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Assignment 9: opening sequence
           analysis.
             Rosie
             Helen
            Marisha
Task 1              Task 2      Task 3
Marisha   Purpose/conventio   MES         Barthes
          ns

Helen     CAM SAM             sound       Levis –Straus


Rosie     Editing             narrative   Allan Cameron
Gattaca
              Film details

  Genre:      Sci-fi, drama romance




  Year:       1997




  Director:   Andrew Niccol




  Main      Uma Thurman
  character Jude Law
  s:        Ethan Hawke
Film: Gattaca
Genre: sci-fi drama romance
The Purpose and conventions
• The purpose of the opening sequence of
  Gattaca is to create an enigma as to what the
  character is doing and why is he doing it.

• Only up and till the end the audience is able
  to understand his actions.
Representation
         Extreme close         The
         up of hair, this is   representatio
         shot is used to       n of this is
         create an             that this male
         enigma to what        character is
         it is.                trying to
                               remove his
         Close up shot         identity by
         of hair, this         removing all
         time the              these things
         audience is           that contain
         able to               his DNA.
         recognise
         what is.
Camera shots
Close ups –Shot                  Extreme close up- Establishing                               Purpose
Shot-establishing shot gives you a idea of where the location is. OrShot scene is being set
                                 Shot                               where

                                 Shot –close up
Close upup usually focuses on a subject or a persons whole head in one frame.
    Close usually          Extreme close up                 Shot-establishing        -no mid shots or
             They used this shot to show main character emotion.
 focuses on a              are shot to show             shot gives you a             long shots
 subject or a              specific detail, up
                             Shot –extreme close        idea of where the            To create enigma
Extreme closewhole
 persons up are shot to show specific detail, emotionemotion of a particular thing .
                           reaction or reaction or location is. Or where and mystery also
 head in one frame. of a particular thing scene is being set.                        the character face
                           .                                                         is always hidden
                                                                                     which create
                                                                                     enigma .
                                                                                     The extreme
                                                                                     close –ups are
                                                                                     done to hide the
                                                                                     identity of the
                                                                                     character in order
                                                                                     to reflect what the
                           Showing in detail of                                      film is about –
                           what he is doing .                                        Hidden identity.

They used this
Camera angles
Point of view /high angle
• A point of view shot is positioned
   between a shot and a object or
   subject to show what the
   character is looking at.



•   This is done in this shot to show
    what the character is reaching out
    to get .This shot represents his
    eyes.



Canted angle –this is camera angle
  which is deliberately slanted to
  one side.
• This is used in this scene for a
  dramatic effect to portray dramatic
Camera movement




Tracking movement
• A tracking shot is a movement perpendicular to the camera lens axis.
• This is done in the sequence to slow steady motion of the long strand
   of hair in detail on the grand .
Special effects
• Colour
• Looks like this has been saturated make it look
  more like a early hours of the morning scene
  or mid day scene. This effect is used to make it
  look like a sunny bright day.
Mis-En-Scene : lighting
• Lighting
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate
application of light to achieve some practical or
visual effect.
The different types of lighting:

• The different types of lighting:
1. Natural lighting – is from a natural source
   such as fire or sun.
2. Available lighting – is natural occurring light
   on set.
3. Artificial light – not provided by natural or
   available source such as fire or the sun and it
   is man made.
Mis-En-Scene : lighting


                  Lighting in these
                  scenes determine
                  a mood of calm
                  and relaxation.




               In this scene it uses
               sepia which sets a
               warm, calming and
               bright mood.
MES – Characters (costume/prop/makeup/body
                   lang. etc.)
                Dressed in a robe (costume)




                  Shows character using a bag of urine strapped to
                  his thigh (prop)




                  Syringe (prop) used to inject blood into finger prints.




                 Close up shot of character using a razor (prop)



                  Bag of bloods (prop) preserved in a fridge.
Cont.
                       Character is using a paintbrush
                       to securely place the finger
                       print of someone else’s over
                       his finger print.

                       Microscope, lamp, table and
                       office chair (props)




                                             Test tubes filled with
                                             dark liquid




Random jars filled with a
substance
Editing
•   Diegesis
•   Continuity editing
•   Pace
•   Time allocation
•   Text/Titles
•   Transitions
Diegesis
Diegesis – the internal world that the characters themselves experience.




                                                        The characters
                                                        home.




                                                        The character in his
                                                        car.




                                                        The character’s
                                                        workplace.
Continuity editing
 •   Continuity editing – makes the scene look continuous


In this shot the
man is wearing
a white robe.




                                                            In the next shot the
                                                            man is wearing the
                                                            same robe.
Pace
•   Slow pace – cuts are longer + not many shots
•   Medium pace – average number of shots
•   Fast pace – cuts are short + lots of shots



                                                         The pace in
                                                         this clip is slow
                                                         and this is to
                                                         create a calm
                                                         yet
                                                         suspenseful
                                                         atmosphere.

                                                   This shot in the clip
                                                   lasts for about 11
                                                   seconds.
Time allocation
                                       At the beginning about 17
                                       seconds are used to show
                                       these two quotes, which
                                       could mean they are
                                       important in understanding
                                       the movie.




The credits take about 1
minute and 32 seconds
and mention most of the
main characters.
Text/Titles
• The text fades in and out
Text/Titles

When the names appear there are
  letters which appear faster and
  more bright than the rest.

These letters are ‘G’, ’A’, ’T’ and ‘C’
   which also make up the name of
   the film ‘Gattaca’.


  These letters also appear in
  a different font than the
  rest of the letters that make
  up the name.
Transitions
• Fade in/out
• Overlap/Dissolve
Fade in/out
Fade in/out – one shot gets lighter or darker. Lighter = fade in. Darker = fade
out.




      This shot is an example of a fade out.
Overlap/ dissolve
    •   This is where one shot overlaps another – as we can see in this shot we can see
        the character in the background and the new shot coming through.




Old shot                                                                           New shot
Sound
Non –diegetic
• At the beginning of the sequence non diagetic sounds
  stats off very calm and relaxed
• It then gradually builds tension
• Instrument used sound like a piano(intense soft music)
  playing throughout.


Diegetic
• halfway through the sequence I could hear diagetic
  sounds of him shaving his hair off his skin
• There was diagetic sounds of him washing himself
• There was also sound of the shower
Sound
• Score (music)- music arranged and played
  specifically for the open sequence. The
  purpose is to sets mood and atmospheres
  to the scene.
• Volume control –the control of how quite or
  loud sound is this is set to emphasize
  mood/atmosphere in the opening
  sequence of gattca
Special effects
• Colour
• Looks like this has been saturated make it
  look more like a early hours of the morning
  scene or mid day scene. This effect is
  used to make it look like a sunny bright
  day.
Narrative
• This narrative is restricted and unrestricted. This is because it does
  give the audience information about who is in the film and who
  created it, but it doesn't give any information as to what the film is
  about.

• The narrative depth is subjective in this opening sequence as we
  do not see anything in the characters point of view and towards the
  end of the clip we see other characters.

• There are enigmas within the opening sequence which are:
  Who is the man and what is he doing?
  Why was he removing traces of his identity?
  What was he burning and why?
Narrative theory :
                        Barthes
•Barthe says that the audiences experiences of narrative involves
anticipation and experience.

•Barthe identified this by codes:
•Enigma code
•Action code
•Semantic code
•Symbolic code
•Cultural code.
Narrative Theory
• Enigma code (Barthes Theory) is used in the
  opening sequence of Gattaca as narrative is
  set as a puzzle/mystery as they are extreme
  close ups.




This may allow the audience to feel puzzled
because of the characters actions.
Cont.



Furthermore, at the beginning of the opening
sequence it poses a bible verse and a quote.
  - creates more mystery
  - makes the audience wonder whether it has any
relation to the film.
Levi-Strauss
• Levi-Strauss theory
   talks about our world is
   described in binary
   opposites .When we
   look at themes within
   stories and real life we
   realise they consist            In this place the
   differences.                    lighting is much
 Good         Bad                  darker and isolated.
Night        Day
Male         Female uyiiy87uo
Dark         Light



                                In this place the lighting is
                                much more brighter.
Narrative theory:
              Allan Cameron
•Allan Cameron identified four types of modular
narratives which are:
• Forking path
• Episodic
• Anachronic
• Split screen
Cameron’s theory in relation to Gattaca
                Forking path      Episodic                       Anachronic        Split screen

Does this       No                Yes and No                     No                No
apply to the
sequence?                         Abstract.

Explanation:    There is no       There are different shots      There are no      There is no split
                alternative to    without the character in it.   flashbacks or     screen in the
                the story shown                                  flash forwards.   opening
                in the opening                                                     sequence.
                sequence.
Evidence        none                                             none              none

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Assignment 9 draft 2 from helen;)

  • 1. Assignment 9: opening sequence analysis. Rosie Helen Marisha
  • 2. Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Marisha Purpose/conventio MES Barthes ns Helen CAM SAM sound Levis –Straus Rosie Editing narrative Allan Cameron
  • 3. Gattaca Film details Genre: Sci-fi, drama romance Year: 1997 Director: Andrew Niccol Main Uma Thurman character Jude Law s: Ethan Hawke
  • 5. The Purpose and conventions • The purpose of the opening sequence of Gattaca is to create an enigma as to what the character is doing and why is he doing it. • Only up and till the end the audience is able to understand his actions.
  • 6. Representation Extreme close The up of hair, this is representatio shot is used to n of this is create an that this male enigma to what character is it is. trying to remove his Close up shot identity by of hair, this removing all time the these things audience is that contain able to his DNA. recognise what is.
  • 7. Camera shots Close ups –Shot Extreme close up- Establishing Purpose Shot-establishing shot gives you a idea of where the location is. OrShot scene is being set Shot where Shot –close up Close upup usually focuses on a subject or a persons whole head in one frame. Close usually Extreme close up Shot-establishing -no mid shots or They used this shot to show main character emotion. focuses on a are shot to show shot gives you a long shots subject or a specific detail, up Shot –extreme close idea of where the To create enigma Extreme closewhole persons up are shot to show specific detail, emotionemotion of a particular thing . reaction or reaction or location is. Or where and mystery also head in one frame. of a particular thing scene is being set. the character face . is always hidden which create enigma . The extreme close –ups are done to hide the identity of the character in order to reflect what the Showing in detail of film is about – what he is doing . Hidden identity. They used this
  • 8. Camera angles Point of view /high angle • A point of view shot is positioned between a shot and a object or subject to show what the character is looking at. • This is done in this shot to show what the character is reaching out to get .This shot represents his eyes. Canted angle –this is camera angle which is deliberately slanted to one side. • This is used in this scene for a dramatic effect to portray dramatic
  • 9. Camera movement Tracking movement • A tracking shot is a movement perpendicular to the camera lens axis. • This is done in the sequence to slow steady motion of the long strand of hair in detail on the grand .
  • 10. Special effects • Colour • Looks like this has been saturated make it look more like a early hours of the morning scene or mid day scene. This effect is used to make it look like a sunny bright day.
  • 11. Mis-En-Scene : lighting • Lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate application of light to achieve some practical or visual effect.
  • 12. The different types of lighting: • The different types of lighting: 1. Natural lighting – is from a natural source such as fire or sun. 2. Available lighting – is natural occurring light on set. 3. Artificial light – not provided by natural or available source such as fire or the sun and it is man made.
  • 13. Mis-En-Scene : lighting Lighting in these scenes determine a mood of calm and relaxation. In this scene it uses sepia which sets a warm, calming and bright mood.
  • 14. MES – Characters (costume/prop/makeup/body lang. etc.) Dressed in a robe (costume) Shows character using a bag of urine strapped to his thigh (prop) Syringe (prop) used to inject blood into finger prints. Close up shot of character using a razor (prop) Bag of bloods (prop) preserved in a fridge.
  • 15. Cont. Character is using a paintbrush to securely place the finger print of someone else’s over his finger print. Microscope, lamp, table and office chair (props) Test tubes filled with dark liquid Random jars filled with a substance
  • 16. Editing • Diegesis • Continuity editing • Pace • Time allocation • Text/Titles • Transitions
  • 17. Diegesis Diegesis – the internal world that the characters themselves experience. The characters home. The character in his car. The character’s workplace.
  • 18. Continuity editing • Continuity editing – makes the scene look continuous In this shot the man is wearing a white robe. In the next shot the man is wearing the same robe.
  • 19. Pace • Slow pace – cuts are longer + not many shots • Medium pace – average number of shots • Fast pace – cuts are short + lots of shots The pace in this clip is slow and this is to create a calm yet suspenseful atmosphere. This shot in the clip lasts for about 11 seconds.
  • 20. Time allocation At the beginning about 17 seconds are used to show these two quotes, which could mean they are important in understanding the movie. The credits take about 1 minute and 32 seconds and mention most of the main characters.
  • 21. Text/Titles • The text fades in and out
  • 22. Text/Titles When the names appear there are letters which appear faster and more bright than the rest. These letters are ‘G’, ’A’, ’T’ and ‘C’ which also make up the name of the film ‘Gattaca’. These letters also appear in a different font than the rest of the letters that make up the name.
  • 24. Fade in/out Fade in/out – one shot gets lighter or darker. Lighter = fade in. Darker = fade out. This shot is an example of a fade out.
  • 25. Overlap/ dissolve • This is where one shot overlaps another – as we can see in this shot we can see the character in the background and the new shot coming through. Old shot New shot
  • 26. Sound Non –diegetic • At the beginning of the sequence non diagetic sounds stats off very calm and relaxed • It then gradually builds tension • Instrument used sound like a piano(intense soft music) playing throughout. Diegetic • halfway through the sequence I could hear diagetic sounds of him shaving his hair off his skin • There was diagetic sounds of him washing himself • There was also sound of the shower
  • 27. Sound • Score (music)- music arranged and played specifically for the open sequence. The purpose is to sets mood and atmospheres to the scene. • Volume control –the control of how quite or loud sound is this is set to emphasize mood/atmosphere in the opening sequence of gattca
  • 28. Special effects • Colour • Looks like this has been saturated make it look more like a early hours of the morning scene or mid day scene. This effect is used to make it look like a sunny bright day.
  • 29. Narrative • This narrative is restricted and unrestricted. This is because it does give the audience information about who is in the film and who created it, but it doesn't give any information as to what the film is about. • The narrative depth is subjective in this opening sequence as we do not see anything in the characters point of view and towards the end of the clip we see other characters. • There are enigmas within the opening sequence which are: Who is the man and what is he doing? Why was he removing traces of his identity? What was he burning and why?
  • 30. Narrative theory : Barthes •Barthe says that the audiences experiences of narrative involves anticipation and experience. •Barthe identified this by codes: •Enigma code •Action code •Semantic code •Symbolic code •Cultural code.
  • 31. Narrative Theory • Enigma code (Barthes Theory) is used in the opening sequence of Gattaca as narrative is set as a puzzle/mystery as they are extreme close ups. This may allow the audience to feel puzzled because of the characters actions.
  • 32. Cont. Furthermore, at the beginning of the opening sequence it poses a bible verse and a quote. - creates more mystery - makes the audience wonder whether it has any relation to the film.
  • 33. Levi-Strauss • Levi-Strauss theory talks about our world is described in binary opposites .When we look at themes within stories and real life we realise they consist In this place the differences. lighting is much Good Bad darker and isolated. Night Day Male Female uyiiy87uo Dark Light In this place the lighting is much more brighter.
  • 34. Narrative theory: Allan Cameron •Allan Cameron identified four types of modular narratives which are: • Forking path • Episodic • Anachronic • Split screen
  • 35. Cameron’s theory in relation to Gattaca Forking path Episodic Anachronic Split screen Does this No Yes and No No No apply to the sequence? Abstract. Explanation: There is no There are different shots There are no There is no split alternative to without the character in it. flashbacks or screen in the the story shown flash forwards. opening in the opening sequence. sequence. Evidence none none none