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2012


            Chetana’s
   Hazarimal Somani College
   of com. Eco. & smt.
   Kusumtai Chaudari College
   of arts.

   Topic:

   Interview & Group
   Discussion



              Presented to:

               Prof: Shiva Prasad
Agenda:
Interview:
 1. Introduction.
 2. Types of interview.
 3. ABC”S of interview.
 4. Interview structure.
 5. What is an interviewer looking for?
 6. Preparation of an interview.
 7. Interview skills.
 8. First impression is the effective impression.
 9. Tips of interview.

Group discussion:
  1. Introduction.
  2. Types of group discussion.
  3. Four important components of group discussion assessments.
  4. Why do we have group discussion?
  5. Why institutes conduct a group discussion.
  6. 10 simple rules to crack a group discussion.
  7. Common mistake made by the candidate.
  8. Advantages of group discussion.
  9. Disadvantages of group discussion.




                                                                  1
Interview:
 Introduction:
             Interview is a form of personal communication, where
the person called for an interview i.e. interviewee and the one who
takes the interview i.e. the interviewer can vary from selection,
appraisal and counseling to grievance handling and exit interviews.

           The term „interview‟ has been derived from the French
word „entre voir‟ that means „to „glimpse‟ or „to see each other‟. By
definition it means a meeting for obtaining information by
questioning a person or person. In this way an interview is a classic
example of communication that takes place through „the process by
which meanings are exchanged between people through the use of a
common set of symbols”.

 Types of interview:


 Informational interview:
An Informational Interview is a meeting in which a job seeker asks
for career and industry advice rather than employment. The job
seeker uses the interview to gather information on the field, and
to find employment leads and expand their professional network.

 Telephone interview:
Telephone interviews have become one of the most popular ways to
conduct a one on one meeting when geography presents a challenge.
Essentially, a telephone interview is simply a situation in which
a telephone call is used to create the foundation for an interactive
                                                                        2
meeting in which one party is conducting an interview with a second
party

 In-person interview:
The in-person interview is the culmination of all the steps in our
selection process. Taking into consideration your skills and
experience along with the talents you have revealed during your
online assessment and telephone interview.

 Selection interview:
It is a situation in which a personnel selector, through personal
contact provides him with behavior to observe - in order to assess
the candidate's suitability for a post.

 Work sample interview:
Work samples are used as an additional tool, along with the
information presented in the candidate's application and the
interview process when making the final selection. A
work sample may be used to verify critical skills identified in the
skills requirements for a specific position.

 Peer group interview:
Provides an opportunity for you to meet and talk with your
prospective co-workers. Just as in other interviews, the peer group
will evaluate you and determine how well you fit in.




                                                                      3
 Video interview:
Uses video-conferencing technology so that people in different
locations can interview you without traveling. Practice answering
questions in front of a mirror or have a friend videotape you. This
will help you learn how communicate effectively on camera.

 Behavioral interview:
A behavioral interview is an employment interview during which a
job applicant is asked to demonstrate his or her knowledge, skills,
and abilities, also known as competencies. The applicant must tell
about specific experiences when he or she demonstrated these
competencies.

 Stress interview:
The purpose of stress interview is to present before the candidate
certain situation or facts that make them uncomfortable or ask
them simple questions at an alarming speed. Stress interview are
likely to reveal the true personality of a candidate.

 Promotion interview:
Promotion interview as the name suggests is done prior to giving a
promotion to an employee. It also serves as a selection interview of
one candidate over another, when there is more than one person
shortlisted for the promotion.

 Problem interview:
Problem interview is conducted when the behavior or performance
of the employee is not satisfactory.
                                                                      4
 Grievance interview:
Grievance interview is conducted when an employee has some
grievance regarding his job, salary, colleagues etc. and he wishes
to speak to higher authorities in this regard.



 Abc’s of job interview:

 A-attitude
 B=behavior
 C=compatibility

  A is for Attitude
           AN interviewer wants to find an outstanding candidate
as much as you want to find a fulfilling job. It helps to think of
the process as one where both parties are hoping for a positive
outcome. A positive attitude will enable you to project an image of
energy and enthusiasm. If you are competing against a group of
candidates with a similar background of skills and knowledge,
enthusiasm might be the deciding factor.

Here are four attitude suggestions that will help you in many
interview and job-related situations:

  Never bad-mouth a current or former employer, co-worker or
  company. It brands you as a “complainer,” and no one wants a
  complainer on the team.




                                                                      5
Positive attitudes are catching and you have a great deal of
  control over sustaining a positive atmosphere throughout the
  interview process.
  Maintain a positive attitude – from the moment you wake up until
  the interview is over and you‟ve sent a “thank you” note.
  Attitude can save interviews from “going bad”.

  B is for Behavior
           Attitude drives the second factor, behavior. When you
have a positive attitude and desire to perform well at the
interview, you‟ll plan to get a goodnight‟s sleep, eat a nutritious
breakfast, and allow plenty of time to get to the appointment. You
won‟t schedule important activities following the interview, since
you may be asked to stay and complete an application, take some
tests or meet with another decision-maker. Be polite and friendly
on the phone and to the people you encounter on the way to the
interview. It pays to be courteous, professional and friendly with
the receptionist, the secretary, and even the people you encounter
in the parking lot and elevator. You have no way of predicting
which people you encounter on the way to and from the interview is
part of the hiring team of having input into the hiring process.

  Communication is a four-way street.

  1) Focus your attention on what the interviewer is saying (not on
     what you‟ll say next). Don‟t talk too much. If you do most of
     the talking, you will probably miss cues to help you know what
     the interview feels is important.
  2) Once you‟ve determined where the interviewer is “coming
     from,” you can follow his or her lead. Try to speak with the
     same rhythm and tone of voice. Make some friendly
     observations about your surroundings.


                                                                      6
3) If the interview is conversational, make small talk about your
     interests, hobbies, or what you did last weekend. Be positive
     and upbeat. This will help both of you relax and establish a
     connection.
  4) Remember that communicating information about yourself is
     your responsibility. It is not up to the interviewer to drag it
     out of you.

 C is for Compatibility
            An interview is primarily an attempt to assess you
compatibility with the job and the organization. “What kind or work
environment do you prefer?” “Do you work better by yourself or
withothers?” Many questions don‟t have an obvious “right or wrong”
answer, but these questions are clearly intended to measure the
compatibility between.

            Think of two overlapping circles – one is you and one is
the company.Everything that you say and do during the interview
should contribute to enlarging the space where these circles
overlap. The bigger and more clearly defined you can make this
area, the more desirable you will be as a candidate. Your
preliminary research of the company and the position should give
you a clear idea of the skills being sought. Assume your answers
will reveal interesting information and be reliable predictors of your
behavior infuture situations.Think of each question as a Table
Topic and give yourself about one minute to create and interesting
answer.




                                                                       7
 Interview structure:
            Like every communication event, an interview has a
rather well defined structure .In other words we can say that an
interview is a formal communication event that aim and outcome of
which is understood by both the parties .They have, therefore,
care of the three stage-beginning, middle, anend, just as in a
presentation the speaker alone has to manage these stages. Each
of these stages requires effective communication skills as stated
below:

 Opening/start:
  Introduction:
  Statement of the purpose of the meeting
  Making the other person comfortable
  Creating an atmosphere of relaxed open-minded approach,
  commitment to the purpose stated above, and preparing to start
  discussing things frankly

 Middle:
  Aim at exchange of information.
  Keeping the discussion to the point.
  Listen attentively and patiently.
  Keep eye-to-eye contact.
  Give carefully thought out answers.
  Make sure to cover the agenda.
  Take care that interruptions, if any, are polite.



                                                                    8
 Closing:
   Summing up the discussion/exchange of information.
   Describing the action decided upon.
   Avoiding a hurried or abrupt ending.
   Closing on a positive note.
   Exchangingfeelings of gratitude, thankfulness for favor of
   interview etc.
   Confirming, the worthwhileness of the interview / communication
   event / meeting.


 What is an employer looking for?
We may classify the information which an employer seeks while
considering a person for a job, into the following sub headings.

1) State of health: every organization desires its employees to be
  in healthy state. Apart from judging at the interview, the
  organization requires an entrant to undergo a medical
  examination, standards of which differ from profession to
  profession.
2) Attainments: A probe is made through searching questions to
  verify what is written by the candidate in the bio data and to
  assess the nature and quantity of these achievements.
3) Intelligence: A close observation is made of the reflexes and
  responses of the interviewee to discover the extent of his grasp
  and confidence.
4) Applitude: certain questions are directed merely to find out the
  candidate‟s aplitude for the job has applied for.



                                                                      9
5) Interest: An attempt is made to understand the other
  dimensions of the personality of the candidate by encouraging
  him to speak about his intellectual or social pursuits.
6) Disposition: A vital piece of information that all employers would
  like to have whether the candidates has the ability to work with
  others.
7) Circumstances: A peep into the interviewee‟s previous
  environment and family circumstances may give some clue to the
  candidate‟s capacity to work.


 Preparation for an interview:

            The main purpose of the employer is to judge the
suitability of the applicant to the job and the objectives of the
applicant is to find out whether the needs and requirements of the
job would suit him and also whether the environment in the
organization would be conducive to his professional growth. It
provides an opportunity to both the participants for close
observation of each other‟s personality traits as reflected in verbal
behavior and body language.

Once you have secured the interview, you should begin to focus on
interview preparation. Do not be fooled into thinking that you can
simply walk into an interview and answer a few questions. The
employer will often meet with several hundred candidates in order
to find 5-7 potential employees. Your goal must be to demonstrate
your interest and qualifications for the position. Preparation is key!
Interviewers have many expectations of you as a candidate for
potential hire. You must know general information about the
position for which you are interviewing. You must also be able to
articulate your qualifications and interest. In addition, the

                                                                    10
employer expects for you to have researched his/her organization
and understands the nature of the organization.

 Interview skills:

 Analyze the position for which you intend to
  work:
Before you are able to convince an employer that you want to be
an employee, it is important that you understand what the job
profile to gather this important information is, you may start with
research. This basic research will prove valuable as you prepare to
demonstrate a match between your credentials and the position for
which you are interviewing.

 Research the Organization:
To begin, you must research the company or agency to determine
the nature of the organization. The more that you know about the
employer, the more comfortable you will feel in the interview. A
demonstrated knowledge of the organization will also help convince
the interviewer of your interest.

 Sources of Information:
  There are a variety of resources that can be used to research
  organizations. Today all the good companies have their web site,
  which provide all the relevant information. You must visit the
  site of one of the competitors as well. Also, consider articles
  from trade publications, generally available through various sites
  of newspapers.




                                                                   11
 Market Your Skills:
After you have analyzed the position and researched the
organization, you are now in a position to review your qualifications
for the position. Knowing what you have to offer is crucial.
Expressing yourself clearly and concisely is a key element of
effective interviewing. Self-assessment of your skills, interests,
and work values will help you organize your thoughts in order to
project a positive impression.

 First Impression is the Effective
  Impression:
You will not get a second chance to make a first impression when it
comes to interviews. Your nonverbal skills and the manner in which
you present yourself will be evaluated in addition to your verbal
responses to interview questions.

 Dressing:
The way in which you dress for your interview will tell the employer
about your professional savvy and, in some cases, will be one of
the factors an employer will take into account in evaluating you as
a candidate. Also, by dressing professionally, you will appear more
mature and seasoned; this will aid you as you may be competing
with older individuals with more experience. Understand that you
will probably dress more professionally for an interview than may
be required once you begin working in that environment.
Appropriate interview attire will vary by field.

 Women:

                                                                      12
White, off-white, or neutral-colored blouse with a conservative
  neckline
  Suit i.e. salawar kameez or saree is the right fit
  No ill fitting (short, tight, clingy, or slit) skirts
  Avoid open-toe strappy high heels, sandals, or shoes with
  decorations.
  Conservative nail polish, avoid unusual colors, e.g., blue or green


 Men:
  Long-sleeved shirt in white or light blue
  Conservative necktie in terms of color and pattern. Avoid
  cartoon characters, less-than-serious graphics, or theme ties
  High-fitting dark socks. Avoid light colored socks with a dark
  suit


 Tips of interviews:


  Shake hands firmly.
  Look the employer in the eye when you are talking.
  Speak clearly, don't mumble.
  If you need time to think before answering, take time. Stick
  to the subject at hand, which are the job and your skills
  related to it.
  Use the employer's name, pronounce it correctly.
  Don't fidget in your seat and otherwise show nervousness with
  your body
  Don't take notes during the interview


                                                                   13
Don't complain about a former boss or co-worker. By
complaining in this way, you're likely to make the employer
think that you are hard to get along with.
Don't ask about salaries, sick leaves, pensions, vacations, or
benefits on the first interview.
If you have specific qualifications for a job, be sure the
employer knows about them. No one knows what you can do
unless you tell him or her.
Talk about school subjects and hobbies that you have done well
in and which are related to the job for which you are applying.
An employer may be interested in everything you can do, but
will be most interested in your skills that relate to the job for
which you are applying.
Ask questions when you don't understand what the employer is
talking about. You‟ll want to know as much about the job as you
can and asking questions is the best way to find out.




                                                                 14
 Group discussion:
 Introduction:
         Group discussion is an articulation and views over a
particular topic that has been given to a group of around 5-
12people, within a set time limit.

         The word „discuss‟ has been derived from the Latin word
„discutere‟ that means „to shake‟ or „strike‟. From the same root,
the word „discussion‟ stands for an activity in which a
theme/subject matter is thoroughly shaken, inquired or examination
so as to reach a conclusion or decide upon a course of action. It is
different from conversation and debate. While a conversation
usually becomes informal exchange of views or sentiments, a debate
can be an acrimonious expression of arguments for or against a
motion or a given line of thinking. It is discussion that lies at the
core of all purposeful meetings or the decision making process.

 Types of GD:
  GDs can be topic-based or case-based.
  Topic based Gds can be classified into three types:-

   Factual Topics
   Controversial Topics
   Abstract Topics

 Factual Topics: -
  Factual topics are about practical things, which an ordinary

                                                                   15
person is aware of in his day-to-day life. Typically these are
  about socio-economic topics. These can be current, i.e. they
  may have been in the news lately, or could be unbound by time.
  A factual topic for discussion gives a candidate a chance to
  prove that he is aware of and sensitive to his environment.
  E.g. The education policy of India, Tourism in India, State of
  the aged in the nation

 Controversial Topics: -
  Controversial topics are the ones that are argumentative in
  nature. They are meant to generate controversy. In GDs where
  these topics are given for discussion, the noise level is usually
  high, there may be tempers flying. The idea behind giving a
  topic like this is to see how much maturity the candidate is
  displaying by keeping his temper in check, by rationally and
  logically arguing his point of view without getting personal and
  emotional.Eg. Reservations should be removed, Women make
  better managers



 Abstract Topics: -
 Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not
 given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled
 out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity. E.g. A
 is an alphabet, Twinkle twinkle little star, The number 10


 Case-based Gd: -
 Another variation is the use of a case instead of a topic.
 The case study tries to simulate a real-life situation.
 Information about the situation will be given to you and you would
 be asked as a group to resolve the situation. In the case study
 there are no incorrect answers or perfect solutions. The

                                                                   16
objective in the case study is to get you to think about the
 situation from various angles.
 IIM A, IIM Indore and IIT SOM Mumbai have a case-based
 discussion rather than topic-based discussion in their selection
 procedures.

 Four important components of Gd
 assessments are :
  Personality appeal
  Communication skills
  Knowledge
  Leadership


 Personality appeal:
  Smartness – dress –smile on the face.
  Cheerfulness – free from nervousness.
  Enthusiasm - attitude of taking a step extra.


 Communication skills.
  Fluency –not speed but poise and right words at the right place
  Clarity –effectiveness of the message
  Logic- the presentation skills


 Leadership:-
  Leadership has been described as the “process of social
  influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of
  others in the accomplishment of a common task". Other in-
  depth definitions of leadership have also emerged.

                                                                    17
 Knowledge:
   Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which
   can include information, facts, descriptions, or skills acquired
   through experience oreducation. It can refer to the theoretical
   or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as
   with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the
   theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or
   less formal or systematic


  Why do we have GD?
Reasons for having a GD
   It   helps you to understand a subject more deeply.
   It   improves your ability to think critically.
   It   helps in solving a particular problem.
   It   helps the group to make a particular decision.
   It   gives you the chance to hear other students' ideas.
   It   improves your listening skills.
   It   increases your confidence in speaking.
   It   can change your attitudes.



 WHY INSTITUTES CONDUCT A GD:
How often have you called a friend in office to be told that he is
in meeting? Institutes conduct a GD because, as amanager, you will
be required to attend and conduct innumerable meeting. A GD is a
stimulation of what you can expect in a meeting at your workplace.
Depending on the kind of profile you have and the company you

                                                                      18
work for, you will be part of meeting ranging from brand launches
and employee performance appraisals to company financials, etc.
for instance, if you have a meeting where senior employees are
working out a strategy to launch a new soap in the market, this is
what is expected of you before and during the meeting.

The reason why institutes put you through a Group discussion and
an interview, after testing your technical and conceptual skills in an
exam, is to get to know you as a person and gauge how well you will
fit in their institute. The Group discussion tests how you function
as a part of a team. As a manager, you will always be working in
teams, as a member or as a leader. Therefore how you interact in
a team becomes an important criterion for your selection.
Managers have to work in a team and get best results out of
teamwork. That is the reason why management institutes include
GD as a component of the selection procedure.

  10 simple rules to easily crack the GD:

  1) Keep eye contact while speaking:
  Do not look at the evaluators only. Keep eye contact with every
  team member while speaking.

  2) Initiate the GD:
  Initiating the GD is a big plus. But keep in mind – Initiate the
  group discussion only when you understood the GD topic clearly
  and have some topic knowledge. Speaking without proper subject
  knowledge is bad impression.

  3) Allow others to speak:
  Do not interrupt anyone in-between while speaking. Even if you
                                                                      19
don‟t agree with his/her thoughts do not snatch their chance to
speak. Instead make some notes and clear the points when it‟s
your turn.

4) Speak clearly:
Speak politely and clearly. Use simple and understandable words
while speaking. Don‟t be too aggressive if you are disagreeing
with someone. Express your feelings calmly and politely.

5) Make sure to bring the discussion on track:
If by any means group is distracting from the topic or goal then
simply take initiative to bring the discussion on the track. Make
all group members aware that you all need to come to some
conclusion at the end of the discussion. So stick to the topic.

6) Positive attitude:
Be confident. Do not try to dominate anyone. Keep positive body
language. Show interest in discussion.

7) Speak sensibly:
Do not speak just to increase your speaking time. Don‟t worry
even if you speak less. Your thoughts should be sensible and
relevant instead of irrelevant speech.

8) Listen carefully to others:
Speak less and listen more! Pay attention while others are
speaking. This will make coherent discussion and you will get
involved in the group positively. You will surely make people agree
with you.

9) No need to go into much details:
Some basic subject analysis is sufficient. No need to mention

                                                                  20
exact figures while giving any reference. You have limited time
 so be precise and convey your thoughts in short and simple
 language.

 10) Formal dressing:
 Do not take it casually. No fancy and funny dressing. You should
 be comfortable while speaking in group. Positive gesture and
 body language will make your work easy



 Common mistakes made by the candidates:

 Every candidate must voice his opinion about the given topic,
 correctly and briefly. The candidate should not go on talking
 without giving others a chance to speak.
 One candidate should not speak than 3 times during a GD. It
 would appear that he/she wants to hog most of the limelight.
 The candidate should avoid trying to shout to be heard.
 Even if the topic is not known to the candidate, from other
 people‟s responses, he will be able to understand something and
 should then at least make a valid point.
 The candidate should also avoid being negative about everything,
 putting down even good ideas of others, just to prove that only
 he is right. Thus to succeed in a GD one must be moderately
 forceful but polite, articulate, knowledgeable and try to
 motivate others to speak so that everyone‟s opinion can lead to a
 fruitful discussion.




                                                                   21
 Factors of group discussion:
   The primary factor which determines the candidate‟s group-
   worthiness is his ability to fit into the group, to bind it
   together as a single entity and to influence the group towards
   the attainment of the group goals.
    The next important factor is the candidate‟s personal ability
   to do the bon in hand. We may even call it as one‟s
   professional efficiency and it includes his intelligence; physical
   fitness, problem solving faculty, dynamic qualities and the
   ability to communicate effectively.
    The third important factor concerns the candidate‟s ability
   to stand up to physical and mental stresses and difficulties.
   He should not wait and give way under stress or get upset.
   One the other hand, he should be able to remain balanced,
   calm and collected in the face of tremendous odds and
   stresses.
    There will be individual rivalries and differences of opinion, in
   the group. There will arise the conflict between the
   individual‟s self-interest and the group interest.
   In the face of such conflicts and difficulties, the candidate
   should not lose self-control. He should not get frustrated or
   give way to temper.



 Advantages
  Enhances learning in both the affective and cognitive domains
  Is both learner-centered and subject-centered.
  Stimulates learners to think about issues and problems.
  Encourages learners to exchanges their own experiences,
  Thereby making learning more active and less isolating.
  Provides the opportunity for sharing of ideas and concerns.
  Fosters positive peer support and feelings of belonging
                                                                   22
Reinforces previous learning.

More simply   put:
• Ideas can   be generated.
• Ideas can   be shared.
• Ideas can   be 'tried out'.
• Ideas can   be responded to by others.



 Disadvantages :

  One member of the group can dominate the discussion.
  Easy to digress from the topic. Shy learners may refuse to
  become involved or may need a great deal of encouragement to
  participate.
  Requires skill to tactfully redirect learners who digress or
  dominate without losing their trust and that of other group
  members.
  Particularly challenging for the novice teacher when group
  members do not interact easily.
  More time consuming for the transmission of information than
  other methods such as lecture. Requires the teacher's
  presence at all sessions to act as a facilitator and resource
  person




                                                              23

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Bc ppt semi final

  • 1. 2012 Chetana’s Hazarimal Somani College of com. Eco. & smt. Kusumtai Chaudari College of arts. Topic: Interview & Group Discussion Presented to: Prof: Shiva Prasad
  • 2. Agenda: Interview: 1. Introduction. 2. Types of interview. 3. ABC”S of interview. 4. Interview structure. 5. What is an interviewer looking for? 6. Preparation of an interview. 7. Interview skills. 8. First impression is the effective impression. 9. Tips of interview. Group discussion: 1. Introduction. 2. Types of group discussion. 3. Four important components of group discussion assessments. 4. Why do we have group discussion? 5. Why institutes conduct a group discussion. 6. 10 simple rules to crack a group discussion. 7. Common mistake made by the candidate. 8. Advantages of group discussion. 9. Disadvantages of group discussion. 1
  • 3. Interview:  Introduction: Interview is a form of personal communication, where the person called for an interview i.e. interviewee and the one who takes the interview i.e. the interviewer can vary from selection, appraisal and counseling to grievance handling and exit interviews. The term „interview‟ has been derived from the French word „entre voir‟ that means „to „glimpse‟ or „to see each other‟. By definition it means a meeting for obtaining information by questioning a person or person. In this way an interview is a classic example of communication that takes place through „the process by which meanings are exchanged between people through the use of a common set of symbols”.  Types of interview:  Informational interview: An Informational Interview is a meeting in which a job seeker asks for career and industry advice rather than employment. The job seeker uses the interview to gather information on the field, and to find employment leads and expand their professional network.  Telephone interview: Telephone interviews have become one of the most popular ways to conduct a one on one meeting when geography presents a challenge. Essentially, a telephone interview is simply a situation in which a telephone call is used to create the foundation for an interactive 2
  • 4. meeting in which one party is conducting an interview with a second party  In-person interview: The in-person interview is the culmination of all the steps in our selection process. Taking into consideration your skills and experience along with the talents you have revealed during your online assessment and telephone interview.  Selection interview: It is a situation in which a personnel selector, through personal contact provides him with behavior to observe - in order to assess the candidate's suitability for a post.  Work sample interview: Work samples are used as an additional tool, along with the information presented in the candidate's application and the interview process when making the final selection. A work sample may be used to verify critical skills identified in the skills requirements for a specific position.  Peer group interview: Provides an opportunity for you to meet and talk with your prospective co-workers. Just as in other interviews, the peer group will evaluate you and determine how well you fit in. 3
  • 5.  Video interview: Uses video-conferencing technology so that people in different locations can interview you without traveling. Practice answering questions in front of a mirror or have a friend videotape you. This will help you learn how communicate effectively on camera.  Behavioral interview: A behavioral interview is an employment interview during which a job applicant is asked to demonstrate his or her knowledge, skills, and abilities, also known as competencies. The applicant must tell about specific experiences when he or she demonstrated these competencies.  Stress interview: The purpose of stress interview is to present before the candidate certain situation or facts that make them uncomfortable or ask them simple questions at an alarming speed. Stress interview are likely to reveal the true personality of a candidate.  Promotion interview: Promotion interview as the name suggests is done prior to giving a promotion to an employee. It also serves as a selection interview of one candidate over another, when there is more than one person shortlisted for the promotion.  Problem interview: Problem interview is conducted when the behavior or performance of the employee is not satisfactory. 4
  • 6.  Grievance interview: Grievance interview is conducted when an employee has some grievance regarding his job, salary, colleagues etc. and he wishes to speak to higher authorities in this regard.  Abc’s of job interview:  A-attitude  B=behavior  C=compatibility A is for Attitude AN interviewer wants to find an outstanding candidate as much as you want to find a fulfilling job. It helps to think of the process as one where both parties are hoping for a positive outcome. A positive attitude will enable you to project an image of energy and enthusiasm. If you are competing against a group of candidates with a similar background of skills and knowledge, enthusiasm might be the deciding factor. Here are four attitude suggestions that will help you in many interview and job-related situations: Never bad-mouth a current or former employer, co-worker or company. It brands you as a “complainer,” and no one wants a complainer on the team. 5
  • 7. Positive attitudes are catching and you have a great deal of control over sustaining a positive atmosphere throughout the interview process. Maintain a positive attitude – from the moment you wake up until the interview is over and you‟ve sent a “thank you” note. Attitude can save interviews from “going bad”. B is for Behavior Attitude drives the second factor, behavior. When you have a positive attitude and desire to perform well at the interview, you‟ll plan to get a goodnight‟s sleep, eat a nutritious breakfast, and allow plenty of time to get to the appointment. You won‟t schedule important activities following the interview, since you may be asked to stay and complete an application, take some tests or meet with another decision-maker. Be polite and friendly on the phone and to the people you encounter on the way to the interview. It pays to be courteous, professional and friendly with the receptionist, the secretary, and even the people you encounter in the parking lot and elevator. You have no way of predicting which people you encounter on the way to and from the interview is part of the hiring team of having input into the hiring process. Communication is a four-way street. 1) Focus your attention on what the interviewer is saying (not on what you‟ll say next). Don‟t talk too much. If you do most of the talking, you will probably miss cues to help you know what the interview feels is important. 2) Once you‟ve determined where the interviewer is “coming from,” you can follow his or her lead. Try to speak with the same rhythm and tone of voice. Make some friendly observations about your surroundings. 6
  • 8. 3) If the interview is conversational, make small talk about your interests, hobbies, or what you did last weekend. Be positive and upbeat. This will help both of you relax and establish a connection. 4) Remember that communicating information about yourself is your responsibility. It is not up to the interviewer to drag it out of you.  C is for Compatibility An interview is primarily an attempt to assess you compatibility with the job and the organization. “What kind or work environment do you prefer?” “Do you work better by yourself or withothers?” Many questions don‟t have an obvious “right or wrong” answer, but these questions are clearly intended to measure the compatibility between. Think of two overlapping circles – one is you and one is the company.Everything that you say and do during the interview should contribute to enlarging the space where these circles overlap. The bigger and more clearly defined you can make this area, the more desirable you will be as a candidate. Your preliminary research of the company and the position should give you a clear idea of the skills being sought. Assume your answers will reveal interesting information and be reliable predictors of your behavior infuture situations.Think of each question as a Table Topic and give yourself about one minute to create and interesting answer. 7
  • 9.  Interview structure: Like every communication event, an interview has a rather well defined structure .In other words we can say that an interview is a formal communication event that aim and outcome of which is understood by both the parties .They have, therefore, care of the three stage-beginning, middle, anend, just as in a presentation the speaker alone has to manage these stages. Each of these stages requires effective communication skills as stated below:  Opening/start: Introduction: Statement of the purpose of the meeting Making the other person comfortable Creating an atmosphere of relaxed open-minded approach, commitment to the purpose stated above, and preparing to start discussing things frankly  Middle: Aim at exchange of information. Keeping the discussion to the point. Listen attentively and patiently. Keep eye-to-eye contact. Give carefully thought out answers. Make sure to cover the agenda. Take care that interruptions, if any, are polite. 8
  • 10.  Closing: Summing up the discussion/exchange of information. Describing the action decided upon. Avoiding a hurried or abrupt ending. Closing on a positive note. Exchangingfeelings of gratitude, thankfulness for favor of interview etc. Confirming, the worthwhileness of the interview / communication event / meeting.  What is an employer looking for? We may classify the information which an employer seeks while considering a person for a job, into the following sub headings. 1) State of health: every organization desires its employees to be in healthy state. Apart from judging at the interview, the organization requires an entrant to undergo a medical examination, standards of which differ from profession to profession. 2) Attainments: A probe is made through searching questions to verify what is written by the candidate in the bio data and to assess the nature and quantity of these achievements. 3) Intelligence: A close observation is made of the reflexes and responses of the interviewee to discover the extent of his grasp and confidence. 4) Applitude: certain questions are directed merely to find out the candidate‟s aplitude for the job has applied for. 9
  • 11. 5) Interest: An attempt is made to understand the other dimensions of the personality of the candidate by encouraging him to speak about his intellectual or social pursuits. 6) Disposition: A vital piece of information that all employers would like to have whether the candidates has the ability to work with others. 7) Circumstances: A peep into the interviewee‟s previous environment and family circumstances may give some clue to the candidate‟s capacity to work.  Preparation for an interview: The main purpose of the employer is to judge the suitability of the applicant to the job and the objectives of the applicant is to find out whether the needs and requirements of the job would suit him and also whether the environment in the organization would be conducive to his professional growth. It provides an opportunity to both the participants for close observation of each other‟s personality traits as reflected in verbal behavior and body language. Once you have secured the interview, you should begin to focus on interview preparation. Do not be fooled into thinking that you can simply walk into an interview and answer a few questions. The employer will often meet with several hundred candidates in order to find 5-7 potential employees. Your goal must be to demonstrate your interest and qualifications for the position. Preparation is key! Interviewers have many expectations of you as a candidate for potential hire. You must know general information about the position for which you are interviewing. You must also be able to articulate your qualifications and interest. In addition, the 10
  • 12. employer expects for you to have researched his/her organization and understands the nature of the organization.  Interview skills:  Analyze the position for which you intend to work: Before you are able to convince an employer that you want to be an employee, it is important that you understand what the job profile to gather this important information is, you may start with research. This basic research will prove valuable as you prepare to demonstrate a match between your credentials and the position for which you are interviewing.  Research the Organization: To begin, you must research the company or agency to determine the nature of the organization. The more that you know about the employer, the more comfortable you will feel in the interview. A demonstrated knowledge of the organization will also help convince the interviewer of your interest.  Sources of Information: There are a variety of resources that can be used to research organizations. Today all the good companies have their web site, which provide all the relevant information. You must visit the site of one of the competitors as well. Also, consider articles from trade publications, generally available through various sites of newspapers. 11
  • 13.  Market Your Skills: After you have analyzed the position and researched the organization, you are now in a position to review your qualifications for the position. Knowing what you have to offer is crucial. Expressing yourself clearly and concisely is a key element of effective interviewing. Self-assessment of your skills, interests, and work values will help you organize your thoughts in order to project a positive impression.  First Impression is the Effective Impression: You will not get a second chance to make a first impression when it comes to interviews. Your nonverbal skills and the manner in which you present yourself will be evaluated in addition to your verbal responses to interview questions.  Dressing: The way in which you dress for your interview will tell the employer about your professional savvy and, in some cases, will be one of the factors an employer will take into account in evaluating you as a candidate. Also, by dressing professionally, you will appear more mature and seasoned; this will aid you as you may be competing with older individuals with more experience. Understand that you will probably dress more professionally for an interview than may be required once you begin working in that environment. Appropriate interview attire will vary by field.  Women: 12
  • 14. White, off-white, or neutral-colored blouse with a conservative neckline Suit i.e. salawar kameez or saree is the right fit No ill fitting (short, tight, clingy, or slit) skirts Avoid open-toe strappy high heels, sandals, or shoes with decorations. Conservative nail polish, avoid unusual colors, e.g., blue or green  Men: Long-sleeved shirt in white or light blue Conservative necktie in terms of color and pattern. Avoid cartoon characters, less-than-serious graphics, or theme ties High-fitting dark socks. Avoid light colored socks with a dark suit  Tips of interviews: Shake hands firmly. Look the employer in the eye when you are talking. Speak clearly, don't mumble. If you need time to think before answering, take time. Stick to the subject at hand, which are the job and your skills related to it. Use the employer's name, pronounce it correctly. Don't fidget in your seat and otherwise show nervousness with your body Don't take notes during the interview 13
  • 15. Don't complain about a former boss or co-worker. By complaining in this way, you're likely to make the employer think that you are hard to get along with. Don't ask about salaries, sick leaves, pensions, vacations, or benefits on the first interview. If you have specific qualifications for a job, be sure the employer knows about them. No one knows what you can do unless you tell him or her. Talk about school subjects and hobbies that you have done well in and which are related to the job for which you are applying. An employer may be interested in everything you can do, but will be most interested in your skills that relate to the job for which you are applying. Ask questions when you don't understand what the employer is talking about. You‟ll want to know as much about the job as you can and asking questions is the best way to find out. 14
  • 16.  Group discussion:  Introduction: Group discussion is an articulation and views over a particular topic that has been given to a group of around 5- 12people, within a set time limit. The word „discuss‟ has been derived from the Latin word „discutere‟ that means „to shake‟ or „strike‟. From the same root, the word „discussion‟ stands for an activity in which a theme/subject matter is thoroughly shaken, inquired or examination so as to reach a conclusion or decide upon a course of action. It is different from conversation and debate. While a conversation usually becomes informal exchange of views or sentiments, a debate can be an acrimonious expression of arguments for or against a motion or a given line of thinking. It is discussion that lies at the core of all purposeful meetings or the decision making process.  Types of GD: GDs can be topic-based or case-based. Topic based Gds can be classified into three types:- Factual Topics Controversial Topics Abstract Topics  Factual Topics: - Factual topics are about practical things, which an ordinary 15
  • 17. person is aware of in his day-to-day life. Typically these are about socio-economic topics. These can be current, i.e. they may have been in the news lately, or could be unbound by time. A factual topic for discussion gives a candidate a chance to prove that he is aware of and sensitive to his environment. E.g. The education policy of India, Tourism in India, State of the aged in the nation  Controversial Topics: - Controversial topics are the ones that are argumentative in nature. They are meant to generate controversy. In GDs where these topics are given for discussion, the noise level is usually high, there may be tempers flying. The idea behind giving a topic like this is to see how much maturity the candidate is displaying by keeping his temper in check, by rationally and logically arguing his point of view without getting personal and emotional.Eg. Reservations should be removed, Women make better managers  Abstract Topics: - Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity. E.g. A is an alphabet, Twinkle twinkle little star, The number 10  Case-based Gd: - Another variation is the use of a case instead of a topic. The case study tries to simulate a real-life situation. Information about the situation will be given to you and you would be asked as a group to resolve the situation. In the case study there are no incorrect answers or perfect solutions. The 16
  • 18. objective in the case study is to get you to think about the situation from various angles. IIM A, IIM Indore and IIT SOM Mumbai have a case-based discussion rather than topic-based discussion in their selection procedures.  Four important components of Gd assessments are : Personality appeal Communication skills Knowledge Leadership  Personality appeal: Smartness – dress –smile on the face. Cheerfulness – free from nervousness. Enthusiasm - attitude of taking a step extra.  Communication skills. Fluency –not speed but poise and right words at the right place Clarity –effectiveness of the message Logic- the presentation skills  Leadership:- Leadership has been described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". Other in- depth definitions of leadership have also emerged. 17
  • 19.  Knowledge: Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include information, facts, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience oreducation. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic  Why do we have GD? Reasons for having a GD It helps you to understand a subject more deeply. It improves your ability to think critically. It helps in solving a particular problem. It helps the group to make a particular decision. It gives you the chance to hear other students' ideas. It improves your listening skills. It increases your confidence in speaking. It can change your attitudes.  WHY INSTITUTES CONDUCT A GD: How often have you called a friend in office to be told that he is in meeting? Institutes conduct a GD because, as amanager, you will be required to attend and conduct innumerable meeting. A GD is a stimulation of what you can expect in a meeting at your workplace. Depending on the kind of profile you have and the company you 18
  • 20. work for, you will be part of meeting ranging from brand launches and employee performance appraisals to company financials, etc. for instance, if you have a meeting where senior employees are working out a strategy to launch a new soap in the market, this is what is expected of you before and during the meeting. The reason why institutes put you through a Group discussion and an interview, after testing your technical and conceptual skills in an exam, is to get to know you as a person and gauge how well you will fit in their institute. The Group discussion tests how you function as a part of a team. As a manager, you will always be working in teams, as a member or as a leader. Therefore how you interact in a team becomes an important criterion for your selection. Managers have to work in a team and get best results out of teamwork. That is the reason why management institutes include GD as a component of the selection procedure.  10 simple rules to easily crack the GD: 1) Keep eye contact while speaking: Do not look at the evaluators only. Keep eye contact with every team member while speaking. 2) Initiate the GD: Initiating the GD is a big plus. But keep in mind – Initiate the group discussion only when you understood the GD topic clearly and have some topic knowledge. Speaking without proper subject knowledge is bad impression. 3) Allow others to speak: Do not interrupt anyone in-between while speaking. Even if you 19
  • 21. don‟t agree with his/her thoughts do not snatch their chance to speak. Instead make some notes and clear the points when it‟s your turn. 4) Speak clearly: Speak politely and clearly. Use simple and understandable words while speaking. Don‟t be too aggressive if you are disagreeing with someone. Express your feelings calmly and politely. 5) Make sure to bring the discussion on track: If by any means group is distracting from the topic or goal then simply take initiative to bring the discussion on the track. Make all group members aware that you all need to come to some conclusion at the end of the discussion. So stick to the topic. 6) Positive attitude: Be confident. Do not try to dominate anyone. Keep positive body language. Show interest in discussion. 7) Speak sensibly: Do not speak just to increase your speaking time. Don‟t worry even if you speak less. Your thoughts should be sensible and relevant instead of irrelevant speech. 8) Listen carefully to others: Speak less and listen more! Pay attention while others are speaking. This will make coherent discussion and you will get involved in the group positively. You will surely make people agree with you. 9) No need to go into much details: Some basic subject analysis is sufficient. No need to mention 20
  • 22. exact figures while giving any reference. You have limited time so be precise and convey your thoughts in short and simple language. 10) Formal dressing: Do not take it casually. No fancy and funny dressing. You should be comfortable while speaking in group. Positive gesture and body language will make your work easy  Common mistakes made by the candidates: Every candidate must voice his opinion about the given topic, correctly and briefly. The candidate should not go on talking without giving others a chance to speak. One candidate should not speak than 3 times during a GD. It would appear that he/she wants to hog most of the limelight. The candidate should avoid trying to shout to be heard. Even if the topic is not known to the candidate, from other people‟s responses, he will be able to understand something and should then at least make a valid point. The candidate should also avoid being negative about everything, putting down even good ideas of others, just to prove that only he is right. Thus to succeed in a GD one must be moderately forceful but polite, articulate, knowledgeable and try to motivate others to speak so that everyone‟s opinion can lead to a fruitful discussion. 21
  • 23.  Factors of group discussion: The primary factor which determines the candidate‟s group- worthiness is his ability to fit into the group, to bind it together as a single entity and to influence the group towards the attainment of the group goals. The next important factor is the candidate‟s personal ability to do the bon in hand. We may even call it as one‟s professional efficiency and it includes his intelligence; physical fitness, problem solving faculty, dynamic qualities and the ability to communicate effectively. The third important factor concerns the candidate‟s ability to stand up to physical and mental stresses and difficulties. He should not wait and give way under stress or get upset. One the other hand, he should be able to remain balanced, calm and collected in the face of tremendous odds and stresses. There will be individual rivalries and differences of opinion, in the group. There will arise the conflict between the individual‟s self-interest and the group interest. In the face of such conflicts and difficulties, the candidate should not lose self-control. He should not get frustrated or give way to temper.  Advantages Enhances learning in both the affective and cognitive domains Is both learner-centered and subject-centered. Stimulates learners to think about issues and problems. Encourages learners to exchanges their own experiences, Thereby making learning more active and less isolating. Provides the opportunity for sharing of ideas and concerns. Fosters positive peer support and feelings of belonging 22
  • 24. Reinforces previous learning. More simply put: • Ideas can be generated. • Ideas can be shared. • Ideas can be 'tried out'. • Ideas can be responded to by others.  Disadvantages : One member of the group can dominate the discussion. Easy to digress from the topic. Shy learners may refuse to become involved or may need a great deal of encouragement to participate. Requires skill to tactfully redirect learners who digress or dominate without losing their trust and that of other group members. Particularly challenging for the novice teacher when group members do not interact easily. More time consuming for the transmission of information than other methods such as lecture. Requires the teacher's presence at all sessions to act as a facilitator and resource person 23