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interview method

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BY MD AZIZUR RAHMAN

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interview method

  1. 1. RESEARCHRESEARCH METHODSMETHODS MD AZIZURMD AZIZUR RAHMANRAHMAN azizurmlis@gmail.comazizurmlis@gmail.com Interview MethodInterview Method
  2. 2. RESEARCH METHODSRESEARCH METHODS  ObservationObservation  SurveysSurveys InterviewInterview Focus groupsFocus groups Experimental researchExperimental research Case studiesCase studies
  3. 3. Interview MethodInterview Method What, Why, and How?What, Why, and How? TV programmes usually invite celebrities, filmTV programmes usually invite celebrities, film personalities, politicians, industrialist, etc.personalities, politicians, industrialist, etc. Interviewing in Survey Research is differentInterviewing in Survey Research is different from these interviews.from these interviews.
  4. 4. Interview MethodInterview Method What, Why, and How?What, Why, and How? What isWhat is Interview?Interview? DefinitionDefinition ….…. secondary social interaction between two strangers with the explicitsecondary social interaction between two strangers with the explicit purpose of one person’s obtaining specific information from the other….purpose of one person’s obtaining specific information from the other…. Information is obtained in aInformation is obtained in a structuredstructured conversation in which theconversation in which the interviewer asksinterviewer asks pre-arrangedpre-arranged questions and records respondent’squestions and records respondent’s answers.answers. a method of data collection which involves researchers askinga method of data collection which involves researchers asking respondents basicallyrespondents basically open-endedopen-ended questions.”questions.” the questions may be pre decided so this method includes only open-the questions may be pre decided so this method includes only open- ended questions.ended questions.
  5. 5. TYPES OF INTERVIEWSTYPES OF INTERVIEWS Interviews can be structured or unstructured.Interviews can be structured or unstructured. It can be for personal, impersonal or mixed type ofIt can be for personal, impersonal or mixed type of interaction.interaction. Structured InterviewStructured Interview the interviewer asks the pre-drafted questions.the interviewer asks the pre-drafted questions. No freedom is given to add new questions or deleteNo freedom is given to add new questions or delete any question.any question. The interviewer is strictly instructed to ask the preThe interviewer is strictly instructed to ask the pre decided questions in verbatim and also to recorddecided questions in verbatim and also to record them.them. The interview scheduled is prepared in advance.The interview scheduled is prepared in advance.
  6. 6. Structured InterviewStructured Interview The question schedule may be given to the interviewee inThe question schedule may be given to the interviewee in advance so that he/she can prepare the answers.advance so that he/she can prepare the answers. No professional skills are required to conduct interviewsNo professional skills are required to conduct interviews Interviewer should remain unbiased but allowed inInterviewer should remain unbiased but allowed in unstructured interviews.unstructured interviews. This type of interview can be conducted person-to-person orThis type of interview can be conducted person-to-person or through telephone or by using electronic device.through telephone or by using electronic device. Examples:Examples: 1) Do you make use of computers in your research? Yes / No1) Do you make use of computers in your research? Yes / No 2) Are you aware of the concept of virtual university? Yes / No2) Are you aware of the concept of virtual university? Yes / No 3) Have you used any e-learning packages before? Yes / No3) Have you used any e-learning packages before? Yes / No If Yes, how they are useful for teaching and leaning?If Yes, how they are useful for teaching and leaning?
  7. 7. Unstructured InterviewUnstructured Interview  The interviewer exercisesThe interviewer exercises autonomyautonomy in asking questions whatin asking questions what ever comes to his/her mind on the subject.ever comes to his/her mind on the subject.  can be conducted on one-to-one basis or with a group ofcan be conducted on one-to-one basis or with a group of interviewees.interviewees.  The main aim of the interviewer is to getThe main aim of the interviewer is to get personal viewpointpersonal viewpoint of the respondents on a given topicof the respondents on a given topic  The interviewer should keep interview schedule with him/herThe interviewer should keep interview schedule with him/her at the time of the interview.at the time of the interview.  Interviewer is free to ask additional questions and also repeatInterviewer is free to ask additional questions and also repeat or delete questions as mentioned in the schedule.or delete questions as mentioned in the schedule.  An effort can be made during interview to encourage them toAn effort can be made during interview to encourage them to speak freelyspeak freely..  Easy to conduct these interviews but difficult to analyse theEasy to conduct these interviews but difficult to analyse the results.results.
  8. 8. Unstructured InterviewUnstructured Interview  Reason to choose this type is that no two interviews reveal same type of responses.  Sufficient background knowledge, good interviewing skills, command on language; and ability to convince the respondent to answer.  This type of interview demands specialised training to be imparted to the interviewer/ researcher to get best results.  This type of interview is best suited to those situations where very little is known.
  9. 9. Unstructured InterviewUnstructured Interview  Depth interviews can beDepth interviews can be projectiveprojective oror non-projectivenon-projective in nature.in nature.  ProjectiveProjective – these are unstructured prompts or stimulus that encourage the respondent to projectthese are unstructured prompts or stimulus that encourage the respondent to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings onto an ambiguous situationtheir underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings onto an ambiguous situation – they are allthey are all indirect techniquesindirect techniques that attempt to disguise the purpose of the researchthat attempt to disguise the purpose of the research – Instead of simply asking the respondent "If the user is having e-book in hand, what kindInstead of simply asking the respondent "If the user is having e-book in hand, what kind of person might it be?" the moderator positions the question as an experience. of person might it be?" the moderator positions the question as an experience.  Non-projectiveNon-projective – The best way to define non-projective testing is that questions are asked, winch theThe best way to define non-projective testing is that questions are asked, winch the answers are limited to "yes", "no", "some times" etc.answers are limited to "yes", "no", "some times" etc. – These tests can be given by persons trained in psychological testing. These personsThese tests can be given by persons trained in psychological testing. These persons can include vocational counselors, licensed practical counselors, rehabilitationcan include vocational counselors, licensed practical counselors, rehabilitation counselors, psychological assistants, etc Interpretation of results are providedcounselors, psychological assistants, etc Interpretation of results are provided..
  10. 10. Focussed InterviewFocussed Interview It is conducted basically to get focussed, in depthIt is conducted basically to get focussed, in depth information on any given issue from the respondent.information on any given issue from the respondent. It is one of the types of unstructured interview.It is one of the types of unstructured interview. The main task of the researcher isThe main task of the researcher is to involveto involve thethe respondent inrespondent in discussion on specific topicdiscussion on specific topic so that theso that the researcher gets desired information.researcher gets desired information. Here interviews are helpful in the development ofHere interviews are helpful in the development of hypothesishypothesis..
  11. 11. Focused InterviewFocused Interview Non-directive InterviewNon-directive Interview Interviewer in this type of interview acts like a catalyst.Interviewer in this type of interview acts like a catalyst. Interviewer prompts the respondents to give information on the topicInterviewer prompts the respondents to give information on the topic under investigation.under investigation. Clinical InterviewClinical Interview This type of interview also comes under the category of unstructuredThis type of interview also comes under the category of unstructured interview.interview. This type covers basically the feelings, life experiences, of theThis type covers basically the feelings, life experiences, of the respondents.respondents. this type of interview has been used in social care work, counsellingthis type of interview has been used in social care work, counselling and prison setting, and is also called personal history interview.and prison setting, and is also called personal history interview.
  12. 12. Telephonic InterviewTelephonic Interview It is best suited for market type of survey, poll, etc.It is best suited for market type of survey, poll, etc. to get data very fast without wasting time on visiting theto get data very fast without wasting time on visiting the respondents.respondents. It does not require special skills to conduct the interview.It does not require special skills to conduct the interview. It is a faster and cheaper method for obtainingIt is a faster and cheaper method for obtaining information.information. Non-response percentage is very low in telephoneNon-response percentage is very low in telephone interview.interview. long distance calls, number of calls, length of call timelong distance calls, number of calls, length of call time adds to its cost.adds to its cost. For short conversation it may be ideal but lengthyFor short conversation it may be ideal but lengthy conversation respondents may not like to give interview.conversation respondents may not like to give interview. Like mailed questionnaire the personal touch will beLike mailed questionnaire the personal touch will be missing in this type of interview also.missing in this type of interview also.
  13. 13. Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) SystemComputer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) System Software companies have introduced many softwareSoftware companies have introduced many software programmes to facilitate data collection, analysis, etc.programmes to facilitate data collection, analysis, etc. E.g. CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing), CATIE.g. CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing), CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing), ACASI (Audio(Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing), ACASI (Audio Computer Assisted Self Interviewing) WinCati System,Computer Assisted Self Interviewing) WinCati System, Wincati Mixed Mode and Sensus Web, etc.Wincati Mixed Mode and Sensus Web, etc. CATI System is used to conduct telephone interview toCATI System is used to conduct telephone interview to gather data from a number of respondents scattered all overgather data from a number of respondents scattered all over the world.the world. In this PC is linked through network to server where data canIn this PC is linked through network to server where data can be stored centrally.be stored centrally.
  14. 14. CATI SystemCATI System This system has many advantages:This system has many advantages: Uniformity may be maintained.Uniformity may be maintained. Questions can be stored in the computer memory.Questions can be stored in the computer memory. Reponses can be recorded directly onto the computer.Reponses can be recorded directly onto the computer. It eliminates the errors on the part of interviewers or in caseIt eliminates the errors on the part of interviewers or in case missed questionsmissed questions Analysis can be done very fast.Analysis can be done very fast. It helps in automatic recording and keeping the records.It helps in automatic recording and keeping the records.
  15. 15. Types of InterviewsTypes of Interviews Interviews are basically structured, semi-structured orInterviews are basically structured, semi-structured or unstructured.unstructured. They can be formal or informal.They can be formal or informal. Formal interview follows theFormal interview follows the rules and roles associatedrules and roles associated withwith the method where as informalthe method where as informal does not follow any ruledoes not follow any rule ofof interviewinginterviewing Formal interview is structured and informal is highlyFormal interview is structured and informal is highly unstructured.unstructured. Interviewing can be done one-to-one and in groups also.Interviewing can be done one-to-one and in groups also. Telephone interview is the best example of one-to-oneTelephone interview is the best example of one-to-one interviewing.interviewing. In-group interview the interviewees are seen as focussedIn-group interview the interviewees are seen as focussed group and the interviewer acts as a moderator or facilitator.group and the interviewer acts as a moderator or facilitator.
  16. 16. Interviewing Process…Interviewing Process… Plan:Plan: trainingtraining of interviewer,of interviewer, timetime to be taken in the interviewto be taken in the interview and theand the venuevenue of the interview. It also takes into account theof the interview. It also takes into account the cost factor, travel time and wait around time.cost factor, travel time and wait around time. Preparation of Interview Schedule:Preparation of Interview Schedule: – Interview schedule is a list ofInterview schedule is a list of printed questionsprinted questions, in some, in some orderorder, and, and the interviewerthe interviewer records the answersrecords the answers on the printed schedule duringon the printed schedule during the interview.the interview. – Interview schedule is prepared in advance.Interview schedule is prepared in advance. – Through interview schedule, the identity of the respondent is knownThrough interview schedule, the identity of the respondent is known to the researcher.to the researcher. – This method has some drawbacks also.This method has some drawbacks also. – Interviewer may be biased, if he/she is not well trained,Interviewer may be biased, if he/she is not well trained, – this method is not feasible when target population is geographicallythis method is not feasible when target population is geographically spread over.spread over.
  17. 17. Preparing InterviewPreparing Interview ScheduleSchedule The researcher must keep in mind certain points while preparingThe researcher must keep in mind certain points while preparing interview schedule.interview schedule. – The researcher should be clear about theThe researcher should be clear about the objectives, scopeobjectives, scope of the researchof the research area under study.area under study. – The choice of closed or open-ended questions should be made clear.The choice of closed or open-ended questions should be made clear. – Complex, emotional and sensitiveComplex, emotional and sensitive type of questions should be avoided.type of questions should be avoided. – FormatFormat of the interview schedule should beof the interview schedule should be attractiveattractive and it leaves sufficientand it leaves sufficient place to enter the answers.place to enter the answers. – The sequence of questions should be finalised before conducting theThe sequence of questions should be finalised before conducting the interview session.interview session. – It is preferable to put questions in logical order.It is preferable to put questions in logical order. – Relevant questions should be drafted on the basis of area of research.Relevant questions should be drafted on the basis of area of research.
  18. 18. Pilot TestPilot Test Pilot Test of the SchedulePilot Test of the Schedule it is advisable to pre test the interview questions.it is advisable to pre test the interview questions. A group of interviewees should be selected for pilot study.A group of interviewees should be selected for pilot study. This practice is very important to get proper responsesThis practice is very important to get proper responses from the respondents.from the respondents. Conducting the InterviewConducting the Interview interview is an art but for researcher it is the most difficultinterview is an art but for researcher it is the most difficult task.task. putting questions to the respondent, listening to theputting questions to the respondent, listening to the answers carefully, giving clarification, sometimesanswers carefully, giving clarification, sometimes explanations, directions to clear the doubts of theexplanations, directions to clear the doubts of the respondentsrespondents
  19. 19. Pilot TestPilot Test Conducting the Interview:Conducting the Interview: recording the answers manually, or with the help of any electronicrecording the answers manually, or with the help of any electronic device (i.e., tape recorder).device (i.e., tape recorder). How an interviewer is conducting himself/herself the interviewHow an interviewer is conducting himself/herself the interview session is very important.session is very important. His/Her appearance, pleasing personality, behaviour, use of words,His/Her appearance, pleasing personality, behaviour, use of words, and knowledge of the area can make a lot of difference to the results.and knowledge of the area can make a lot of difference to the results. Interviewer should not make the respondent waiting. He/she shouldInterviewer should not make the respondent waiting. He/she should be punctual, polite and courteous.be punctual, polite and courteous. interviewer should ask right types of questions prompting theinterviewer should ask right types of questions prompting the respondent to answer and then properly recording the answers.respondent to answer and then properly recording the answers.
  20. 20. Guidelines for ConductingGuidelines for Conducting InterviewsInterviews plan in advanceplan in advance the venue, time, etc. for the interview session.the venue, time, etc. for the interview session. adopt friendly approach so that proper understanding/rapport can beadopt friendly approach so that proper understanding/rapport can be established between the interviewer and interviewee.established between the interviewer and interviewee. You should have the ability to mobilise the respondent to answerYou should have the ability to mobilise the respondent to answer freely and frankly on the subject.freely and frankly on the subject. Questions should be well framed; complex questions should beQuestions should be well framed; complex questions should be avoided.avoided. some training is required to have proper control of the interviewsome training is required to have proper control of the interview session.session. responsible for creating a friendly atmosphere of mutual trust andresponsible for creating a friendly atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence.confidence.
  21. 21. Guidelines for ConductingGuidelines for Conducting InterviewsInterviews Do not show any surprise or disapproval to the answers ofDo not show any surprise or disapproval to the answers of the respondent but at the same time he/she should bethe respondent but at the same time he/she should be supportive of the respondent answers.supportive of the respondent answers. should have friendly, courteous, unbiased approach.should have friendly, courteous, unbiased approach. should not try to change or influence the reactions orshould not try to change or influence the reactions or opinions of the respondents.opinions of the respondents. should not indulge in any argument, even replies are notshould not indulge in any argument, even replies are not accurate.accurate. At the end of the interview session the interviewer mustAt the end of the interview session the interviewer must show gratitude for their cooperation.show gratitude for their cooperation.
  22. 22. Success of an Interview…Success of an Interview… Three factors which make an interview successfulThree factors which make an interview successful are:are: – having a thoroughly tested questionnaire or interviewhaving a thoroughly tested questionnaire or interview form which to work;form which to work; – being familiar and “wise” in the interview process;being familiar and “wise” in the interview process; – treating respondents with trust, respect and courtesy.treating respondents with trust, respect and courtesy. Recording the Interview:Recording the Interview: For open-ended questions, writing the responses,For open-ended questions, writing the responses, Preparation of Verbatim TranscriptsPreparation of Verbatim Transcripts Analysis of Data and Report WritingAnalysis of Data and Report Writing
  23. 23. Advantages of InterviewingAdvantages of Interviewing MethodMethod Through questioning, in depth information can beThrough questioning, in depth information can be obtained.obtained. In personal interaction, clarifications andIn personal interaction, clarifications and explanations can be made.explanations can be made. Questions can be restructured to eliminateQuestions can be restructured to eliminate ambiguity.ambiguity. Through personal interaction, completeThrough personal interaction, complete responses can be obtainedresponses can be obtained E.g. Personal information -- complex andE.g. Personal information -- complex and sensitive information can be generated.sensitive information can be generated. Non- response percentage is very less,Non- response percentage is very less, participant rate is high.participant rate is high.
  24. 24. Advantages of InterviewingAdvantages of Interviewing MethodMethod Interviewer can reword the questions, change theInterviewer can reword the questions, change the language according to knowledge, educationallanguage according to knowledge, educational background of the respondent.background of the respondent. Many people do not want to answer questionnaires due toMany people do not want to answer questionnaires due to time constraints but willingly to give interview because ittime constraints but willingly to give interview because it takes less effort and time.takes less effort and time. Quarterly data can be retrieved from interview session.Quarterly data can be retrieved from interview session. Through personal interaction the interviewer can observeThrough personal interaction the interviewer can observe the respondent’s reactions, body language, facialthe respondent’s reactions, body language, facial expressions vis-à-vis a particular question. That helps theexpressions vis-à-vis a particular question. That helps the researcher to reword the questions spontaneously.researcher to reword the questions spontaneously.
  25. 25. LimitationsLimitations Some inherent weaknesses or limitations are:Some inherent weaknesses or limitations are: It is a very time consuming as well as very expensive method.It is a very time consuming as well as very expensive method. There is a possibility of biased analysis, interpretations. E.g. Age,There is a possibility of biased analysis, interpretations. E.g. Age, class, race, gender, social status, etc. can play crucial role inclass, race, gender, social status, etc. can play crucial role in generating biased opinions from both the sides.generating biased opinions from both the sides. If the interviewer isIf the interviewer is not skillednot skilled, trained in the art, he/she may not, trained in the art, he/she may not able to conduct successful interview session with proper control.able to conduct successful interview session with proper control. if target population consists high and top-level management groups,if target population consists high and top-level management groups, executives, approaching difficult & time consuming.executives, approaching difficult & time consuming. Proper training, selection and supervision of the interviewer are veryProper training, selection and supervision of the interviewer are very essential to this method.essential to this method.
  26. 26. LimitationsLimitations Getting free, frank responses from the target populationGetting free, frank responses from the target population is not a easy task.is not a easy task. Establishing proper rapport with the target group is veryEstablishing proper rapport with the target group is very difficult requirement.difficult requirement. Information received is difficult to analyse because sameInformation received is difficult to analyse because same set of questions may receive diverse responses.set of questions may receive diverse responses. Interview method may call for some errors, which areInterview method may call for some errors, which are difficult to eliminate.difficult to eliminate. The use of computers in data collection has its own setThe use of computers in data collection has its own set of limitations.of limitations.
  27. 27. Summary …..Summary ….. Each type has its own advantages and limitations.Each type has its own advantages and limitations. However, in any given situation one type of interviewHowever, in any given situation one type of interview may yield excellent results and it may not provemay yield excellent results and it may not prove fruitful in some other situation.fruitful in some other situation. It is a most sensitive device for the acquisition ofIt is a most sensitive device for the acquisition of reliable valid data.reliable valid data.
  28. 28. Summary ….Summary …. This method can be useful when it is combined with questionnaire,This method can be useful when it is combined with questionnaire, observation, case study method and especially in user studies willobservation, case study method and especially in user studies will definitely add qualitative analysis to the interpretation of results.definitely add qualitative analysis to the interpretation of results. It is one of the methods of getting data under primary sources. EachIt is one of the methods of getting data under primary sources. Each method of data collection has its own merits and demerits.method of data collection has its own merits and demerits. The success of interviewing method is dependent upon theThe success of interviewing method is dependent upon the targettarget population, trained/skilled and knowledgeable interviewerpopulation, trained/skilled and knowledgeable interviewer. Like other. Like other methods this method also cannot generate 100% accurate results.methods this method also cannot generate 100% accurate results. The construction of research instrument is the key aspect inThe construction of research instrument is the key aspect in conducting the research.conducting the research. This instrument may be designed keeping in view of the targetThis instrument may be designed keeping in view of the target population, the objectives, and scope of the research.population, the objectives, and scope of the research.
  29. 29. Summary ….Summary …. Interview may be structured, unstructured, and telephonic orInterview may be structured, unstructured, and telephonic or computer assisted, consisting of open or close-ended questions.computer assisted, consisting of open or close-ended questions. Any type of interview is basically to get information fromAny type of interview is basically to get information from respondents on a subject on themselves, their experiences, theirrespondents on a subject on themselves, their experiences, their views, expressions, attitudes, etc.views, expressions, attitudes, etc. The presence of researcher and respondent and interactionThe presence of researcher and respondent and interaction between them has a great influence on both the quality and quantitybetween them has a great influence on both the quality and quantity of response(s) generated from respondent.of response(s) generated from respondent.
  30. 30. ReadingsReadings 1.1. Pickard, A.J. (2007). Research methods in Information.Pickard, A.J. (2007). Research methods in Information. Facet Publishing, Chapt 15.Facet Publishing, Chapt 15. 2.2. Kothari, C.R. (2010). Research Methodology: methods andKothari, C.R. (2010). Research Methodology: methods and techniques. 2techniques. 2ndnd ed. New Delhi: New Age International Lvt.ed. New Delhi: New Age International Lvt. Ltd., Chapt. 6.Ltd., Chapt. 6. 3.3. Ranjit Kumar(2005). Research methodology: a step-by-Ranjit Kumar(2005). Research methodology: a step-by- step guide for beginners. Pearson Educational, Chapt. 9.step guide for beginners. Pearson Educational, Chapt. 9.
  31. 31. ThankThank You!!!You!!!

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