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Handling displacement
effects in on-body sensor-
based activity recognition
IWAAL 2013, San José (Costa Rica)
Oresti Baños, Miguel Damas, Héctor Pomares, and Ignacio Rojas
Department of Computer Architecture and Computer Technology, CITIC-UGR,
University of Granada, SPAIN
oresti@ugr.es
DG-Research Grant #228398
Context
• On-body activity recognition is becoming true…
– Portable/Wearable
– Unobtrusive
– Fashionable
2
Context
• On-body activity recognition is becoming true… Really?
– Reliability
• Different performance depending on who uses the system (age,
height, gender,…) and due to people changes during the lifelong use
(conditions, ageing,…)  Reliable? Perdurable?
– Usability/Applicability
• Application-specific systems require to put on several diverse
systems to provide different functionalities  Portable?
Unobtrusive? Fashionable? Tractable?
– Robustness
• Sensor anomalies (decalibration, loose of attachment,
displacement,…)  Robust?
3
Problem statement
Collect a
training
dataset
Train and test
the model
The AR system
is “ready”
4
Problem statement
INVARIANT SENSOR SETUP  (IDEALLY) GOOD RECOGNITION
5
Problem statement
SENSOR SETUP CHANGES  RECOGNITION PERFORMANCE MAY DROP
6
Concept of sensor displacement
• Categories of sensor displacement
– Static: position changes can remain static across the execution of many activity
instances, e.g. when sensors are attached with a displacement each day
– Dynamic: effect of loose fitting of the sensors, e.g. when attached to cloths
• Sensor displacement  new sensor position  signal space change
• Sensor displacement effect depends on
– Original/end position and body part
– Activity/gestures/movements performed
– Sensor modality (ACC, GYR, MAG)
7
Sensor displacement = rotation + translation
(angular displacement) (linear displacement)
Sensor displacement effects
Changes in the signal
space forward
propagates on the
activity recognition
process (e.g., variations
in the feature space)
RCIDEAL LCIDEAL= LCSELF
8
RCSELF
Dealing with sensor displacement: Feature Fusion
9
Dealing with sensor displacement: Decision Fusion
10
Multi-Sensor Hierarchical Classifier
11
SM
S2
S1
α11
∑
C12
C1N
C11
∑
C21
C22
C2N
∑
CM1
CM2
CMN
∑
Decision
Class level Source level Fusion
β11
α12
β12
α1N
β1N
α21
β21
α22
β22
α2N
β2N
αM1
βM1
αM2
βM2
αMN
βMN
γ11,…,1N
δ11,…,1N
γ21,…,2N
δ21,…,2N
γM1,…,MN
δM1,…,MN
[-0.14,3.41,4,21,…,6.11]
[-0.84,3.21,4.21,…,6.11]
[-0.81,5.71,4.21,…,6.22]
[-0.14,3.92,4.23,…,7.82]
S1
S2
SM
u1 p1 s11,s12,…,s1k fℝ(s11,s12,…,s1k)
u2 p2 s21,s22,…,s2k fℝ(s21,s22,…,s2k)
uM pM sM1,sM2,…,sMk fℝ(sM1,sM2,…,sMk)
O. Banos, M. Damas, H. Pomares, F. Rojas, B. Delgado-Marquez, and O. Valenzuela. Human activity recognition
based on a sensor weighting hierarchical classifier. Soft Computing, 17:333-343, 2013.
Study of sensor displacement effects
• Analyze
– Variability introduced by sensors self-positioning with respect to an ideal
setup
– Effects of large sensor displacements (extreme de-positioning)
– Robustness of sensor fusion to displacement
• Scenarios
– Ideal-placement
– Self-placement
– Induced-displacement
Ideal Self Induced
12
O. Banos, M. Damas, H. Pomares, I. Rojas, M. Attila Toth, and O. Amft.
A benchmark dataset to evaluate sensor displacement in activity
recognition. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on
Ubiquitous Computing, pages 1026-1035, New York, NY, USA, 2012.
Dataset: activity set
• Activities intended for:
– Body-general motion: Translation | Jumps | Fitness
– Body-part-specific motion: Trunk | Upper-extremities | Lower-extremities
13
Dataset: Study setup
• Cardio-fitness room
• 9 IMUs (XSENS)  ACC, GYR, MAG
• Laptop  data storage and labeling
• Camera  offline data validation
http://crnt.sourceforge.net/CRN_Toolbox/Home.html14
Dataset: Experimental protocol
• Scenario description
• Protocol
Round Sensor Deployment #subjects #anomalous
sensors
1st Self-placement 17 3/9
2nd Ideal-placement 17 0/9
- Mutual-displacement 3 {4,5,6 or 7}/9
15
Preparation phase
(sensor positioning &
wiring, Xsens-Laptop
bluetooth connection,
camera set up)
Exercises execution
(20 times/1 min. each)
Battery replacement,
data downloading
Data postprocessing
(relabeling, visual
inspection,
evaluation)
Round
Experimental setup
• Data considerations
– Data domain: ACC, GYR, MAG
and combinations (ACC-GYR,
ACC-MAG, GYR-MAG,
ACC-GYR-MAG)
– ALL sensors
• Activity recognition methods
– No preprocessing
– Segmentation: 6 seconds
sliding window
– Features: MEAN, STD, MAX,
MIN, MCR
– Reasoner: C4.5 decision tree
16
• Sensor displacement scenarios
– Ideal (no displacement)
– Self (3 out of all sensors)
– Induced (7 out of all sensors)
• Evaluation
– Ideal: 5-fold cross validation,
100 times
– Self/Mutual: tested on a
system trained on ideal-
placement data
Fusion systems performance
17
Feature Fusion Decision Fusion
(MSHC)
Fusion systems performance
18
40% 30%15% 20% 40% 15% 35% 20%15% 15% 15%10%5% 10%
Feature Fusion Decision Fusion
(MSHC)
Fusion systems performance
19
60%
45%25% 50%
55%
35% 45% 35%30% 55% 35%30%10% 30%
Feature Fusion Decision Fusion
(MSHC)
Conclusions and final remarks
• Sensor anomalies (here displacement) may seriously damage the
performance of activity recognition systems, especially single sensor
based systems
• Sensor fusion is proposed to deal with these anomalies
• Feature fusion approaches (the most widely used) has been
demonstrated to be very sensitive to sensor displacement
• Decision fusion cope much better with the effects of sensor
displacement, even when a majority of the sensors are highly de-
positioned
• From the analyzed sensor magnitudes, GYR outstands as the most
robust modality to displacement with a performance drop of less than
5% for the self-placement scenario and 10% for the extreme
displacement 20
Thank you for your attention.
Questions?
Oresti Baños Legrán
Dep. Computer Architecture & Computer Technology
Faculty of Computer & Electrical Engineering (ETSIIT)
University of Granada, Granada (SPAIN)
Email: oresti@ugr.es
Phone: +34 958 241 778
Fax: +34 958 248 993
Work supported in part by the HPC-Europa2 project funded by the European Commission - DG Research in the Seventh Framework Programme
under grant agreement no. 228398 and the FPU Spanish grant AP2009-2244. 21

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Handling displacement effects in on-body sensor-based activity recognition

  • 1. Handling displacement effects in on-body sensor- based activity recognition IWAAL 2013, San José (Costa Rica) Oresti Baños, Miguel Damas, Héctor Pomares, and Ignacio Rojas Department of Computer Architecture and Computer Technology, CITIC-UGR, University of Granada, SPAIN oresti@ugr.es DG-Research Grant #228398
  • 2. Context • On-body activity recognition is becoming true… – Portable/Wearable – Unobtrusive – Fashionable 2
  • 3. Context • On-body activity recognition is becoming true… Really? – Reliability • Different performance depending on who uses the system (age, height, gender,…) and due to people changes during the lifelong use (conditions, ageing,…)  Reliable? Perdurable? – Usability/Applicability • Application-specific systems require to put on several diverse systems to provide different functionalities  Portable? Unobtrusive? Fashionable? Tractable? – Robustness • Sensor anomalies (decalibration, loose of attachment, displacement,…)  Robust? 3
  • 4. Problem statement Collect a training dataset Train and test the model The AR system is “ready” 4
  • 5. Problem statement INVARIANT SENSOR SETUP  (IDEALLY) GOOD RECOGNITION 5
  • 6. Problem statement SENSOR SETUP CHANGES  RECOGNITION PERFORMANCE MAY DROP 6
  • 7. Concept of sensor displacement • Categories of sensor displacement – Static: position changes can remain static across the execution of many activity instances, e.g. when sensors are attached with a displacement each day – Dynamic: effect of loose fitting of the sensors, e.g. when attached to cloths • Sensor displacement  new sensor position  signal space change • Sensor displacement effect depends on – Original/end position and body part – Activity/gestures/movements performed – Sensor modality (ACC, GYR, MAG) 7 Sensor displacement = rotation + translation (angular displacement) (linear displacement)
  • 8. Sensor displacement effects Changes in the signal space forward propagates on the activity recognition process (e.g., variations in the feature space) RCIDEAL LCIDEAL= LCSELF 8 RCSELF
  • 9. Dealing with sensor displacement: Feature Fusion 9
  • 10. Dealing with sensor displacement: Decision Fusion 10
  • 11. Multi-Sensor Hierarchical Classifier 11 SM S2 S1 α11 ∑ C12 C1N C11 ∑ C21 C22 C2N ∑ CM1 CM2 CMN ∑ Decision Class level Source level Fusion β11 α12 β12 α1N β1N α21 β21 α22 β22 α2N β2N αM1 βM1 αM2 βM2 αMN βMN γ11,…,1N δ11,…,1N γ21,…,2N δ21,…,2N γM1,…,MN δM1,…,MN [-0.14,3.41,4,21,…,6.11] [-0.84,3.21,4.21,…,6.11] [-0.81,5.71,4.21,…,6.22] [-0.14,3.92,4.23,…,7.82] S1 S2 SM u1 p1 s11,s12,…,s1k fℝ(s11,s12,…,s1k) u2 p2 s21,s22,…,s2k fℝ(s21,s22,…,s2k) uM pM sM1,sM2,…,sMk fℝ(sM1,sM2,…,sMk) O. Banos, M. Damas, H. Pomares, F. Rojas, B. Delgado-Marquez, and O. Valenzuela. Human activity recognition based on a sensor weighting hierarchical classifier. Soft Computing, 17:333-343, 2013.
  • 12. Study of sensor displacement effects • Analyze – Variability introduced by sensors self-positioning with respect to an ideal setup – Effects of large sensor displacements (extreme de-positioning) – Robustness of sensor fusion to displacement • Scenarios – Ideal-placement – Self-placement – Induced-displacement Ideal Self Induced 12 O. Banos, M. Damas, H. Pomares, I. Rojas, M. Attila Toth, and O. Amft. A benchmark dataset to evaluate sensor displacement in activity recognition. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, pages 1026-1035, New York, NY, USA, 2012.
  • 13. Dataset: activity set • Activities intended for: – Body-general motion: Translation | Jumps | Fitness – Body-part-specific motion: Trunk | Upper-extremities | Lower-extremities 13
  • 14. Dataset: Study setup • Cardio-fitness room • 9 IMUs (XSENS)  ACC, GYR, MAG • Laptop  data storage and labeling • Camera  offline data validation http://crnt.sourceforge.net/CRN_Toolbox/Home.html14
  • 15. Dataset: Experimental protocol • Scenario description • Protocol Round Sensor Deployment #subjects #anomalous sensors 1st Self-placement 17 3/9 2nd Ideal-placement 17 0/9 - Mutual-displacement 3 {4,5,6 or 7}/9 15 Preparation phase (sensor positioning & wiring, Xsens-Laptop bluetooth connection, camera set up) Exercises execution (20 times/1 min. each) Battery replacement, data downloading Data postprocessing (relabeling, visual inspection, evaluation) Round
  • 16. Experimental setup • Data considerations – Data domain: ACC, GYR, MAG and combinations (ACC-GYR, ACC-MAG, GYR-MAG, ACC-GYR-MAG) – ALL sensors • Activity recognition methods – No preprocessing – Segmentation: 6 seconds sliding window – Features: MEAN, STD, MAX, MIN, MCR – Reasoner: C4.5 decision tree 16 • Sensor displacement scenarios – Ideal (no displacement) – Self (3 out of all sensors) – Induced (7 out of all sensors) • Evaluation – Ideal: 5-fold cross validation, 100 times – Self/Mutual: tested on a system trained on ideal- placement data
  • 17. Fusion systems performance 17 Feature Fusion Decision Fusion (MSHC)
  • 18. Fusion systems performance 18 40% 30%15% 20% 40% 15% 35% 20%15% 15% 15%10%5% 10% Feature Fusion Decision Fusion (MSHC)
  • 19. Fusion systems performance 19 60% 45%25% 50% 55% 35% 45% 35%30% 55% 35%30%10% 30% Feature Fusion Decision Fusion (MSHC)
  • 20. Conclusions and final remarks • Sensor anomalies (here displacement) may seriously damage the performance of activity recognition systems, especially single sensor based systems • Sensor fusion is proposed to deal with these anomalies • Feature fusion approaches (the most widely used) has been demonstrated to be very sensitive to sensor displacement • Decision fusion cope much better with the effects of sensor displacement, even when a majority of the sensors are highly de- positioned • From the analyzed sensor magnitudes, GYR outstands as the most robust modality to displacement with a performance drop of less than 5% for the self-placement scenario and 10% for the extreme displacement 20
  • 21. Thank you for your attention. Questions? Oresti Baños Legrán Dep. Computer Architecture & Computer Technology Faculty of Computer & Electrical Engineering (ETSIIT) University of Granada, Granada (SPAIN) Email: oresti@ugr.es Phone: +34 958 241 778 Fax: +34 958 248 993 Work supported in part by the HPC-Europa2 project funded by the European Commission - DG Research in the Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 228398 and the FPU Spanish grant AP2009-2244. 21