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Agri-Innovation Center
Himanshu Bhardwaj
Program Associate&
Hydroponic Project In charge
Deshpande Foundation
e-mail- himanshu.bci@dfmail.org
mob. 7795923029
2015
Deshpande Foundation
1/1/2015
A Short Report on various Green
Houses and Their Dimensions
Himanshu Bhardwaj
Low Cost Green Houses for Vegetable Production
Agriculture is the backbone of India’s economic activity and our experience
during the last 50 years has demonstrated the strong correlation between agricultural
growth and economic prosperity. The present agricultural scenario is a mix of
outstanding achievements and missed opportunities. If India has to emerge as an
economic power in the world, our agricultural productivity should equal those countries,
which are currently rated as economic power of the world. We need a new and effective
technology which can improve continuously the productivity, profitability, sustainability
of our major farming systems. One such technology is the green house technology.
Although it is centuries old, it is new to India.
Greenhouse Technology
Growing plants is both an art and a science. About 95% of plants, either food
crops or cash crops are grown in open field. Since time immemorial, man has learnt how
to grow plants under natural environmental conditions. In some of the temperate regions
where the climatic conditions are extremely adverse and no crops can be grown, man has
developed methods of growing some high value crop continuously by providing
protection from the excessive cold, which is called as Greenhouse Technology. So,
Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favourable environment condition
to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from the adverse climatic conditions
such as wind, cold, precepitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects and
diseases. It is also of vital importance to create an ideal micro climate around the plants.
This is possible by erecting a greenhouse / glass house, where the environmental
conditions are so
modified that one can grow any plant in any place at any time by providing suitable
environmental conditions with minimum labour.
Greenhouses are framed or inflated structures covered with transparent or
translucent material large enough to grow crops under partial or fully controlled
environmental conditions to get optimum growth and productivity.
Advantages of greenhouses :
 The yield may be 10-12 times higher than that of out door cultivation
depending upon the type of greenhouse, type of crop, environmental
control facilities.
 Reliability of crop increases under greenhouse cultivation.
 Ideally suited for vegetables and flower crops.
 Year round production of floricultural crops.
 Off-season production of vegetable and fruit crops.
 Disease-free and genetically superior transplants can be produced
continuously.
 Efficient utilization of chemicals, pesticides to control pest and diseases.
 Water requirement of crops very limited and easy to control.
 Maintenance of stock plants, cultivating grafted plant-lets and micro
propagated plant-lets.
 Hardening of tissue cultured plants
 Production of quality produce free of blemishes.
 Most useful in monitoring and controlling the instability of various
ecological system.
 Modern techniques of Hydroponic (Soil less culture), Aeroponics and
Nutrient film techniques are possible only under greenhouse cultivation.
GREENHOUSES – WORLD SCENARIO
There are more than 50 countries now in the world where cultivation of crops is
undertaken on a commercial scale under cover. United States of America has a total area
of about 4000 ha under greenhouses mostly used for floriculture with a turnover of more
than 2.8 billion US $ per annum and the area under greenhouses is expected to go up
considerably, if the cost of transportation of vegetables from neighbouring countries
continues to rise.
The area under greenhouses in Spain has been estimated to be around 25,000 ha
and Italy 18,500 ha used mostly for growing vegetable crops like watermelon, capsicum,
strawberries, beans, cucumbers and tomatoes. In Spain simple tunnel type greenhouses
are generally used without any elaborate environmental control equipments mostly using
UV stabilised polyethylene film as cladding material.
In Canada the greenhouse industry caters both to the flower and off-season
vegetable markets. The main vegetable crops grown in Canadian greenhouses are tomato,
cucumbers and capsicum. Hydroponically grown greenhouse vegetables in Canada find
greater preference with the consumers and could be priced as much as twice the regular
greenhouse produce.
The Netherlands is the traditional exporter of greenhouse grown flowers and
vegetables all over the world. With about 89,600 ha under cover, the Dutch greenhouse
industry is probably the most advanced in the world. Dutch greenhouse industry however
relies heavily on glass framed greenhouses, in order to cope up with very cloudy
conditions prevalent all the year round. A very strong research and development
component has kept the Dutch industry in the forefront.
The development of greenhouses in Gulf countries is primarily due to the
extremity in the prevailing climatic conditions. Israel is the largest exporter of cut flowers
and has wide range of crops under greenhouses (15,000 ha) and Turkey has an area of
10,000 ha under cover for cultivation of cut flowers and vegetables. In Saudi Arabia
cucumbers and tomatoes are the most important crops contributing more than 94% of the
total production. The most common cooling method employed in these areas is
evaporative cooling.
Egypt has about 1000 ha greenhouses consisting mainly of plastic covered tunnel
type structures. Arrangements for natural ventilation are made for regulation of
temperature and humidity conditions. The main crops grown in these greenhouses are
tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, melons and nursery plant material.
In Asia, China and Japan are the largest users of greenhouses. The development
of greenhouse technology in China has been faster than in
any other country in the world. With a Modest beginning in late
seventies, the area under greenhouses in China has increased to
48,000 ha in recent years. Out of this 11,000 ha is under fruits like grapes, cherry,
japanese persimon, fig, loquot, lemon and mango. The majority of greenhouses use local
materials for the frame and flexible plastic films for glazing. Most of the greenhouses in
China are reported to
be unheated and use straw mats to improve the heat retention characteristics.
Japan has more than 40,000 ha under greenhouse cultivation of which nearly 7500
ha is devoted to only fruit orchards. Greenhouses in Japan are used to grow wide range of
vegetables and flowers with a considerable share of vegetable demand being met from
greenhouse production. Even a country like South Korea has more than 21,000 ha under
greenhouses for production of flowers and fruits. Thus, greenhouses permit crop
production in areas where winters are severe and extremely cold as in Canada and USSR,
and also permit production even in areas where summers are extremely intolerable as in
Israel, UAE, and Kuwait. Greenhouses in Philippines make it possible to grow crops
inspite of excessive rains and also in moderate climates of several other countries. Thus,
in essence greenhouse cultivation is being practiced and possible in all types of climatic
conditions.
Status in India
While greenhouses have existed for more than one and a half centuries in various
parts of the world, in India use of greenhouse technology started only during 1980’s and
it was mainly used for research activities. This may be because of our emphasis, so far
had been on achieving self-sufficiency in food grain production. However, in recent years
in view of the globalization of international market and tremendous boost and fillip that is
being given for export of agricultural produce, there has been a spurt in the demand for
greenhouse technology. The National Committee on the use of Plastics in Agriculture
(NCPA-1982) has recommended location specific trials of greenhouse technology for
adoption in various regions of the country.
Greenhouses are being built in the Ladakh region for extending the growing season of
vegetables from 3 to 8 months. In the North-East, greenhouses are being constructed
essentially as rain shelters to permit off-season vegetable production. In the Northern
plains, seedlings of vegetables and flowers are being raised in the greenhouses either for
capturing the early markets or to improve the quality of the seedlings. Propagation of
difficult-to-root tree species has also been found to be very encouraging. Several
commercial floriculture ventures are coming up in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and
Karnataka states to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets.
The commercial utilization of greenhouses started from 1988 onwards and now
with the introduction of Government’s liberalization policies and developmental
initiatives, several corporate houses have entered to set up 100% export oriented units. In
just four years, since implementation of the new policies in 1991, 103 projects with
foreign investment of more than Rs.80 crores have been approved to be set up in the
country at an estimated cost of more than Rs.1000 crores around Pune, Bangalore,
Hyderabad and Delhi. Thus the area under climatically controlled greenhouses of these
projects is estimated to be around 300 ha. Out of which many have already commenced
exports and have received very encouraging results in terms of the acceptance of the
quality in major markets abroad and the price obtained.
Classification of greenhouses:
Greenhouse structure of various types are used for crop production. Although
there are advantages in each type for a particular application, in general there is no single
type greenhouse, which can be constituted as the best. Different types of greenhouses are
designed to meet the specific needs. The different types of greenhouses based on shape,
utility, material and construction are briefly given below:
1. Greenhouse type based on shape:
For the purpose of classification, the uniqueness of cross section of the
greenhouses can be considered as a factor. The commonly followed types of greenhouses
based on shape are:
a) Lean to type greenhouse.
b) Even span type greenhouse.
c) Uneven span type greenhouse.
d) Ridge and furrow type.
e) Saw tooth type.
f) Quonset greenhouse.
g) Interlocking ridges and furrow type Quonset greenhouse.
h) Ground to ground greenhouse.
2. Greenhouse type based on Utility
Classification can be made depending on the functions or utilities. Of the different
utilities, artificial cooling and heating are more expensive and elaborate. Hence based on
this, they are classified in to two types.
a) Greenhouses for active heating.
b) Greenhouses for active cooling.
3. Greenhouse type based on construction
The type of construction predominantly is influenced by structural material,
though the covering material also influence the type. Higher the span, stronger should be
the material and more structural members are used to make sturdy tissues. For smaller
spans, simple designs like hoops can be followed. So based on construction, greenhouses
can be classified as
a) Wooden framed structure.
b) Pipe framed structure.
c) Truss framed structure.
4. Greenhouse type based on covering material
Covering materials are the important component of the greenhouse structure. They
have direct influence on greenhouse effect, inside the structure and they alter the air
temperature inside. The types of frames and method of fixing also varies with covering
material. Hence based on the type of covering material they may be classified as
a) Glass glazing.
b) Fibre glass reinforced plastic (FRP) glazing
i. Plain sheet
ii. Corrugated sheet.
c) Plastic film
i. UV stabilized LDPE film.
ii. Silpaulin type sheet.
iii. Net house.
d) Based on the cost of construction involved ( which includes various factors mentioned
from a to c )
i High cost Green House
ii Medium cost Green House
iii Low cost Green House
The structural requirements and the cost per unit area for different models of low cost
green houses for cultivation of vegetables are detailed below with diagrams to enable an
interested entrepreneur to construct a low cost green house on his own accord. However, the
local weather conditions and the individual’s necessity play a major role in the selection of the
model.
Practices at Agri-innovation center
Introduction:-
Agri-innovation center mainly formed for the demonstration to the farmer with new
technology and sustainable agriculture with minimal resource. To understand about the
resource management and collective farming benefits in local community.
Projects:-
One thing is very important to share here about the projects and sustainability in farming. To
meet this goal we are running some projects here for a sustainable farming.
 Bamboo Project
 Nursery project
1. Papaya
2. Vegetable nursery
3. Nursery Methods
 Hydroponics project (soil less cultivation)
 NFT(Nutrient Film Technique)
Resources:-
At Agri-innovation center we have three green houses with different dimensions. All green
houses have same mechanism to operate and all are naturally ventilated. As per the name
there is no electrically environment control method. In those green houses we control the
environment naturally like using water with sprinkler and fogger to control the temperature,
Humidity etc.
The dimensions are
 360 sq meter :-
This green house is having the facility of fogger and fully naturally ventilated green
house. Which has been funded by yes bank as a CSR activity?
This green House is dedicated to soil less cultivation in growing chambers under
Nutrient Film Technique (NFT).
 516 sq Meter:-
This green house also a type of naturally ventilated green house which is
having the facility of sprinkler system. Which is dedicated to our bamboo
project where we are procuring the Bamboo in this space we can keep more
than 35000 bamboo at a time.
 720 sq meter:-
This is another green house of having the same technology of naturally
ventilation this dedicated as a commercial green house. Till now we completed
training of soil less cultivation and Vegetable nursery is there. For sustaining
it.
360 sq meter
516 sq meter
720 sq meter
Bamboo Project:- This is our major project where we are doing the Bamboo cultivation
with farmer. Bamboo also comes in horticulture crop. And it is giving the good sign of growth
in minimum time. We are procuring the plants in our green house till now 99000 bamboo
plants have been received and 60 acre completed with farmer.
Bamboo has the potential to become cash crop to the farmer. And we are using the waste land
of the farmer and like bund crop. And the industries are from bamboo Pulp industries, Bio-
mass energy center, Paper industry, open market, furniture, Handicraft, extracting Ethanol.
We are using three variety of bamboo
 Balcoa Bheema
 Balcoa Tulda
 Balcoa Brandisa
These all bamboos are hybrid variety and tissue culture plant which is high resistant plant and
high yielder. Basically for first crop it takes three years but after three years every year regular
crop for many years. Which is good sign?
fig. first picture Bamboo in nursery and second picture bamboo in field.
Nursery: - In Karnataka there is huge demand of vegetable seedling like chili, tomato,
Brinjal, Flowers, Papaya, capsicum etc.
We found nursery as a scalable business here where we can provide the healthy seedling and
also can make money out of it.
Here we are following two methods of nursery.
 Bed Method
 Tray method
Bed Method:- This is the cheapest method of preparing the seedling. Where do we
produce no of seedlings on one bed? But the resistance of the seedling is less root diseases
come fast in those seedlings. Root disease attacks more.
Seedling Trays:- This is another method of preparing seedling which is slightly costly
than bed method here plants are strong enough for resist the disease and easy to carry.
In that method we uses coco peat. Which gives more aeration at root zone then soil?
Hydroponic Project or soil less cultivation: - This is the modern method of
cultivation with water and with other material like coco peat, warmicolite etc. which should
be sterilized medium.
Sterilization is a process to purify the medium where there will be less diseases and
eradication of nematodes. If medium is nematode free than our nutrient will also not waste
and plant growth will also good. One fantastic ting with soil less cultivation all plants will be
uniform growth its like a plant factory in that case we all will get same amount of crop at
same time and plant also will produce at its genetic potential.
In this project we have done with more than 10000 seedlings of various crops in controlled
environment. This is great experience for all of us where we planned to make it sustainable
with the crop of cucumber.
Note:- These all picture from our learning classes under our consultant mr. CV Prakash sir. We have
done training of Hydroponics and green house management and technology of Nutrient film technique
where we can make simplified to families make it globalize it at village level also.
Basically hydroponics or soil less cultivation requires more attention where we need to provide an
ideal condition for growing and performing better.
NFT (Nutrient Film Technique):- This is method of Hydroponics where we give the
nutrients by a thin layer of water and root of the plants dip in to the flow of water. In other
words its highly mechanized system for hydroponics where we can see the ultimate results in
minimum space and minimum resource utilization.
Hydroponics have very bright future in India where the lots of peple are remaing hungry
every night just because of insufficient food.
Cost Economics of High Cost Greenhouse
High cost green house may be a multispan structure. The cost estimates may vary considerably due to
crop, cladding material and environmental control system. The additional cost involved per sq. m. is
stated below.
Sl.No Specifications Cost Rs/m
2
1 If double layer polyethylene 100
used
2. Co2 generation & distribution 150
3. Evaporative cooling 200
4 Heating system 100
5. Humidification system 100
6. Lighting 200
7. Night curtain / Shading system 150
8. Drip system 20
9. Nutrient application system 100
10 Porous flooring 100
11. Benches 150
12. Structural cost 300
13. Miscellaneous 180
Average cost of High Cost
Greenhouse per square metre Rs. 2000.00
Detailed estimate of material requirement for simple Pipe
framed low cost green house(4x25m)
Sl.No. Item of work / Detail of material
1 G.I. Pipe of 25 mm. φ for foundation
2 G.I. Pipe of 15 mm. φ for arches and top M.S Flates
19x8m
3 For sides for holding mesh and UV film and front &
backside &for purlins
4
4 M.S. ‘L’ angle19x19x3m for front and end 28m run
frames and door
5 Plastic beading 25 mm width 150 m
6 UV stabilised film (200 micron) 175 m
2
7 Mesh 40-60 size all round (1.15m width) 65 m
8 Door frame and fitting L.S
9 Hardware like Bolts and nuts, welding rods, L.S
Aluminium oxide, Painting etc.
10 Earth work and concreting of foundation L.S
with 1: 3: 6
11 Labour cost L.S
Requirement (Qty)
50 x 1.20 =60m
25 x 6 = 150m
25 x 1 = 25m
120.00m
Cost Economics of Simple, pipe framed green house ( 100 m
2
)
Sl. Rate / Total
No Item of work Qnty.
unit (Rs) amount
(Rs)
1 G.I. Pipe 25 mm dia.’B Class 60.0m 65.00/= 3900.00
2 G.I. Pipe 15 mm dia. ’B Class 175.0m 25.00/= 4375.00
3 M.S.Flat 19x3mm Size 80.0kg 16.50/kg 1320.00
4 M.S.L angle 19x19x3mm Size 20.0kg 17.50/kg 350.00
5 UV stabilised film 175.0m
2
20.00/= 3500.00
6 Plastic beading 150.0m 4.00/= 600.00
7 Mesh 40-60 size all round 65.0m
2
22.00/= 1430.00
8 Door frame and fitting L.S 425.00
9 Labour cost L.S 650.00
10 Bolts, nuts and welding rods L.S 400.00
11 Earth work and concreting of L.S 550.00
foundation
Total 17,500.00
Average cost per square metre Rs.175.00
Cost Estimates of Medium Cost Green House (4 x 25 m
2
)
Sl. NO SPECIFICATION COST (Rs.)
1 Cost of Greenhouse (100m
2
) 17,5000.00
2 Additional items on GH-2 (for fans –2) 1000.00
3 Electrical Fittings (Power point distribution, boxes, 3000.00
MCB etc)
4 Mist spray assembly 2000.00
5 Inflation blower 1000.00
6 Two fans (60 Cm dia) 10000.00
7 Monoblock AC pump (3hp) 3500.00
8 Water tank (Sintex) 1000 liters 4000.00
9 Thermostat/ Humidstat 2000.00
10 Cooling pad and fittings ( local made) 3000.00
11 Labour (extra) 1500.00
12 Additional film for double layer 3500.00
Total expense 50,000.00
Cost of green house of medium type per square metre Rs.525.00
Detailed estimate of material requirement for construction of low cost
green house (27x18.5m=500m
2
)
Sl.No Item of work / Detail of material Requirement, Qty
A Structural material
1 G.I. Pipe of 56 mm. φ for foundation 42.00m
2 G.I. Pipe of 50 mm. φ for foundation posts 120.00m
3 M.S. ‘L’ angle25x25x6m for arches + top & bottom 612.00m
frame to fix mesh and film + for tie beams(102
lengths)
4 Plastic beading 25 mm width 200.00m
5 Plastic pipes 25mm φ and 19mm φ as grippers. 100.00m.
(each)
6 Base plate for foundation post (50 x 50 x 6mm0 40.0 nos.
7 Welding rods 5 boxes
8 Hardware like Bolts and nuts, welding rods, L.S
Aluminium oxide, Painting etc.
B Cladding material
1 UV stabilised film (200 Micron) 5.00 Bundles
2 Rambonet 40-60 mesh (1.15m width x 30.0m length 12.00 Bundles
C Construction material
1 Earth work excavation for foundation 4.00 m
3
2 Sand filling for foundation and basement(optimal) 1.00 m
3
3 Plain cement concrete for foundation 2.25 m
3
4 Hollow cement bricks for foundation 3000.00nos
Detailed estimate of material requirement for construction of medium
cost ( single span) green house (33 x 9.1m = 300m
2
)
Sl.No. Item of work / Detail of material Requirement (Qty)
A Structural material
1 G.I. Pipe of 56 mm. φ for foundation 30.00m
2 G.I. Pipe of 50 mm. φ for foundation posts 90.00m
G.I. Pipe of 38 mm. φ for purlins & arches 205.00m
3 M.S. ‘L’ angle 25x25x3m for top & bottom 150.00m
frame & door
4 Plastic beading 25 mm width 200.00m
5 Plastic pipes 25mm φ and 19mm φ as 70.00m. each
grippers.
6 Base plate for foundation post (50 x 50 x 25.0 nos.
6mm φ
7 Welding rods 3 boxes
8 Hardware like Bolts and nuts, welding rods, L.S
Aluminium oxide, Painting etc.
B Cladding material
1 UV stabilised film (200 Micron) 150.00Kg
C Cooling system ( fan 7 pad )
1 Fans ( air flow fans) 3.00 Nos
2 Pad ( 9.0m x 1.5 m) 1.0 Nos
D Construction material
1 Earth work excavation for foundation 1.25 m
3
2 Plain cement concrete for foundation( 1.25 m
3
1:2:4)
4 Hollow cement bricks for parapet wall 1000.00nos
Ridge
Truss
Ridge ventilator
Purlin
Gutter
Lateral Gutter Support
ventilator
Components of typical greenhouse
Different shapes of the Greenhouse
Active cooling
Passive cooling
Pipe Framed

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A short report on Green House_Himanshu Pdf

  • 1. Agri-Innovation Center Himanshu Bhardwaj Program Associate& Hydroponic Project In charge Deshpande Foundation e-mail- himanshu.bci@dfmail.org mob. 7795923029 2015 Deshpande Foundation 1/1/2015 A Short Report on various Green Houses and Their Dimensions
  • 2. Himanshu Bhardwaj Low Cost Green Houses for Vegetable Production Agriculture is the backbone of India’s economic activity and our experience during the last 50 years has demonstrated the strong correlation between agricultural growth and economic prosperity. The present agricultural scenario is a mix of outstanding achievements and missed opportunities. If India has to emerge as an economic power in the world, our agricultural productivity should equal those countries, which are currently rated as economic power of the world. We need a new and effective technology which can improve continuously the productivity, profitability, sustainability of our major farming systems. One such technology is the green house technology. Although it is centuries old, it is new to India. Greenhouse Technology Growing plants is both an art and a science. About 95% of plants, either food crops or cash crops are grown in open field. Since time immemorial, man has learnt how to grow plants under natural environmental conditions. In some of the temperate regions where the climatic conditions are extremely adverse and no crops can be grown, man has developed methods of growing some high value crop continuously by providing protection from the excessive cold, which is called as Greenhouse Technology. So, Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favourable environment condition to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from the adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precepitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects and diseases. It is also of vital importance to create an ideal micro climate around the plants. This is possible by erecting a greenhouse / glass house, where the environmental conditions are so
  • 3. modified that one can grow any plant in any place at any time by providing suitable environmental conditions with minimum labour. Greenhouses are framed or inflated structures covered with transparent or translucent material large enough to grow crops under partial or fully controlled environmental conditions to get optimum growth and productivity. Advantages of greenhouses :  The yield may be 10-12 times higher than that of out door cultivation depending upon the type of greenhouse, type of crop, environmental control facilities.  Reliability of crop increases under greenhouse cultivation.  Ideally suited for vegetables and flower crops.  Year round production of floricultural crops.  Off-season production of vegetable and fruit crops.  Disease-free and genetically superior transplants can be produced continuously.  Efficient utilization of chemicals, pesticides to control pest and diseases.  Water requirement of crops very limited and easy to control.  Maintenance of stock plants, cultivating grafted plant-lets and micro propagated plant-lets.
  • 4.  Hardening of tissue cultured plants  Production of quality produce free of blemishes.  Most useful in monitoring and controlling the instability of various ecological system.  Modern techniques of Hydroponic (Soil less culture), Aeroponics and Nutrient film techniques are possible only under greenhouse cultivation. GREENHOUSES – WORLD SCENARIO There are more than 50 countries now in the world where cultivation of crops is undertaken on a commercial scale under cover. United States of America has a total area of about 4000 ha under greenhouses mostly used for floriculture with a turnover of more than 2.8 billion US $ per annum and the area under greenhouses is expected to go up considerably, if the cost of transportation of vegetables from neighbouring countries continues to rise. The area under greenhouses in Spain has been estimated to be around 25,000 ha and Italy 18,500 ha used mostly for growing vegetable crops like watermelon, capsicum, strawberries, beans, cucumbers and tomatoes. In Spain simple tunnel type greenhouses are generally used without any elaborate environmental control equipments mostly using UV stabilised polyethylene film as cladding material. In Canada the greenhouse industry caters both to the flower and off-season vegetable markets. The main vegetable crops grown in Canadian greenhouses are tomato, cucumbers and capsicum. Hydroponically grown greenhouse vegetables in Canada find greater preference with the consumers and could be priced as much as twice the regular greenhouse produce.
  • 5. The Netherlands is the traditional exporter of greenhouse grown flowers and vegetables all over the world. With about 89,600 ha under cover, the Dutch greenhouse industry is probably the most advanced in the world. Dutch greenhouse industry however relies heavily on glass framed greenhouses, in order to cope up with very cloudy conditions prevalent all the year round. A very strong research and development component has kept the Dutch industry in the forefront. The development of greenhouses in Gulf countries is primarily due to the extremity in the prevailing climatic conditions. Israel is the largest exporter of cut flowers and has wide range of crops under greenhouses (15,000 ha) and Turkey has an area of 10,000 ha under cover for cultivation of cut flowers and vegetables. In Saudi Arabia cucumbers and tomatoes are the most important crops contributing more than 94% of the total production. The most common cooling method employed in these areas is evaporative cooling. Egypt has about 1000 ha greenhouses consisting mainly of plastic covered tunnel type structures. Arrangements for natural ventilation are made for regulation of temperature and humidity conditions. The main crops grown in these greenhouses are tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, melons and nursery plant material. In Asia, China and Japan are the largest users of greenhouses. The development of greenhouse technology in China has been faster than in any other country in the world. With a Modest beginning in late seventies, the area under greenhouses in China has increased to 48,000 ha in recent years. Out of this 11,000 ha is under fruits like grapes, cherry, japanese persimon, fig, loquot, lemon and mango. The majority of greenhouses use local materials for the frame and flexible plastic films for glazing. Most of the greenhouses in China are reported to
  • 6. be unheated and use straw mats to improve the heat retention characteristics. Japan has more than 40,000 ha under greenhouse cultivation of which nearly 7500 ha is devoted to only fruit orchards. Greenhouses in Japan are used to grow wide range of vegetables and flowers with a considerable share of vegetable demand being met from greenhouse production. Even a country like South Korea has more than 21,000 ha under greenhouses for production of flowers and fruits. Thus, greenhouses permit crop production in areas where winters are severe and extremely cold as in Canada and USSR, and also permit production even in areas where summers are extremely intolerable as in Israel, UAE, and Kuwait. Greenhouses in Philippines make it possible to grow crops inspite of excessive rains and also in moderate climates of several other countries. Thus, in essence greenhouse cultivation is being practiced and possible in all types of climatic conditions. Status in India While greenhouses have existed for more than one and a half centuries in various parts of the world, in India use of greenhouse technology started only during 1980’s and it was mainly used for research activities. This may be because of our emphasis, so far had been on achieving self-sufficiency in food grain production. However, in recent years in view of the globalization of international market and tremendous boost and fillip that is being given for export of agricultural produce, there has been a spurt in the demand for greenhouse technology. The National Committee on the use of Plastics in Agriculture (NCPA-1982) has recommended location specific trials of greenhouse technology for adoption in various regions of the country.
  • 7. Greenhouses are being built in the Ladakh region for extending the growing season of vegetables from 3 to 8 months. In the North-East, greenhouses are being constructed essentially as rain shelters to permit off-season vegetable production. In the Northern plains, seedlings of vegetables and flowers are being raised in the greenhouses either for capturing the early markets or to improve the quality of the seedlings. Propagation of difficult-to-root tree species has also been found to be very encouraging. Several commercial floriculture ventures are coming up in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. The commercial utilization of greenhouses started from 1988 onwards and now with the introduction of Government’s liberalization policies and developmental initiatives, several corporate houses have entered to set up 100% export oriented units. In just four years, since implementation of the new policies in 1991, 103 projects with foreign investment of more than Rs.80 crores have been approved to be set up in the country at an estimated cost of more than Rs.1000 crores around Pune, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Delhi. Thus the area under climatically controlled greenhouses of these projects is estimated to be around 300 ha. Out of which many have already commenced exports and have received very encouraging results in terms of the acceptance of the quality in major markets abroad and the price obtained. Classification of greenhouses: Greenhouse structure of various types are used for crop production. Although there are advantages in each type for a particular application, in general there is no single type greenhouse, which can be constituted as the best. Different types of greenhouses are designed to meet the specific needs. The different types of greenhouses based on shape, utility, material and construction are briefly given below:
  • 8. 1. Greenhouse type based on shape: For the purpose of classification, the uniqueness of cross section of the greenhouses can be considered as a factor. The commonly followed types of greenhouses based on shape are: a) Lean to type greenhouse. b) Even span type greenhouse. c) Uneven span type greenhouse. d) Ridge and furrow type. e) Saw tooth type. f) Quonset greenhouse. g) Interlocking ridges and furrow type Quonset greenhouse. h) Ground to ground greenhouse. 2. Greenhouse type based on Utility Classification can be made depending on the functions or utilities. Of the different utilities, artificial cooling and heating are more expensive and elaborate. Hence based on this, they are classified in to two types. a) Greenhouses for active heating. b) Greenhouses for active cooling. 3. Greenhouse type based on construction The type of construction predominantly is influenced by structural material, though the covering material also influence the type. Higher the span, stronger should be the material and more structural members are used to make sturdy tissues. For smaller spans, simple designs like hoops can be followed. So based on construction, greenhouses can be classified as a) Wooden framed structure. b) Pipe framed structure. c) Truss framed structure.
  • 9. 4. Greenhouse type based on covering material Covering materials are the important component of the greenhouse structure. They have direct influence on greenhouse effect, inside the structure and they alter the air temperature inside. The types of frames and method of fixing also varies with covering material. Hence based on the type of covering material they may be classified as a) Glass glazing. b) Fibre glass reinforced plastic (FRP) glazing i. Plain sheet ii. Corrugated sheet. c) Plastic film i. UV stabilized LDPE film. ii. Silpaulin type sheet. iii. Net house. d) Based on the cost of construction involved ( which includes various factors mentioned from a to c ) i High cost Green House ii Medium cost Green House iii Low cost Green House The structural requirements and the cost per unit area for different models of low cost green houses for cultivation of vegetables are detailed below with diagrams to enable an interested entrepreneur to construct a low cost green house on his own accord. However, the local weather conditions and the individual’s necessity play a major role in the selection of the model.
  • 10. Practices at Agri-innovation center Introduction:- Agri-innovation center mainly formed for the demonstration to the farmer with new technology and sustainable agriculture with minimal resource. To understand about the resource management and collective farming benefits in local community. Projects:- One thing is very important to share here about the projects and sustainability in farming. To meet this goal we are running some projects here for a sustainable farming.  Bamboo Project  Nursery project 1. Papaya 2. Vegetable nursery 3. Nursery Methods  Hydroponics project (soil less cultivation)  NFT(Nutrient Film Technique) Resources:- At Agri-innovation center we have three green houses with different dimensions. All green houses have same mechanism to operate and all are naturally ventilated. As per the name there is no electrically environment control method. In those green houses we control the environment naturally like using water with sprinkler and fogger to control the temperature, Humidity etc. The dimensions are  360 sq meter :- This green house is having the facility of fogger and fully naturally ventilated green house. Which has been funded by yes bank as a CSR activity? This green House is dedicated to soil less cultivation in growing chambers under Nutrient Film Technique (NFT).  516 sq Meter:- This green house also a type of naturally ventilated green house which is having the facility of sprinkler system. Which is dedicated to our bamboo project where we are procuring the Bamboo in this space we can keep more than 35000 bamboo at a time.  720 sq meter:-
  • 11. This is another green house of having the same technology of naturally ventilation this dedicated as a commercial green house. Till now we completed training of soil less cultivation and Vegetable nursery is there. For sustaining it. 360 sq meter 516 sq meter 720 sq meter
  • 12. Bamboo Project:- This is our major project where we are doing the Bamboo cultivation with farmer. Bamboo also comes in horticulture crop. And it is giving the good sign of growth in minimum time. We are procuring the plants in our green house till now 99000 bamboo plants have been received and 60 acre completed with farmer. Bamboo has the potential to become cash crop to the farmer. And we are using the waste land of the farmer and like bund crop. And the industries are from bamboo Pulp industries, Bio- mass energy center, Paper industry, open market, furniture, Handicraft, extracting Ethanol. We are using three variety of bamboo  Balcoa Bheema  Balcoa Tulda  Balcoa Brandisa These all bamboos are hybrid variety and tissue culture plant which is high resistant plant and high yielder. Basically for first crop it takes three years but after three years every year regular crop for many years. Which is good sign? fig. first picture Bamboo in nursery and second picture bamboo in field. Nursery: - In Karnataka there is huge demand of vegetable seedling like chili, tomato, Brinjal, Flowers, Papaya, capsicum etc. We found nursery as a scalable business here where we can provide the healthy seedling and also can make money out of it. Here we are following two methods of nursery.  Bed Method  Tray method
  • 13. Bed Method:- This is the cheapest method of preparing the seedling. Where do we produce no of seedlings on one bed? But the resistance of the seedling is less root diseases come fast in those seedlings. Root disease attacks more. Seedling Trays:- This is another method of preparing seedling which is slightly costly than bed method here plants are strong enough for resist the disease and easy to carry. In that method we uses coco peat. Which gives more aeration at root zone then soil?
  • 14. Hydroponic Project or soil less cultivation: - This is the modern method of cultivation with water and with other material like coco peat, warmicolite etc. which should be sterilized medium. Sterilization is a process to purify the medium where there will be less diseases and eradication of nematodes. If medium is nematode free than our nutrient will also not waste and plant growth will also good. One fantastic ting with soil less cultivation all plants will be uniform growth its like a plant factory in that case we all will get same amount of crop at same time and plant also will produce at its genetic potential. In this project we have done with more than 10000 seedlings of various crops in controlled environment. This is great experience for all of us where we planned to make it sustainable with the crop of cucumber.
  • 15. Note:- These all picture from our learning classes under our consultant mr. CV Prakash sir. We have done training of Hydroponics and green house management and technology of Nutrient film technique where we can make simplified to families make it globalize it at village level also. Basically hydroponics or soil less cultivation requires more attention where we need to provide an ideal condition for growing and performing better.
  • 16. NFT (Nutrient Film Technique):- This is method of Hydroponics where we give the nutrients by a thin layer of water and root of the plants dip in to the flow of water. In other words its highly mechanized system for hydroponics where we can see the ultimate results in minimum space and minimum resource utilization. Hydroponics have very bright future in India where the lots of peple are remaing hungry every night just because of insufficient food.
  • 17. Cost Economics of High Cost Greenhouse High cost green house may be a multispan structure. The cost estimates may vary considerably due to crop, cladding material and environmental control system. The additional cost involved per sq. m. is stated below. Sl.No Specifications Cost Rs/m 2 1 If double layer polyethylene 100 used 2. Co2 generation & distribution 150 3. Evaporative cooling 200 4 Heating system 100 5. Humidification system 100 6. Lighting 200 7. Night curtain / Shading system 150 8. Drip system 20 9. Nutrient application system 100 10 Porous flooring 100 11. Benches 150 12. Structural cost 300 13. Miscellaneous 180 Average cost of High Cost Greenhouse per square metre Rs. 2000.00
  • 18. Detailed estimate of material requirement for simple Pipe framed low cost green house(4x25m) Sl.No. Item of work / Detail of material 1 G.I. Pipe of 25 mm. φ for foundation 2 G.I. Pipe of 15 mm. φ for arches and top M.S Flates 19x8m 3 For sides for holding mesh and UV film and front & backside &for purlins 4 4 M.S. ‘L’ angle19x19x3m for front and end 28m run frames and door 5 Plastic beading 25 mm width 150 m 6 UV stabilised film (200 micron) 175 m 2 7 Mesh 40-60 size all round (1.15m width) 65 m 8 Door frame and fitting L.S 9 Hardware like Bolts and nuts, welding rods, L.S Aluminium oxide, Painting etc. 10 Earth work and concreting of foundation L.S with 1: 3: 6 11 Labour cost L.S Requirement (Qty) 50 x 1.20 =60m 25 x 6 = 150m 25 x 1 = 25m 120.00m
  • 19. Cost Economics of Simple, pipe framed green house ( 100 m 2 ) Sl. Rate / Total No Item of work Qnty. unit (Rs) amount (Rs) 1 G.I. Pipe 25 mm dia.’B Class 60.0m 65.00/= 3900.00 2 G.I. Pipe 15 mm dia. ’B Class 175.0m 25.00/= 4375.00 3 M.S.Flat 19x3mm Size 80.0kg 16.50/kg 1320.00 4 M.S.L angle 19x19x3mm Size 20.0kg 17.50/kg 350.00 5 UV stabilised film 175.0m 2 20.00/= 3500.00 6 Plastic beading 150.0m 4.00/= 600.00 7 Mesh 40-60 size all round 65.0m 2 22.00/= 1430.00 8 Door frame and fitting L.S 425.00 9 Labour cost L.S 650.00 10 Bolts, nuts and welding rods L.S 400.00 11 Earth work and concreting of L.S 550.00 foundation Total 17,500.00 Average cost per square metre Rs.175.00
  • 20. Cost Estimates of Medium Cost Green House (4 x 25 m 2 ) Sl. NO SPECIFICATION COST (Rs.) 1 Cost of Greenhouse (100m 2 ) 17,5000.00 2 Additional items on GH-2 (for fans –2) 1000.00 3 Electrical Fittings (Power point distribution, boxes, 3000.00 MCB etc) 4 Mist spray assembly 2000.00 5 Inflation blower 1000.00 6 Two fans (60 Cm dia) 10000.00 7 Monoblock AC pump (3hp) 3500.00 8 Water tank (Sintex) 1000 liters 4000.00 9 Thermostat/ Humidstat 2000.00 10 Cooling pad and fittings ( local made) 3000.00 11 Labour (extra) 1500.00 12 Additional film for double layer 3500.00 Total expense 50,000.00 Cost of green house of medium type per square metre Rs.525.00
  • 21. Detailed estimate of material requirement for construction of low cost green house (27x18.5m=500m 2 ) Sl.No Item of work / Detail of material Requirement, Qty A Structural material 1 G.I. Pipe of 56 mm. φ for foundation 42.00m 2 G.I. Pipe of 50 mm. φ for foundation posts 120.00m 3 M.S. ‘L’ angle25x25x6m for arches + top & bottom 612.00m frame to fix mesh and film + for tie beams(102 lengths) 4 Plastic beading 25 mm width 200.00m 5 Plastic pipes 25mm φ and 19mm φ as grippers. 100.00m. (each) 6 Base plate for foundation post (50 x 50 x 6mm0 40.0 nos. 7 Welding rods 5 boxes 8 Hardware like Bolts and nuts, welding rods, L.S Aluminium oxide, Painting etc. B Cladding material 1 UV stabilised film (200 Micron) 5.00 Bundles 2 Rambonet 40-60 mesh (1.15m width x 30.0m length 12.00 Bundles C Construction material 1 Earth work excavation for foundation 4.00 m 3 2 Sand filling for foundation and basement(optimal) 1.00 m 3 3 Plain cement concrete for foundation 2.25 m 3 4 Hollow cement bricks for foundation 3000.00nos
  • 22. Detailed estimate of material requirement for construction of medium cost ( single span) green house (33 x 9.1m = 300m 2 ) Sl.No. Item of work / Detail of material Requirement (Qty) A Structural material 1 G.I. Pipe of 56 mm. φ for foundation 30.00m 2 G.I. Pipe of 50 mm. φ for foundation posts 90.00m G.I. Pipe of 38 mm. φ for purlins & arches 205.00m 3 M.S. ‘L’ angle 25x25x3m for top & bottom 150.00m frame & door 4 Plastic beading 25 mm width 200.00m 5 Plastic pipes 25mm φ and 19mm φ as 70.00m. each grippers. 6 Base plate for foundation post (50 x 50 x 25.0 nos. 6mm φ 7 Welding rods 3 boxes 8 Hardware like Bolts and nuts, welding rods, L.S Aluminium oxide, Painting etc. B Cladding material 1 UV stabilised film (200 Micron) 150.00Kg C Cooling system ( fan 7 pad ) 1 Fans ( air flow fans) 3.00 Nos 2 Pad ( 9.0m x 1.5 m) 1.0 Nos D Construction material 1 Earth work excavation for foundation 1.25 m 3 2 Plain cement concrete for foundation( 1.25 m 3 1:2:4) 4 Hollow cement bricks for parapet wall 1000.00nos
  • 23. Ridge Truss Ridge ventilator Purlin Gutter Lateral Gutter Support ventilator Components of typical greenhouse Different shapes of the Greenhouse
  • 26.