•Focus group interviews•Online focus group interviews•Depth interviews•Home interviews•Mall intercept personal interviews•Computer-assisted personal interviews•Mail method interviews•Electronic method interviews•Telephone methods
Focus group interviews•Obtaining a particular kind ofinformation•A focus group typically can bedefined as a group of people whopossess certain characteristics andprovide information of a qualitativenature in a focused discussion.• The main purpose of focus group isto gain insight by listening to a groupof people from the appropriate targetmarket talk about issues of interest tothe researcher.•The values of the technique lies inthe unexpected findings oftenobtained from a free-flowing groupdiscussion
Characteristics Group size 8 to 12 Group composition homogeneous Physical setting relaxed, informal atmosphere Time duration 1 to 3 hours Recording use of audiocassettes and videotapes Moderator observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator
Focus groups offer several advantages: Flexibility allows the moderator to probe for more in-depth analysis and ask participants to elaborate on their responses. Outcomes are quickly knownLimitations include: A skilled moderator is essential Differences between groups can be troublesome to analyse because of the qualitative nature of the data. Groups are difficult to assemble. People must take the time to come to a designated place at a particular time. Participants may be less candid in their responses in front of peers.
Guidelines for Conducting aFocus Group1. Develop the Discussion Guide Preparing the discussion guide, moderating, and preparing the report. What questions will be asked? Who will participate? Where will the discussions be held? Who will conduct the sessions? The first order of business is to develop a discussion guide.
2.Reserve a Time and Place Reserving a time and place to conduct the discussion is something that should be done well in advance of the actual date of the discussion sessions. Finding a location quickly will allow time to contact potential participants with the necessary logistical information. Try to find the most convenient and accessible location for the participants.
3.Provide an Incentive for Participation Incentive is provided to encourage participants Various forms of compensation can be used, most commonly a cash payment, lunch, or dinner. Snacks and beverages also may be provided.4.Selection of Focus Group Participants Good size common characteristics
Online focus group interviews•Participation is byinvitation• prerecruited , generallyfrom an online list people• Screening questionnaire• Receive time, a URL, roomname, and password viaemail id.•Four to six peopleparticipate in the onlinegroup.•Electronic emotion
Advantage People all over the country can participate. Geographical constraints are removed. Internet enables the researcher to reach segment that are usually hard to survey: doctors, lawyers professionals ,working mothers, and who lead busy lives and are not interested in focus group. Cost is much lower.Disadvantage Only people that have knowledge how to use a computer can be surveyed online. Moderator have no idea what else the respondents may be doing while participating in group. Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. Body language and facial expression, and tone of voice can not be obtained.
Depth interviews• Obtain deep insight about aconsumer’s attitudes andopinions.•Exploratory research•Formulation of a problemdefinition•Conducted with industry expertsor members of the target market•It is a loosely structured interview•It lasts from 10 to 30 minutes, butmay go longer.•Mode of conduct; face to face,telephone
• Start with general question to establish a relationship before continuing with questions searching for deeper insight or information These interviews have applications in both business to business and general consumer market research.
Advantage Uncover the greater depth of insights than focus group Exchange of the information Respond directly to the respondentsDisadvantage Expensive as skilled interviewers are called. Quality and competency of the result depends on the interviews’ skill.
Home interviewsIn personal home interviews, respondents are interviewed face to face in their homes. Interviewer’s task is to contact the respondents, ask the questions, and record the response. In recent years, the use of home interviews has declined due to its high cost.
Mall-intercept personalinterviews To meet target respondent in malls, in shops. The process involves stopping the shoppers, screening them for appropriateness, and either administering the survey on the spot or inviting them to a research facility located in the mall to complete the interviews.
Advantage More efficient for the respondent to come to the interviewers than for the interviewer to go the respondents. Product oriented approach interview.
Computer-assisted personalinterviewing (CAPI) Either the respondent or an interviewer sits at a computer terminal and answers a questionnaire using the keyboard or mouse. Colorful screens and on and off-screen stimuli can add to the respondents interest and involvement in the task. This method has been classified as a personal interview technique since an interviewer is usually present to serve as a host and to guide the respondent. This approach is used in shopping malls, preceded by the intercept and screening process. It is also used to conduct business-to-business research at trade shows or conventions.
Advantages This form of interview is substantially cheaper when a large number of respondents is required, because There is no need to recruit or pay interviewers. The program can be placed on a web site, potentially attracting a world- wide audienceDisadvantage He survey is likely to attract only respondents who are "computer savvy", thus introducing potential bias to the survey. The survey can miss feedback, provide clarification/quality control that a personal interviewer could provide.
Mail method interviews In mail interviews questionnaire are mailed to preselected potential respondent. A typical mail interview package consists of the outgoing envelope, cover letter, questionnaire, return envelope, and possibly an incentive. The respondent complete and return the questionnaires. There is no verbal interaction between researcher and respondent. However, before data collection can begins, the respondents needs to be identified. Therefore, an initial task is to be obtaining a valid mailing list. Mailing list can be compiled from telephone directories, customer association and any other publication list of any company.
Electronic method interviews1. E-mail interviewsTo conduct email an e-mail interview, a list of e-mail address is obtained. The survey is written with in the body of the e-mail message. The e-mails are sent over the internet. E-mail surveys use pure text to represent questionnaire and can be received and respondent to by anyone with an e-mail address, Whether or not they have access to the web.
Telephone methods1.Traditional telephone interviews Traditional telephonic interviews involve phoning a sample of respondents and asking them a series of questions. The interviewer uses a paper questionnaire and records the responses with pencil. Advances in the telecommunication and technology have made national wide telephone interviewing from the central location practical. Consequently, the use of telephone interviewing has decreased in recent years.
2.Computer – Assisted Telephone interviewing Central location A computerized questionnaire The interviewer sits in front of computer terminal and wear a mini –headset the computer replace a paper and pencil questionnaire and mini-head set substitute the telephone. Upon command, the computer dials the telephone number to be called. When contact is made, the interviewer reads the question posed on the computer screen and records the respondents answer directly in to the memory of computer. The computer systematically guides the interviewer. Only one question at a time appears on the screen. The computer checks the response for appropriateness and consistency.
Advantage Smoothly function Data quality enhance Time is reduced