogen capacity has passed FID, majority of which is in North America >130 Fuel cell vehicle models to be assembled by OEMs in 2023 80,000 Fuel cell vehicles on the road, +30% in 2022 1,070 Hydrogen refueling station deployment: 300+ in China, >200 in South Korea, >270 in Europe, >160 in Japan 120 Ammonia terminals already in place - 38 export and 88 import terminals globally 9 GW Electrolysis capacity at FID ~4 GW in China, ~2 GW in the Middle East, ~1.5 GW in US and Europe Positive: Strong growth in deployment across the hydrogen ecosystem
  • 33. 9 2025 2022 2030 Installed global renewable H2 project capacity, GW ~120 GW expected capacity online by 2030 when considering delays and cancellations 225 GW of H2 capacity required by 2030 to meet net-zero H2 demand Risk-adjusted announced project pipeline Net-Zero demand Less positive: the growth is not fast enough Renewable H2 projects accelerating but still short or Net Zero Net Zero Scenario - 2050 • 22% of global final energy demand • 660 MT hydrogen • 80 Gt cumulative CO2 abatement
  • 34. 10 Global hydrogen production cost, 2023 $/kg 70 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 80 90 100 Electrolyzer cost, 2023 = 100% 0 2020 30 35 40 25 45 2050 10 6 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 Renewable H2 Low-carbon H2 +30-65% increase in LCOH driven by CapEx, financing and renewables costs 2.5-4 cost target by 2030 Prior renewable H2 Less positive: Costs have increased Near-term renewable hydrogen costs have increased
  • 35. Global hydrogen developments Status Prospects Some positives Some less positives Opportunities at the global scene Where our focus is needed
  • 36. 12 Opportunities: Future global hydrogen trade flows There is a mismatch between the best locations for H2 production and demand centers Hydrogen will need to be transported from supply to demand centers Trade based on cost competitiveness We can simulate and compare potential trade routes, and look at the resulting picture
  • 37. 13 3 2 5 0 6 1 7 4 60 40 80 20 100 The Net Zero 2030 cost curve sees an additional 25 mtpa of clean H2 demand with more countries entering the mix Global clean H2 production cost curve1 – Net Zero, 2030 Unit production cost, $/kg H2 65 mtpa clean H2 demand $1.0 $4.0 $3.0 $2.0 US Canada Germany US Australia Middle East France Norway Chile Of global H2 exports come from the US due to incentives 30% Of global H2 trade volume is under $1.5/kg H2 50% Cumulative exports, % 1. Note flags are representative of producers rather then exhaustive Ratio between lowest- and highest- cost regions (incl. incentives) ~25x Spain Brazil India China West Australia China East China West France Italy Mauritania Vietnam Argentina Renewable H2 Low-carbon H2 Incentives Japan
  • 38. 14 In Net zero, by 2030, major early trade routes from North America will already be established Major flows of hydrogen and derivatives 2030 – Net Zero, mtpa H2 equivalent Net trade flows, mtpa H2 >10 5-10 1-2 Mostly piped 2-5 Mostly shipped 0.3-1 Region produces more than it consumes Region consumes more than it produces Neutral Source: McKinsey Global Hydrogen Flow Model Note: Arrows show trade flows between 13 regions (i.e., Latin America, North America, core Europe, peripheral Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, CIS, India + Pakistan, China, Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia)
  • 39. 15 By 2050 in Net Zero, there are several trade routes over 10 million tons per year Major flows of hydrogen and derivatives 2050 – Net Zero, mtpa H2 equivalent Source: McKinsey Global Hydrogen Flow Model Net trade flows, mtpa H2 >10 5-10 1-2 Mostly piped 2-5 Mostly shipped Region produces more than it consumes Region consumes more than it produces Neutral Note: Arrows show trade flows between 13 regions (i.e., Latin America, North America, core Europe, peripheral Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, CIS, India + Pakistan, China, Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia)
  • 40. 16 Under Net Zero, over 50% of clean hydrogen is transported over long distances Global H2 and derivative long-distance trade flows, 2050 mtpa H2 equivalent 84 62 75 48 30 36 China 70 110 25 24 20 18 32 37 Piped H2 HBI Steel Methanol Shipped H2 Ammonia (End Use) Synthetic Kerosene Offtakers Suppliers Total: 335 Mtpa H2 equivalent of long-distance flows Piped H2 HBI Steel Methanol Shipped H2 Ammonia (End Use) Synthetic Kerosene 130 17 26 57 44 61 China North America Europe Rest of world Rest of Asia Japan, Korea China North America Europe Rest of world Latin America Australia Middle East Africa
  • 41. Opportunity: the role of hydrogen as an integrator H2 is about decarbonization. Also: making REN investments more efficient Electricity Gas Liquid • high densely populated • nuclear • off-shore wind • 3 different grids - hydrogen as the integrator • Our reflections on energy need to become more holistic and integrative instead of single grid based • We have modelled the role and value of hydrogen integrated in the energy system (C/W Europe, Japan, Texas) Electrolyzers responding to market signals could reduce the renewable capacity needed by 9% while lowering system costs by $2.1 billion per year. (for C/W Europe) (Source: Hydrogen in Decarbonized Energy Systems - Hydrogen Council, October 2023)
  • 42. Focus item: hydrogen ecosystems don’t grow magically Ecosystem growth is a staged process From To Minimum viable ecosystem Mature ecosystem MVE: the smallest ecosystem configuration of elements that need and can be brought together in order to operate as an ecosystem creating unique commercial value Example • 200 FCEV taxis in a city, with 5 HRS with guaranteed H2 supply and OEM service point Individuals that make a difference Many more actors brought in the game
  • 43. Some conclusions & challenges The need for Planning, Adoption, Collaboration between many actors Governments & industry need to work together to maximize the opportunities offered by global hydrogen trade and the integrated role of hydrogen (building infrastructure) Infrastructure X Products X Economics We need to reason in terms of staged ecosystem growth (first focus: minimal viable ecosystems) More than supply & demand: we need to reason in terms of the entire supply chain (synchronised rise) 1 2 3 4
  • 45. Namibia & Belgium: Building a Green Hydrogen Partnership Dr Mekondjo Kaapanda-Girnus Ambassador of the Republic of Namibia to Belgium Joining Forces on Hydrogen– 16 October 2023
  • 47. Namibia’s Solar & Wind Potential
  • 48. Namibia’s Green Hydrogen Ambitions www.gh2namibia.com • Namibia will focus on the export of hydrogen derivatives including ammonia, methanol, synthetic kerosene and hot- briquetted iron. • Namibia aspires to create an at-scale green fuels industry with a production target of 10- 12 Mtpa hydrogen equivalent by 2050 • We could create up to 600 000 green jobs by 2040 (over 60% of Namibia’s current employed population) • By 2030, Namibia’s hydrogen industry could contribute US$4.1 billion (in real 2022 dollars) to GDP, 32% more than 2030 GDP estimates with no hydrogen industry.
  • 49. Non public version - © 2023 5 Cleanergy H2 production plant 20ha at Farm 58 will consist of 5MWp solar farm, H2 production area, H2 dispensing area and H2 academy 1
  • 50. Non public version - © 2023 6 PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION CONSUMPTION SOLAR PARK ELECTROLYSER COMPRESSION H2 STORAGE MOBILE REFUELER DISPENSER TUBE TRAILER LOCOMOTIVE TUGBOAT TRUCKS PORT EQUIPMENT GENSET MINING TRUCK H2 H2 HYDROGEN ACADEMY Upskilling local community by cooperation with Namibian and European universities The project covers full circle from production to consumer
  • 53. Thank you. F o r m o r e i n f o w w w . h p p i i . g o v . n a
  • 54. AURORE RICHEL, PhD Full Professor University of Liège (Belgium) a.richel@uliege.be www.chem4us.be Chem.4.us La chimie pour créer notre futur Hydrogen : promises and challenges From past to nowadays, review of academic research directions
  • 55. Hydrogen research Distinct timeframes in the history of hydrogen research Observation and fundamental discoveries (16th - late 19th century) Exploration and industrial stabilization of production routes and application fields (transport, energy, chemistry) (1901-mid 70s) Increasing academic knowledge, most marked from the 1970s onwards
  • 56. A long history of discoveries Phase 1: discovery and exploration of key properties ca 1520 1700 1783 1800 1801 1823 1836 1897 Synthesis by dissolution of metals in acid R. Boyle 1670 © 2023 Richel Aurore 1st observation Paracelse 1670 H SO Explosivity with air N. Lemery Water-gas shift CO + H2O ⇌ CO2 + H2 F. Fontana 1780 Name « hydrogen » given A. Lavoisier 1783 Hydrogen (H2) H2-filled gas balloon J. Charles 1783 Heat of combustion Lavoisier & Laplace 1783 Water electrolysis Nicholson & Carlisle 1800 1780 1842 1885 1900 H2-filled airship F. von Zeppelin Hydrogenation CO2 into CH4 P. Sabatier H2 critical constants (T°, P and bp) Z. Wroblewski Concept of Fuel Cell H. Davy 1st Fuel Cell W. R. Grove Oxy-H2 blowpipe G. Gurney Primary cell J. F. Daniell
  • 57. A long history of discoveries Phase 2: mass production and commercial applications 1901 1920 1943 1949 1951 1966 2002 Ammonia production F. Haber © 2023 Richel Aurore Hydrogenation of lipids W. Normann 1910 Hydrocracking coal (Germany) Methane steam reforming 1928-1936 (UK) LZ 129 Hindenburg explosion 1937 1st 240 km H2 pipeline Rhine-Ruhr Liquid H2 as rocket fuel Ohio State University 1938 1981 1990 2022 1st hydrail locomotive (Québec) 1st solar-powered H2 production plant (SWB) Space Shuttle main engine Hydro- desulfurization 5 kW H2-air fuel cell F. T. Bacon (1959) Underground H2 storage Fuel cell in Gemini (USA) 1928 1965 1st fuel cell automobile General Motors 2013 Power-to-gas 2MW (Germany) Toyota Mirai (2016) Photo- catalytic water splitting
  • 58. Hydrogen economy (Bockris, Science, 1972) « Universal energy carrier through which nuclear energy and solar energy could be produced and distributed economically» (Bockris, 1972) « Energy storage that allows continuous base-load electricity supply in a system relying on intermittent and variable renewable energy resources such as solar and wind energy » (Clark, 2006)
  • 59. 1972-2023 Source: SciFinder, Octobre 2023 H2 § Production § Distribution § Applications § Related researches Water Coal Methane Biomass ~34,000 ~ 6 6 , 0 0 0 ~7,300 ~16,500 Transportation Storage ~88,500 ~ 7 , 6 0 0 Environment Economics ~65,600 ~ 1 9 , 0 0 0 Fuel cells ~69,000 ~210,000 Reagent (ammonia, methanol, hydrogenation) Synthetic fuels, “e-fuels” ~1,000 Propulsion ~ 3 , 0 0 0 Miscellaneous ?? CO2
  • 60. Hydrogen in scientific publications (1865-2023, SciFindrer – « hydrogen » and « energy » Research on Oct 3rd, 2023) 398,658 results (patents: 7%) 2022 (31,686) 1972 (1524) 1979-1980 2012-2013
  • 61. Hydrogen in scientific publications (1865-2023, SciFindrer – « hydrogen » and « energy » Research on Oct 3rd, 2023) • 1972-1979: first phase of intensive research (4%*) • 1980-2012: steady (but typical) increase in the number of published acts (40%*) • 2013-2023: exponential growth in published research works (53%*) * Distribution based on the total number of publications, including those prior to 1972
  • 62. Hydrogen research: phase 1 1972-1979 Critical decade for energy (oil crises): definition of more resilient energy systems Environmental concerns were not the main motivation Peak after 1974 following the creation of IEA* and IAHE* * International Energy Agency (IEA) and International Association for Hydrogen Energy
  • 63. Hydrogen research: phase 1 1972-1979 Key investigators: US (Japan, UK, Europe) Hot topics: - Holistic approaches - Production routes (water and methane, and coal or H2 from oil-refining processes) - Role of nuclear energy - Reagent and fuel cells Hydrogen, energy carrier of the future? By: Langenkamp, H.; Van Velzen, D. Chemie fuer Labor und Betrieb (1979), 30(12), 533-6 Nuclear methane reforming for coal gasification By: Rastoin, J.; Malherbe, J.; Pottier, J.; Lecoanet, A. Advances in Hydrogen Energy (1979), 1(Hydrogen Energy Syst.), 67-76 H2 Water Methane ~390 ~ 8 9 0 Storage ~1540 Fuel cells ~400 ~5500 Reagent (ammonia, methanol, hydrogenation)
  • 64. Hydrogen research: phase 2 1980-2012 Steady growth in R&D initiatives Climate considerations (UNFCC, Kyoto) Diversification of research directions - Exploratory and/or industrial-oriented research (cost reduction in production)
  • 65. Hydrogen research: phase 2 1980-2012 Key investigators: US/China/Russia/Japan Hot topics: • Production from “non-polluting” sources (water, biomass) • Solar energy and other alternative energy sources – No nuclear energy inputs • H2 storage and transportation (LOHC) • Fuel cells and their integration to vehicles Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers as an efficient vector for the transport and storage of renewable energy By: Teichmann, Daniel; Arlt, Wolfgang; Wasserscheid, Peter International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2012), 37(23), 18118-18132 H2 Water Coal Methane Biomass ~12,000 ~ 1 8 , 6 0 0 ~2600 ~4700 Transportation Storage ~33,400 ~ 2 4 0 0 Environment Economics ~27,000 ~4500 Fuel cells ~31,000 ~90,500 Reagent (ammonia, methanol, hydrogenation) Propulsion ~ 1 3 0 0 CO2
  • 66. Hydrogen research: phase 3 2013-2023 Change in publishing practices and digitization of journals – data-intensive research Hydrogen Council (2017) and international cooperation IPCC and environmental concerns Policies, national strategies/roadmap for H2 Investments in R&D activities related to energy transition
  • 67. Hydrogen research: phase 3 2013-2023 Key investigators: China – US, Japan, South Korea (Europe) Hot topics: • Design of new materials for water- splitting • Intermittent renewable energies • Carbon capture for fossil-based productions • H2 storage and transportation • Diversification of applications (“e-fuels”) • Techno-economic analyses; regulation H2 Water Coal Methane Biomass ~21,000 ~ 4 5 , 0 0 0 ~4200 ~11,500 Transportation Storage ~52,000 ~ 5 , 0 0 0 Environment Economics ~35,800 ~ 1 3 , 5 0 0 Fuel cells ~37,000 ~106,000 Reagent (ammonia, methanol, hydrogenation) Synthetic fuels, “e-fuels” ~540 Miscellaneous ?? CO2
  • 68. Knowledge graphs (« hydrogen » and « energy », SciFinder, 1972 and 2022) 1972 2022
  • 69. Future research directions or recommendations Boosting H2 production (photocatalysts, alternative routes without rare metals or without F- containing membranes) Arbitrate technological and application chains based on scientific data (multidisciplinarity) Evaluating innovative nuclear approaches for H2 production Thoroughly study of the GWP of H2 and reflection on controlling the entire value chain
  • 70. 1972. Structured into 3 phases with different dynamics. Research objectives specific to each phase due to external (economic and environmental) factors. The presence of Belgian universities is only significant from phase 3 onward (due to related funding). The research is scattered into clusters and runs the risk of being labeled as a “hype”. Fields that are still relatively unexplored but crucial for achieving sustainable development goals and long-term economic viability. Hydrogen research: conclusions
  • 71. AURORE RICHEL, PhD Full Professor University of Liège (Belgium) a.richel@uliege.be www.chem4us.be Chem.4.us La chimie pour créer notre futur