concept of cool chain in India


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concept of cool chain in India

  1. 1. CONCEPT OF COOL CHAIN IN INdIA  Submitted to: Dr Lal Dr Lalit Bhatt  Submitted by: Surabhi 38037
  2. 2. WHAT IS A COOL CHAIN??  A cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain. It is a logistic system that provides a series of facilities for maintaining ideal storage conditions for perishables from the point of origin to the point of consumption in the food supply chain.  The chain needs to start at the farm level and cover up to the consumer level  A well organised cool chain reduces spoilage,retains the quality of the harvested products and guarantees a cost efficient delivery to the consumer given adequate attention for customer service.  The main feature of the chain is that if
  3. 3. EVOLUTION OF COOL CHAIN IN INDIA At the time of Indian independence there were only a few cold stores mainly located in U.P, Punjab & West Bengal. Most of these were bulk cold stores designed for storage of potatoes & were mainly based on old technology of construction, thermal insulation & refrigeration systems with practically no automation systems.  One of the oldest multi chamber cold stores was in Fruit Research Station at Pune & was supposedly installed in 1932 during the British rule.  However the major development of the concept of multipurpose cold storage unit happened between 1965 to 1970 when few units were established for storage of a number of products in Bangalore & Pune
  4. 4.  Many cold storage units were set up in our country in the coming years but they were mainly for the storage of potato seeds and less for fruits and vegetables.  Due to concern to heavy post harvest losses government constituted a National Task Force on Cold-Chain in 2008 which was discharged in 2010 on completing its mandate and it suggested that there should be a dedicated institute to promote and coordinate various cold chain initiatives and this lead to the formation of
  5. 5. NATIONAL CENTRE FOR COLD-CHAIN DEVELOPMENT(NCCD) NCCD is an autonomous body established by the government of India with an agenda to positively impact and promote the development of cold chain sector in the country.  NCCD was registered under the Society Registration Act 1860 in 2011 and obtained sanction by the Union Cabinet of India 9 Feb 2012.
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES OF NCCD:  Serves as a think tank to the government on the subject of cold chain development.  Provide an enabling envt. for cold-chain sector & facilitate private investment for cold-chain infrastructure.  Narrows the gap in the supply and value chain including storage,transport & business processes.  Address the concerns on standards and protocols related to cold-chain testing,verification,certification and accreditation.  Assist in developing and promoting new and energy efficient technologies and their
  7. 7.  Capacity building and training activities to reduce the gap in skilled human resources required for cold chain sector.  Recommend guidelines to minimise environment impact and promote sustainability in the cold chain.  Awareness programs on best practices for perishable product handling,indigenised for specific requirements and conditions.  NCCD is intended to address all segments and the developmental
  8. 8. CURRENT STATUS OF COLD-CHAIN INDUSTRY IN INDIA  Cold storage in India has been largely adopted for long-term storage of potatoes, onions and high value crops like apples, grapes and flowers.  Over 65% of the cold storage capacity is confined to U.P. and West Bengal only.  In the potato & multipurpose cold storage,U.P. and Uttarakhand account for the highest number of cold storage and capacity.  Maharashtra has the maximum number of fruits and vegetables cold storage in india.  The Indian cold chain market is highly fragmented with more than 3,500 companies in the whole value system.  Cold storage solutions form about 85 per cent of the Indian cold chain market by value and the balance 15 per cent is contributed by transportation.
  9. 9.  The number of cold storages in India are around 5316 with the total capacity of around 23333694mTs.  The number of private sector cold storage in India account for 4820 with capacity of 222343607mTs ,cooperative sector 363 numbers with 989445mTs,public sector account for 133 numbers with a capacity of 100642mTs.  Cold storage services are available for only 10% of the produce.
  10. 10. OBJECTIVES OF COOL CHAIN INDUSTRIES  With the growing demands to keep and distribute temperature sensitive products in potent conditions, organizations are seeking better solutions to maintain and monitor cold chain.  A streamlined, well maintained cold chain helps to: *Reduce costs *Improve product integrity *Increase customer satisfaction *Reduce wastage and returns of
  11. 11. COOL CHAIN INFRASTRUCTURE  Precooling facilities  Cold storages  Refrigerated carriers  Packaging  Warehouse and information management system  Financial and Insurance Institutions
  12. 12. Precooling facilities  Precooling is the prompt cooling of produce after harvest for removal of field heat from fruits and vegetables by subjecting them to any cooling method like hydrocooling,room cooling,forced air cooling,vacuum
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION OF COLD STORAGE  As per the present day practice, the cold stores can be classified as follows: 1. Bulk Cold Stores – Generally for storage of a single commodity, which mostly operate on a seasonal basis e.g. stores for Potato, Chillies, Apples etc. 2. Multipurpose Cold Stores designed for storage of variety of commodities which operate, practically, round the year. The products stored in these types of cold stores are Fruits, Vegetables, Dry Fruits, Spices, Pulses, Milk Products etc. These units have been mainly located near the consuming centres. 3. Small cold stores with precooling facilities for fresh fruits and vegetables, mainly, for export oriented items like Grapes etc. The major concentration of these units is in Maharashtra but the trend is now picking up in other states like Karnataka, Andhra, Gujarat etc.
  14. 14. 4. Frozen food stores with or without processing and freezing facility for fish, meat, poultry, dairy products and processed fruits and vegetables. These units have helped the promotion and the growth of frozen foods sector, both in the domestic and the export markets. However the percentage of foods so processed is extremely low and a great potential exists for growth in this category. 5. Mini units / Walk-in cold stores located at hotels, restaurants, malls, supermarkets etc. 6. Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Stores for certain fruits/ vegetables like apples, pears, cherries. 7. Ripening chambers mainly setup for Bananas & Mangoes
  15. 15. Refrigerated carriers  Various companies in India offer refrigerated carriers facilities to maintain the cold chain system.For example:Anand frozen food carriers, Frigid systems, Sushma everfresh foods private ltd. etc.  Different refervans,refertrucks,rail cars or refrigerated ships etc are there for proper maintenance of
  16. 16. PACKAGING IN A COLD CHAIN  Packaging plays a key role in protecting the product from contamination by external sources and from damage during its passage from the food producer to the consumer.  The choice of packaging is dictated primarily by economic, technical and legislative factors. Also, a well- designed and consumer-appealing package will help to portray an image of high quality and responsible food production to the consumer.  The primary function of food packaging is to protect the food from
  17. 17.  Package barrier properties protect the food from ingress of gas, light, and water vapour, each of which can result in deterioration of colours, oxidation of lipids and unsaturated fats, denaturation of proteins and a general loss of characteristic sensory qualities.  Similarly, barrier properties protect against the loss of moisture from the food to the external environment thereby eliminating dehydration and weight loss.  A wide range of materials is used for food packaging, including plastic,
  18. 18. Warehouses > There are three agencies in public sector that are involved in building large scale warehouses: #Food Corporation of India (FCI) #Central Warehousing Corporation(CWC) #State Warehousing Corporation(SWC) >Other are the private agencies involved in building warehouses.
  19. 19. Information Management System  It includes a management system capable of collecting and reporting data.  A stock inventory control system to ensure proper management of all supplies.  Sufficient number of trained personnel at every level ,with adequate supervision.  A good management system is very
  20. 20. STEPS IN A COLD CHAIN  Harvesting during cooler part o the day to decrease field heat.  Precooling is done to remove field heat.  Packaging is done in pack rooms.  Cold storage at field condition.  Refrigerated transport to destination market or airport.  Cold storage at destination or market.  Cold storage by the consumer before consumption.
  22. 22. TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENT:  Different products require different temperature.  The common standard temperatures are Chiller(-20 C),Frozen(-18 C) and⁰ ⁰ deep frozen(-25 C).⁰
  23. 23. CHALLENGES IN THE COLD CHAIN SECTOR: Cold chains face several roadblocks in their growth and some of the most challenging hurdles are listed below: #Rising real estate cost: A fully integrated cold storage facility of international standards,with one million cubic ft. of storage space,will require an area of approximately an acre,which is a huge investment. #Location for cold storage: Cooling units are not mobile units so the location of such units becomes a key constraint as there are very few parcels of large land spaces available in india.
  24. 24. #Lack of proper infrastructure: The cold chain industry in india is very fragmented,with players not having the strength to invest in the technology needed to build high quality cold storage or to invest in reefer trucks. #High energy cost: Energy expenses alone account for about 30% of the total expenses of the cold chain sector in india.It increases the capital investment costs. #Uneven distribution of capacity: The majority of cold storage in india have been established in states like Uttar Pradesh,Maharashtra,Gujarat,Punjab and West Bengal.But the establishment of such cold storages needs to be more geographically diverse.
  25. 25. # The cold storages in india can cater to single commodities only.Different commodities require different temperature conditions , resulting in poor capacity utilization and low financial viability. #FDI Restrictions in retail: Cold chain infrastructure needs huge investment.Easing restrictions on FDI in multi brand retail could open up channels for further fund infusion from new foreign entrants. #Lack of access to market & technology. #There is not always a continous cold pathway from the field till it reaches to the consumer that decreases the shelf
  26. 26. DRIVING FACTORS FOR INDIA COLD STORAGE  Government is taking initiatives in promoting cold chain sector..  Increasing government regulation.The demand from customers for continously available high quality food products are primary cause of cold chain integration.  Today’s busy & health conscious consumer is demanding fresh ,wholesome and healthy product in incresing volumes and a variety of offerings.  Cold chain systems can be of strategic importance to companies since brand integrity , customer confidence ,market share and profit are all at risk.
  27. 27. Various companies in India involved in cool chain supply  Reliance  Godrej  R.K.Foodland  Apollo Everest cool solutions  McDonald’s  Indraprastha cold chain  Glacio cold chain  Bulaki deep freeze  Snowman  Refcon carriers  Tata  Aditya Birla Group
  28. 28. Recent news on cold chain in Uttarakhand  A refrigerated apple van, a vital link of the cold chain has been developed for the first time in Uttarakhand recently in February 2013..  It is initiated by Stichting Het Groene Woutd(SHGW), a Dutch family foundation and social investor and NGO, Sri Jagdamba Samiti(SJS) and it has helped create employment,income,technical skill,and capacity among the apple growers of
  29. 29. CONCLUSION  An overview of the cold chain system in India over the past 50 to 60 years shows that the cold storage construction technology, the practices of thermal insulation, refrigeration plant technology, automation and material handling have undergone significant transformation.  From the point of view of utilization also, the cold stores today offer much wider scope than in the past.  Energy saving and the Green Cold chain concept are also being seriously looked at by the progressive entrepreneurs and designers.  A scientifically developed Cold Chain, designed to handle and preserve the substantial quantity and excellent quality of food products grown in the country, would turn into a’ ‘Gold Chain’ for the country.