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  1. 1. 2012 Chetana’s HazarimalSomani College of com. Eco.& smt. Kusumtai Chaudari College of arts. Topic: Interview & Group Discussion Presented to: Prof: Shiva Prasad
  2. 2. INDEXInterview: 1. Introduction.……………………………………………………....2 2. Types of interview……………………………………………………...2 3. ABC”S of interview………………………………………………….....4 4. Interview structure……………………………………………………...6 5. What is an interviewer looking for?..........................................................7 6. Preparation of an interview……………………………………………..8 7. Interview skills……………………………………………………….....8 8. First impression is the effective impression………………………….....9 9. Tips of interview…………………………………………………….....10Group discussion: 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………....11 2. Types of group discussion………………………………………….….11 3. Four important components of group discussion assessments…………12 4. Why do we have group discussion?........................................................13 5. Why institutes conduct a group discussion?.............................................13 6. 10 simple rules to crack a group discussion……………………………14 7. Common mistake made by the candidate………………………………15 8. Factors for group discussion……………………………………………16 9. Advantages of group discussion………………………………………..16 10. Disadvantages of group discussion……………………………………..17 1
  3. 3. Interview: Introduction:Interview is a form of personal communication, where the person called for an interviewi.e. interviewee and the one who takes the interview i.e. the interviewer can vary fromselection, appraisal and counseling to grievance handling and exit interviews. The term „interview‟ has been derived from the French word „entre voir‟ that means„to „glimpse‟ or „to see each other‟. By definition it means a meeting for obtaininginformation by questioning a person or person. In this way an interview is a classicexample of communication that takes place through „the process by which meanings areexchanged between people through the use of a common set of symbols”. Types of interview: Informational interview:An Informational Interview is a meeting in which a job seeker asks for career andindustry advice rather than employment. The job seeker uses the interview to gatherinformation on the field, and to find employment leads and expand their professionalnetwork. Telephone interview:Telephone interviews have become one of the most popular ways to conduct a one on onemeeting when geography presents a challenge. Essentially, a telephone interview issimply a situation in which a telephone call is used to create the foundation for aninteractive meeting in which one party is conducting an interview with a second party. In-person interview:The in-person interview is the culmination of all the steps in our selection process.Taking into consideration your skills and experience along with the talents you haverevealed during your online assessment and telephone interview. Selection interview: 2
  4. 4. It is a situation in which a personnel selector, through personal contact provides him withbehavior to observe - in order to assess the candidates suitability for a post. Work sample interview:Work samples are used as an additional tool, along with the information presented in thecandidates application and theinterview process when making the final selection. Awork sample may be used to verify critical skills identified in the skills requirements for aspecific position. Peer group interview:Provides an opportunity for you to meet and talk with your prospective coworkers. Just asin other interviews, the peer group will evaluate you and determine how well you fit in. Video interview:Uses video-conferencing technology so that people in different locations can interviewyou without traveling. Practice answering questions in front of a mirror or have a friendvideotape you. This will help you learn how communicate effectively on camera. Behavioral interview:A behavioral interview is an employment interview during which a job applicant is askedto demonstrate his or her knowledge, skills, and abilities, also known as competencies.The applicant must tell about specific experiences when he or she demonstrated thesecompetencies. Stress interview: The purpose of stress interview is to present before the candidate certain situation or facts that make them uncomfortable or ask them simple questions at an alarming speed. Stress interview are likely to reveal the true personality of a candidate. Promotion interview: Promotion interview as the name suggests is done prior to giving a promotion to an employee. It also serves as a selection interview of one candidate over another, when there is more than one person shortlisted for the promotion. 3
  5. 5.  Problem interview: Problem interview is conducted when the behavior or performance of the employee is not satisfactory. Grievance interview: Grievance interview is conducted when an employee has some grievance regarding his job, salary, colleagues etc. and he wishes to speak to higher authorities in this regard. Abc’s of job interview: A-attitude B=behavior C=compatibility A is for AttitudeAN interviewer wants to find an outstanding candidate as much as you wantto find afulfilling job. It helps to think of the process as one where both parties are hoping for apositive outcome. A positive attitude will enable you to project an image of energy andenthusiasm. If you are competing against a group ofcandidates with a similar backgroundof skills and knowledge, enthusiasmmight be the deciding factor.Here are four attitude suggestions that will help you in many interview andjob-relatedsituations: Never bad-mouth a current or former employer, co-worker or company. It brands you as a “complainer,” and no one wants a complainer on the team. Positive attitudes are catching and you have a great deal of control over sustaining a positive atmosphere throughout the interview process. Maintain a positive attitude – from the moment you wake up until the interview is over and you‟ve sent a “thank you” note. Attitude can save interviews from “going bad”. 4
  6. 6. B is for BehaviorAttitude drives the second factor, behavior. When you have a positive attitude and desireto perform well at the interview, you‟ll plan to get a goodnight‟s sleep, eat a nutritiousbreakfast, and allow plenty of time to get to the appointment. You won‟t scheduleimportant activities following the interview, since you may be asked to stay and completean application, take some tests or meet with another decision-maker. Be polite andfriendly on the phone and to the people you encounter on the way to the interview. It paysto be courteous, professional and friendly with the receptionist, the secretary, and eventhe people you encounter in the parking lot and elevator. You have no way of predictingwhich people you encounteron the way to and from the interview is part of the hiringteam of having inputinto the hiring process. Communication is a four-way street. 1) Focus your attention on what theinterviewer is saying (not on what you‟ll say next). Don‟t talk too much. If you do most of the talking, you will probably miss cues to help you know what theinterview feels is important. 2) Once you‟ve determined where the interviewer is “coming from,” you can follow his or her lead. Try to speak with the samerhythm and tone of voice. Make some friendly observations about yoursurroundings. 3) If the interview is conversational, make small talk about yourinterests, hobbies, or what you did last weekend. Be positive and upbeat. This will help both of you relax and establish a connection. 4) Remember that communicating information about yourself is yourresponsibility. It is not up to the interviewer to drag it out of you C is for CompatibilityAn interview is primarily an attempt to assess you compatibility with the joband theorganization. “What kindor work environment do you prefer?” “Do you work better byyourself or withothers?” Many questions don‟t have an obvious “right or wrong” answer,butthese questions are clearly intended to measure the compatibility between.Think of two overlapping circles – one is you and one is the company.Everything thatyou say and do during the interview should contribute toenlarging the space where thesecircles overlap. The bigger and more clearly defined you can make this area, the moredesirable you will be as acandidate.Your preliminary research of the company and theposition should give you aclear idea of the skills being sought. Assume your answers willreveal interesting information and be reliable predictors of your behavior infuture 5
  7. 7. situations.Think of each question as a Table Topic and give yourself about one minutetocreate and interesting answer. Interview structure:Like every communication event, an interview has a rather well defined structure .Inother words we can say that an interview is a formal communication event that aim andoutcome of which is understood by both the parties .They have, therefore, care of thethree stage-beginning, middle, anend, just as in a presentation the speaker alone has tomanage these stages. Each of these stages requires effective communication skills asstated below: Opening/start: Introduction: Statement of the purpose of the meeting Making the other person comfortable Creating an atmosphere of relaxed open-minded approach, commitment to the purpose stated above, and preparing to start discussing things frankly Middle: Aim at exchange of information. Keeping the discussion to the point. Listen attentively and patiently. Keep eye-to-eye contact. Give carefully thought out answers. Make sure to cover the agenda. Take care that interruptions, if any, are polite. Closing: Summing up the discussion/exchange of information. Describing the action decided upon. 6
  8. 8. Avoiding a hurried or abrupt ending. Closing on a positive note. Exchangingfeelings of gratitude, thankfulness for favor of interview etc. Confirming, the worthwhileness of the interview / communication event / meeting. What is an employer looking for?We may classify the information which an employer seeks while considering a person fora job, into the following sub headings.1) State of health: every organization desires its employees to be in healthy state. Apart from judging at the interview, the organization requires an entrant to undergo a medical examination, standards of which differ from profession to profession.2) Attainments: A probe is made through searching questions to verify what is written by the candidate in the bio data and to assess the nature and quantity of these achievements.3) Intelligence: A close observation is made of the reflexes and responses of the interviewee to discover the extent of his grasp and confidence.4) Applitude: certain questions are directed merely to find out the candidate‟s aplitude for the job has applied for.5) Interest: An attempt is made to understand the other dimensions of the personality of the candidate by encouraging him to speak about his intellectual or social pursuits.6) Disposition: A vital piece of information that all employers would like to have whether the candidates has the ability to work with others.7) Circumstances: A peep into the interviewee‟s previous environment and family circumstances may give some clue to the candidate‟s capacity to work.  7
  9. 9. Preparation for an interview:The main purpose of the employer is to judge the suitability of the applicant to the joband the objectives of the applicant is to find out whether the needs and requirements ofthe job would suit him and also whether the environment in the organization would beconducive to his professional growth. It provides an opportunity to both the participantsfor close observation of each other‟s personality traits as reflected in verbal behavior andbody language. Once you have secured the interview, you should begin to focus on interviewpreparation. Do not be fooled into thinking that you can simply walk into an interviewand answer a few questions. The employer will often meet with several hundredcandidates in order to find 5-7 potential employees. Your goal must be to demonstrateyour interest and qualifications for the position. Preparation is key! Interviewers havemany expectations of you as a candidate for potential hire. You must know generalinformation about the position for which you are interviewing. You must also be able toarticulate your qualifications and interest. In addition, the employer expects for you tohave researched his/her organization and understands the nature of the organization. Interview skills: Analyze the position for which you intend to work:Before you are able to convince an employer that you want to be an employee, it isimportant that you understand what the job profile to gather this important information is,you may start with research. This basic research will prove valuable as you prepare todemonstrate a match between your credentials and the position for which you areinterviewing. Research the Organization:To begin, you must research the company or agency to determine the nature of theorganization. The more that you know about the employer, the more comfortable you willfeel in the interview. A demonstrated knowledge of the organization will also helpconvince the interviewer of your interest. 8
  10. 10.  Sources of Information: There are a variety of resources that can be used to research organizations. Today all the good companies have their web site, which provide all the relevant information. You must visit the site of one of the competitors as well. Also, consider articles from trade publications, generally available through various sites of newspapers. Market Your Skills:After you have analyzed the position and researched the organization, you are now in aposition to review your qualifications for the position. Knowing what you have to offer iscrucial. Expressing yourself clearly and concisely is a key element of effectiveinterviewing. Self-assessment of your skills, interests, and work values will help youorganize your thoughts in order to project a positive impression. First Impression is the Effective Impression:You will not get a second chance to make a first impression when it comes to interviews.Your nonverbal skills and the manner in which you present yourself will be evaluated inaddition to your verbal responses to interview questions. Dressing:The way in which you dress for your interview will tell the employer about yourprofessional savvy and, in some cases, will be one of the factors an employer will takeinto account in evaluating you as a candidate. Also, by dressing professionally, you willappear more mature and seasoned; this will aid you as you may be competing with olderindividuals with more experience. Understand that you will probably dress moreprofessionally for an interview than may be required once you begin working in thatenvironment. Appropriate interview attire will vary by field. Women: White, off-white, or neutral-colored blouse with a conservative neckline Suit i.e. salawarkameez or saree is the right fit No ill fitting (short, tight, clingy, or slit) skirts Avoid open-toe strappy high heels, sandals, or shoes with decorations. Conservative nail polish, avoid unusual colors, e.g., blue or green 9
  11. 11.  Men: Long-sleeved shirt in white or light blue Conservative necktie in terms of color and pattern. Avoid cartoon characters, less- than-serious graphics, or theme ties High-fitting dark socks. Avoid light colored socks with a dark suit Tips of interviews: Shake hands firmly. Look the employer in the eye when you are talking. Speak clearly, dont mumble. If you need time to think before answering, take time. Stick to the subject at hand, which are the job and your skills related to it. Use the employers name, pronounce it correctly. Dont fidget in your seat and otherwise show nervousness with your body Dont take notes during the interview Dont complain about a former boss or co-worker. By complaining in this way, youre likely to make the employer think that you are hard to get along with. Dont ask about salaries, sick leaves, pensions, vacations, or benefits on the first interview. If you have specific qualifications for a job, be sure the employer knows about them. No one knows what you can do unless you tell him or her. Talk about school subjects and hobbies that you have done well in and which are related to the job for which you are applying. An employer may be interested in everything you can do, but will be most interested in your skills that relate to the job for which you are applying. Ask questions when you dont understand what the employer is talking about. You‟ll want to know as much about the job as you can and asking questions is the best way to find out. 10
  12. 12. Group discussion: Introduction:Group discussion is an articulation and views over a particular topic that has been givento a group of around 5-12people, within a set time limit. The word „discuss‟ has been derived from the Latin word „discutere‟ that means „toshake‟ or „strike‟. From the same root, the word „discussion‟ stands for an activity inwhich a theme/subject matter is thoroughly shaken, inquired or examination so as toreach a conclusion or decide upon a course of action. It is different from conversation anddebate. While a conversation usually becomes informal exchange of views or sentiments,a debate can be an acrimonious expression of arguments for or against a motion or agiven line of thinking. It is discussion that lies at the core of all purposeful meetings orthe decision making process. Types of GD: GDs can be topic-based or case-based. Topic based Gds can be classified into three types:- Factual Topics Controversial Topics Abstract Topics Factual Topics: - Factual topics are about practical things, which an ordinary person is aware of in his day-to-day life. Typically these are about socio-economic topics. These can be current, i.e. they may have been in the news lately, or could be unbound by time. A factual topic for discussion gives a candidate a chance to prove that he is aware of and sensitive to his environment. E.g. The education policy of India, Tourism in India, State of the aged in the nation Controversial Topics: - Controversial topics are the ones that are argumentative in nature. They are meant to generate controversy. In GDs where these topics are given for discussion, the noise level is usually high, there may be tempers flying. The idea behind giving a topic like this is to see how much maturity the candidate is displaying by keeping his temper in check, by rationally and logically arguing his point of view without getting personal 11
  13. 13. and emotional.Eg. Reservations should be removed, Women make better managers Abstract Topics: - Abstract topics are about intangible things. These topics are not given often for discussion, but their possibility cannot be ruled out. These topics test your lateral thinking and creativity. E.g. A is an alphabet, Twinkle twinkle little star. Case-based Gd: - Another variation is the use of a case instead of a topic. The case study tries to simulate a real-life situation. Information about the situation will be given to you and you would be asked as a group to resolve the situation. In the case study there are no incorrect answers or perfect solutions. The objective in the case study is to get you to think about the situation from various angles. IIM A, IIM Indore and IIT SOM Mumbai have a case-based discussion rather than topic-based discussion in their selection procedures. Four important components of Gd assessments are : Personality appeal Communication skills Knowledge Leadership  Personality appeal: Smartness – dress –smile on the face. Cheerfulness – free from nervousness. Enthusiasm - attitude of taking a step extra.  Communication skills. Fluency –not speed but poise and right words at the right place Clarity –effectiveness of the message Logic- the presentation skills 12
  14. 14.  Leadership:- Leadership has been described as the “process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". Other in-depth definitions of leadership have also emerged.  Knowledge: Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include information, facts, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic  Why do we have GD?Reasons for having a GD It helps you to understand a subject more deeply. It improves your ability to think critically. It helps in solving a particular problem. It helps the group to make a particular decision. It gives you the chance to hear other students ideas. It improves your listening skills. It increases your confidence in speaking. It can change your attitudes. WHY INSTITUTES CONDUCT A GD:How often have you called a friend in office to be told that he is in meeting? Institutesconduct a GD because, as amanager, you will be required to attend and conductinnumerable meeting. A GD is a stimulation of what you can expect in a meeting at yourworkplace. Depending on the kind of profile you have and the company you work for,you will be part of meeting ranging from brand launches and employee performanceappraisals to company financials, etc. for instance, if you have a meeting where senior 13
  15. 15. employees are working out a strategy to launch a new soap in the market, this is what isexpected of you before and during the meeting.The reason why institutes put you through a Group discussion and an interview, aftertesting your technical and conceptual skills in an exam, is to get to know you as a personand gauge how well you will fit in their institute. The Group discussion tests how youfunction as a part of a team. As a manager, you will always be working in teams, as amember or as a leader. Therefore how you interact in a team becomes an importantcriterion for your selection. Managers have to work in a team and get best results out ofteamwork. That is the reason why management institutes include GD as a component ofthe selection procedure.  10 simple rules to easily crack the GD:1) Keep eye contact while speaking: Do not look at the evaluators only. Keep eye contact with every team member while speaking.2) Initiate the GD: Initiating the GD is a big plus. But keep in mind – Initiate the group discussion only when you understood the GD topic clearly and have some topic knowledge. Speaking without proper subject knowledge is bad impression.3) Allow others to speak: Do not interrupt anyone in-between while speaking. Even if you don‟t agree with his/her thoughts do not snatch their chance to speak. Instead make some notes and clear the points when it‟s your turn.4) Speak clearly: Speak politely and clearly. Use simple and understandable words while speaking. Don‟t be too aggressive if you are disagreeing with someone. Express your feelings calmly and politely.5) Make sure to bring the discussion on track: If by any means group is distracting from the topic or goal then simply take initiative to bring the discussion on the track. Make all group members aware that you all need to come to some conclusion at the end of the discussion. So stick to the topic. 14
  16. 16. 6) Positive attitude: Be confident. Do not try to dominate anyone. Keep positive body language. Show interest in discussion.7) Speak sensibly: Do not speak just to increase your speaking time. Don‟t worry even if you speak less. Your thoughts should be sensible and relevant instead of irrelevant speech.8) Listen carefully to others: Speak less and listen more! Pay attention while others are speaking. This will make coherent discussion and you will get involved in the group positively. You will surely make people agree with you.9) No need to go into much details: Some basic subject analysis is sufficient. No need to mention exact figures while giving any reference. You have limited time so be precise and convey your thoughts in short and simple language.10) Formal dressing: Do not take it casually. No fancy and funny dressing. You should be comfortable while speaking in group. Positive gesture and body language will make your work easy Common mistakes made by the candidates: Every candidate must voice his opinion about the given topic, correctly and briefly. The candidate should not go on talking without giving others a chance to speak. One candidate should not speak than 3 times during a GD. It would appear that he/she wants to hog most of the limelight. The candidate should avoid trying to shout to be heard. Even if the topic is not known to the candidate, from other people‟s responses, he will be able to understand something and should then at least make a valid point. 15
  17. 17. The candidate should also avoid being negative about everything, putting down even good ideas of others, just to prove that only he is right. Thus to succeed in a GD one must be moderately forceful but polite, articulate, knowledgeable and try to motivate others to speak so that everyone‟s opinion can lead to a fruitful discussion. Factors of group discussion: The primary factor which determines the candidate‟s group-worthiness is his ability to fit into the group, to bind it together as a single entity and to influence the group towards the attainment of the group goals. The next important factor is the candidate‟s personal ability to do the bon in hand. We may even call it as one‟s professional efficiency and it includes his intelligence; physical fitness, problem solving faculty, dynamic qualities and the ability to communicate effectively. The third important factor concerns the candidate‟s ability to stand up to physical and mental stresses and difficulties. He should not wait and give way under stress or get upset. One the other hand, he should be able to remain balanced, calm and collected in the face of tremendous odds and stresses. There will be individual rivalries and differences of opinion, in the group. There will arise the conflict between the individual‟s self-interest and the group interest. In the face of such conflicts and difficulties, the candidate should not lose self- control. He should not get frustrated or give way to temper. Advantages Enhances learning in both the affective and cognitive domains Is both learner-centered and subject-centered. Stimulates learners to think about issues and problems. Encourages learners to exchanges their own experiences, Thereby making learning more active and less isolating. Provides the opportunity for sharing of ideas and concerns. Fosters positive peer support and feelings of belonging Reinforces previous learning.More simply:• Ideas can be generated.• Ideas can be shared.• Ideas can be tried out. 16
  18. 18. • Ideas can be responded to by others. Disadvantages : One member of the group can dominate the discussion. Easy to digress from the topic. Shy learners may refuse to become involved or may need a great deal of encouragement to participate. Requires skill to tactfully redirect learners who digress or dominate without losing their trust and that of other group members. Particularly challenging for the novice teacher when group members do not interact easily. More time consuming for the transmission of information than other methods such as lecture. Requires the teachers presence at all sessions to act as a facilitator and resource person 17
  19. 19. CONCLUSIONGroup discussion & Interview helps us to build our confidence as well as help us increaseour knowledge level. It is also used in our MBA examination to find out deservingcandidate. Even in interview group discussion is held to find eligible employee.REFERENCES:Books on Interview and group discussion.Various sites on internet, Wikepedia. 18