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An introduction to
3D Printing
Charlie Bess, P.E.
Sun City Hilton Head – Woodworking Guild
A version of these slides is available at:
https://www.slideshare.net/cebess/an-introduction-to-3d-printing 1
What We’ll Be Covering Today
• Flexible manufacturing
• 3D printing history
• 3D printing techniques
• Current consumer printers
• Free 3D design software
• 3D model repositories
• Woodworking related examples
• Printing some things…
2
AdditiveSubtractive
Flexible Manufacturing
or Digital Fabrication
3
Subtractive manufacturing
CNC machine
4
3D printing Additive Manufacturing where you join successive layers of a
material to create an object, based on a 3D model
Additive manufacturing
5
The “idea” of 3D printing has existed for centuries,
millennia maybe. If you look at how ancient Greeks
built columns and you can see a similar application.
The idea has been around for a long time
6
3D printing is changing the world
• Medical devices
• Product prototyping
• Historic Preservation
• Architectural Engineering Construction
• Advanced Manufacturing
• Food Industries
• Automotive and Aerospace
• Accessories
7
Numerous ways to 3D print
• Extrusion Deposit
• Vat Photopolymerization
• Material Jetting
• Binder Jetting
• Powder Bed Fusion or Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
• Sheet Lamination
• Directed Energy Deposition
8
Binder jettingSLS
Vat Photopolymerization
Extrusion deposit
For consumer 3D printers, a plastic
filament is forced through a heated
extruder, to lay down a layer of molten
plastic that quickly hardens into a solid.
9
Consumer extrusion materials
 acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
 polylactic acid (PLA)
 high-impact polystyrene (HIPS)
 thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)
 aliphatic polyamides (nylon),
 Polyether ether ketone (PEEK)
 paste-like materials (ceramic, chocolate, wood, concrete …)
With new ones being released all the time
10
Consumer 3D printer characteristics
There are a number of options and features in printers:
 Bed size/print area – defines how large a print you can make
 Heated bed – determines what types of material you can print
 Hot end temperature range – determines what types of material you can print
 Enclosures – helps contain fumes and limit temperature variation
 Axis movement precision – defines how accurately you can print
11
Consumer 3D printers
 MakerBot
 PrintrBot
 Ultimaker
 XYZprinting
And more all the time…
12
Steps involved in 3D printing
1. Create (or find) a CAD Model
2. Save the model into a STL (STereoLithography) file
3. Validate the model (optional, but encouraged)
4. Slice it into layers, usually producing G-code
5. Send the data to the printer and print you model
Next, we’ll walk quickly through these steps
13
Modeling software (free)
 Windows 10 comes with:
 3D builder
 Paint 3D
 SketchUp
 PC based
 Browser based: https://app.sketchup.com/
 DesignSpark: https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/our-software
 An easy to use, profession CAD solution
 Blender: https://www.blender.org
 And there are also design verification and cleanup options:
https://tools3d.azurewebsites.net/
https://makeprintable.com/ 14
A SketchUp model of a
woodworking project
3D Builder
Model of an F-35
for the new
railroad layout.
Note: the original model
was too large for my 3D
printer, so I cut it in half.
15
SketchUp
16
A chess set designed in
SketchUp.
Note: SketchUp has capabilities to
create objects by spinning a model
around an axis. This may be useful for
lathe model creation.
Sorry about the Knight!
Repositories
 www.thingiverse.com (shown here)
 www.pinshape.com
 www.youmagine.com
 www.grabcad.com/library
There is also a repository (3D
Warehouse) built into SketchUp
17
Printer driver software (free)
 Main elements:
 Slicer – converts the 3D model into layers so they can be printed
 Monitoring – displays the state of the printer
 Driver – sends the Gcode to the printer
 Software I’ve tried:
 Repetier Host - https://www.repetier-server.com/
 Cura - https://ultimaker.com/en/products/ultimaker-cura-software
 3D Builder – comes with Windows creator edition
18
Repetier
19
Tail section of the
F35 model for the railroad
group, mentioned earlier.
Note: Support material is needed to
support the model. This extra
material breaks away after the print
is complete.
Cura
20
Nose section of the
F35 model mentioned earlier.
Note: Since there is no support material
generated, there is little printed material in
contact with the print bed. It will likely be
knocked off during the printing process. In
most tools, there is an option in the slicer
to generate supports.
Printing services
You don’t need to be able to print in all materials and colors. There are printing houses
that will do it for you (for a price)
 Sculpteo - https://www.sculpteo.com
 Shapeways - https://www.shapeways.com/
 Ponoko - https://www.ponoko.com/
 MakeXYZ - https://www.makexyz.com/
 3D Hubs - https://www.3dhubs.com/
 You3Dit - https://www.ponoko.com/
to name a few
21
Shapeways list of printable materials:
• Plastic (soft, hard, flexible…)
• Metals (Steel, Bronze, Aluminum, Brass …)
• Precious Metal (Gold, Silver, Platinum)
• Porcelain
• Wax
• Sandstone (in full color)
Sample 3D models for woodworking
22
• Customizable sanding stick:
https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:2404850
• Cylinder Center Finder
https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:1605373
• Corner clamp
https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:713236
You can model and plan your projects
A 3D model of cheese cutting board - useful since it
will allow you to look inside your project.
This was done using the X-ray display option of 3D Builder.
23
Or create a jig to make that special cut
Or a tracing pattern for the scroll saw
Now let’s build something
Demonstrating many of the elements we just
discussed
24

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An introduction to 3D printing

  • 1. An introduction to 3D Printing Charlie Bess, P.E. Sun City Hilton Head – Woodworking Guild A version of these slides is available at: https://www.slideshare.net/cebess/an-introduction-to-3d-printing 1
  • 2. What We’ll Be Covering Today • Flexible manufacturing • 3D printing history • 3D printing techniques • Current consumer printers • Free 3D design software • 3D model repositories • Woodworking related examples • Printing some things… 2
  • 5. 3D printing Additive Manufacturing where you join successive layers of a material to create an object, based on a 3D model Additive manufacturing 5
  • 6. The “idea” of 3D printing has existed for centuries, millennia maybe. If you look at how ancient Greeks built columns and you can see a similar application. The idea has been around for a long time 6
  • 7. 3D printing is changing the world • Medical devices • Product prototyping • Historic Preservation • Architectural Engineering Construction • Advanced Manufacturing • Food Industries • Automotive and Aerospace • Accessories 7
  • 8. Numerous ways to 3D print • Extrusion Deposit • Vat Photopolymerization • Material Jetting • Binder Jetting • Powder Bed Fusion or Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) • Sheet Lamination • Directed Energy Deposition 8 Binder jettingSLS Vat Photopolymerization
  • 9. Extrusion deposit For consumer 3D printers, a plastic filament is forced through a heated extruder, to lay down a layer of molten plastic that quickly hardens into a solid. 9
  • 10. Consumer extrusion materials  acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)  polylactic acid (PLA)  high-impact polystyrene (HIPS)  thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)  aliphatic polyamides (nylon),  Polyether ether ketone (PEEK)  paste-like materials (ceramic, chocolate, wood, concrete …) With new ones being released all the time 10
  • 11. Consumer 3D printer characteristics There are a number of options and features in printers:  Bed size/print area – defines how large a print you can make  Heated bed – determines what types of material you can print  Hot end temperature range – determines what types of material you can print  Enclosures – helps contain fumes and limit temperature variation  Axis movement precision – defines how accurately you can print 11
  • 12. Consumer 3D printers  MakerBot  PrintrBot  Ultimaker  XYZprinting And more all the time… 12
  • 13. Steps involved in 3D printing 1. Create (or find) a CAD Model 2. Save the model into a STL (STereoLithography) file 3. Validate the model (optional, but encouraged) 4. Slice it into layers, usually producing G-code 5. Send the data to the printer and print you model Next, we’ll walk quickly through these steps 13
  • 14. Modeling software (free)  Windows 10 comes with:  3D builder  Paint 3D  SketchUp  PC based  Browser based: https://app.sketchup.com/  DesignSpark: https://www.rs-online.com/designspark/our-software  An easy to use, profession CAD solution  Blender: https://www.blender.org  And there are also design verification and cleanup options: https://tools3d.azurewebsites.net/ https://makeprintable.com/ 14 A SketchUp model of a woodworking project
  • 15. 3D Builder Model of an F-35 for the new railroad layout. Note: the original model was too large for my 3D printer, so I cut it in half. 15
  • 16. SketchUp 16 A chess set designed in SketchUp. Note: SketchUp has capabilities to create objects by spinning a model around an axis. This may be useful for lathe model creation. Sorry about the Knight!
  • 17. Repositories  www.thingiverse.com (shown here)  www.pinshape.com  www.youmagine.com  www.grabcad.com/library There is also a repository (3D Warehouse) built into SketchUp 17
  • 18. Printer driver software (free)  Main elements:  Slicer – converts the 3D model into layers so they can be printed  Monitoring – displays the state of the printer  Driver – sends the Gcode to the printer  Software I’ve tried:  Repetier Host - https://www.repetier-server.com/  Cura - https://ultimaker.com/en/products/ultimaker-cura-software  3D Builder – comes with Windows creator edition 18
  • 19. Repetier 19 Tail section of the F35 model for the railroad group, mentioned earlier. Note: Support material is needed to support the model. This extra material breaks away after the print is complete.
  • 20. Cura 20 Nose section of the F35 model mentioned earlier. Note: Since there is no support material generated, there is little printed material in contact with the print bed. It will likely be knocked off during the printing process. In most tools, there is an option in the slicer to generate supports.
  • 21. Printing services You don’t need to be able to print in all materials and colors. There are printing houses that will do it for you (for a price)  Sculpteo - https://www.sculpteo.com  Shapeways - https://www.shapeways.com/  Ponoko - https://www.ponoko.com/  MakeXYZ - https://www.makexyz.com/  3D Hubs - https://www.3dhubs.com/  You3Dit - https://www.ponoko.com/ to name a few 21 Shapeways list of printable materials: • Plastic (soft, hard, flexible…) • Metals (Steel, Bronze, Aluminum, Brass …) • Precious Metal (Gold, Silver, Platinum) • Porcelain • Wax • Sandstone (in full color)
  • 22. Sample 3D models for woodworking 22 • Customizable sanding stick: https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:2404850 • Cylinder Center Finder https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:1605373 • Corner clamp https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:713236
  • 23. You can model and plan your projects A 3D model of cheese cutting board - useful since it will allow you to look inside your project. This was done using the X-ray display option of 3D Builder. 23 Or create a jig to make that special cut Or a tracing pattern for the scroll saw
  • 24. Now let’s build something Demonstrating many of the elements we just discussed 24