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• Protected cultivation practices can be defined as a cropping technique wherein
the micro climate surrounding the plant body is controlled partially or fully as per
the requirement of crops grown during their period of growth. With the
advancement in horticulture various types of protected cultivation practices
suitable for a specific type of agro-climatic zone have emerged. Among these
protective cultivation practices, poly green house, net house, shade house,
plastic tunnel & mulching etc. are very useful for Haryana State. Protected
cultivation under different types of structures save plants from winter and
extends the cultivation session for off-season crop production. In Haryana state,
commercially protected cultivation started after the launching of National
Horticulture Mission and has taken a boost after the setting up of Centre of
Excellence for Vegetables at Gharaunda in District Karnal under Indo-Israel
Project during last year. In view of climate of Haryana State, naturally ventilated
poly houses are very suitable and have good economics as compared to High-
tech poly houses. Walk-in-Tunnels, a type of poly house with less height also
proved effective technology particularly for the cultivation of capsicum crops.
Low-tunnels have gained its popularity for the crops grown in winter season. The
farmers have started adoption of mulching to eradicate the problem of weeds and
to maintain the moisture of soil for prolonged period through minimization of
2.Why Green house & Poly
• After the advent of green revolution, more emphasis is laid on the quality of the
agricultural product along with the quantity of production to meet the ever-
growing food and nutritional requirements. Both these demands can be met
when the environment for the plant growth is suitably controlled. The need to
protect the crops against unfavourable environmental conditions led to the
development of protected agriculture. Greenhouse is the most practical
method of achieving the objectives of protected agriculture, where natural
environment is modified by using sound engineering principles to achieve
optimum plant growth and yield. Poly house cultivation has become an
important policy of Indian Agriculture. Our country is self dependent on food
grain production but to fulfill the nutritional security, the gap between
increasing demand of horticultural produce has to be filled. This gap cannot be
filled by the traditional horticulture which required large area under horticulture
to increase the production for the ever growing population. Green house
technology has potential to produce more produce per unit area with increased
input use efficiency. Therefore, this problem can be coped up by adopting
green /poly house technology for the horticultural production. For example if
one lakh hectare area under vegetable cultivation is brought out under poly
house cultivation the annual availability of vegetable will be increased by at
least 100 lakh tons. Besides this it will also increase the significant jobs
opportunity for the skilled rural men, youths and rural women.
• Total production of vegetables in India is next to China, but per capita
availability of vegetables is much lower than required. The productions of
vegetable crops are to be increased to meet the demand of the ever growing
population otherwise per capita availability of vegetables will further go down.
There is lot of pressure on cultivable land caused due to industrialization,
urbanization and expansion of the rural villages. Therefore, it is utmost
necessary to improve the productivity of crops including vegetables by
adopting intensive cultivation, hydroponics and poly house cultivation.
Adopting poly house cultivation the productivity of vegetable crops can be
increased by 3-5 times as compared to open environment. Besides
productivity, the better quality of produce is also obtained under poly house
cultivation. This technology can be adopted by the rural youth for more
income per unit of land. The improvement in economy of farmers 2
• with the decreasing land holding is also possible through the protected
cultivation by increasing production per unit area. The glut of vegetable during
a short period of harvesting is also the problem in the country which can be
minimized with the protected cultivation as harvesting period of crops under
protected structures is longer.
3.ASPECTS OF GREENHOUSE
I. Classification of greenhouse
II. Design and Orientation of Greenhouse / Polyhouse
III. Components of green house
IV. Plant growing structures/containers in green house production
V. Environmental factors influencing greenhouse cultivation
VI. Fan and Pad system
VII. Media preparation and fumigation
VIII. Drip irrigation and fertigation systems
IX. Problem management in greenhouse cultivation
X. Linkages – Backward and Forward
I. CLASSIFICATION OF
• Greenhouses are frames of inflated structure covered with a transparent
material in which crops are grown under controlled environment conditions.
Greenhouse cultivation as well as other modes of controlled environment
cultivation has been evolved to create favourable micro-climates, which
favours the crop production could be possible all through the year or part of
the year as required. Greenhouses and other technologies for controlled
environment plant production are associated with the offseason production of
ornamentals and foods of high value in cold climate areas where outdoor
production is not possible. The primary environmental parameter traditionally
controlled is temperature, usually providing heat to overcome extreme cold
conditions. However, environmental control can also include cooling to
mitigate excessive temperatures, light control either shading or adding
supplemental light, carbon dioxide levels, relative humidity, water, plant
nutrients and pest control
A. Classification of greenhouse based on suitability
1.Low cost or low tech greenhouse: Low cost greenhouse is a simple structure
constructed with locally available materials such as bamboo, timber etc. The
ultra violet (UV) film is used as cladding materials. Unlike conventional or hi-
tech greenhouses, no specific control devices for regulating environmental
parameters inside the greenhouse are provided. Simple techniques are,
however, adopted for increasing or decreasing the temperature and humidity.
Even light intensity can be reduced by incorporating shading materials like
nets. The temperature can be reduced during summer by opening the side
walls. Such structure is used as rain shelter for crop cultivation. Otherwise,
inside temperature is increased when all sidewalls are covered with plastic
film. This type of greenhouse is mainly suitable for cold climatic zone.
2. Medium-tech greenhouse: Greenhouse users prefers to have manually or
semiautomatic control arrangement owing to minimum investment. This type
of greenhouse is constructed using galvanized iron (G.I) pipes. The canopy
cover is attached with structure with the help of screws. Whole structure is
firmly fixed with the ground to withstand the
disturbance against wind. Exhaust fans with thermostat are provided to
control the temperature. Evaporative cooling pads and misting arrangements
are also made to maintain a favourable humidity inside the greenhouse. As
these systems are semi-automatic, hence, require a lot of attention and care,
and it is very difficult and cumbersome to maintain uniform environment
throughout the cropping period. These greenhouses are suitable for dry and
composite climatic zones.
3. Hi-tech greenhouse: To overcome some of the difficulties in medium-tech
greenhouse, a hi-tech greenhouse where the entire device controlling
environment parameters are supported to function automatically.
B. Classification based on Cost of polyhouses
a. Less expensive greenhouse without fan and pad Rs.300 to 600/m2
b. Medium cost greenhouse with natural ventilation without fan and pad system
Rs.800.00 to Rs.1100.00/m2
c. Expensive greenhouses with fully automatic Rs.1465 to Rs.4000/m2 control
C. Other classifications
The greenhouse can also be classified based on type of structures, type of glazing,
number of spans, environmental control etc. The various types are as follows.
1.Classification as per type of structure
a. Quonset type
b. Curved roof type
c. Gable roof type
2. Classification as per glazing
a. Glass glazing
b. Fiberglass reinforced plastic glazing
i. Plain sheet
ii. Corrugated sheet
c. Plastic film
i. Ultra violet stabilized low density poly ethylene
3. Classification based on number of spans
I. Free standing or single span
II. Multispan or ridge and furrow or gutter connected
4. Classification based on environmental control
I. Naturally ventilated
II. Passive ventilation
5. Classification based on types Poly house:
• The crops grown in open field are exposed to vivid environmental
conditions, attack of insects and pests, whereas the polyhouse provides
a more stable environment. Polyhouse can be divided in to three types -
1 Naturally ventilated polyhouse- These polyhouse do not have any environmental
control system except for the provision of adequate ventilation and fogger
system to prevent basically the damage from weather aberrations and other
2 Environmental controlled polyhouse -This type of polyhouse helps to extend the
growing season or permits off-season production by way of controlling light,
temperature, humidity, carbon-dioxide level and nature of root medium.
3. Shade house- Shadehouses are used for the production of plants in warm
climates or during summer months. Nurserymen use these structures for the
growth of hydrangeas and azaleas during the summer months. Apart from
nursery, flowers and foliages which require shade can also be grown in
shadehouses. E.g. Orchids, These shade structures make excellent holding
areas for field-grown stock while it is being prepared for shipping to retail
outlets. Shadehouses are most often constructed as a pole-supported structure
and covered with either lath (lathhouses) or polypropylene shade fabric.
Polypropylene shadenets with various percentages of ventilations are used.
Black, green, and white coloured nets are used, while black colours are the
most preferred as it retains heat outside.
4. DESIGN AND ORIENTATION
The design of greenhouse should be based upon sound scientific principles which
facilitates controlled environment for the plant growth. Controlled environment plant
production systems are used widely throughout the world to produce plant materials
and products at a time or place, or of a quality that cannot be obtained outdoors.
Controlled environment agriculture requires far more capital investment per unit area
than field agriculture and thus must essentially be correspondingly more intensive
to justify investment costs. The greenhouse is a structure covered with a transparent
material for admitting natural light for plant growth. The main components of
greenhouse like structure, covering/glazing and temperature control systems need
proper design for healthy growth of plants. Under Indian conditions, Quonset type,
multispan greenhouse is most suitable, because of its low cost and eases of
fabrication. Ultra violet resistant low density polyethylene (UVLDPE) single film
cladding of 200 micron thickness is sufficient for Naturally Ventilated ( NV)
greenhouse and fan and pad (FP) greenhouses. This should be fully tightened by
stretching on the structure to avoid fluter and tearing. It should not be nailed or
screwed to the structure as it gives the chance for tearing. The T-Lock and L-Lock
should be used for fastening the sheet at structure, as this does not tear the sheet
and sheet replacement is easy.
5. COMPONENTS OFGREENHOUSE
i. Roof: transparent cover of a green house.
ii. Gable: transparent wall of a green house
iii. Cladding material: transparent material mounted on the walls and roof of a
iv. Rigid cladding material: cladding material with such a degree of rigidity that any
deformation of the structure may result in damage to it. Ex. Glass
v. Flexible cladding material: cladding material with such a degree of flexibility that
any deformation of the structure will not result in damage to it. Ex. Plastic film
vi. Gutter: collects and drains rain water and snow which is place at an elevated
level between two spans.
vii. Column: vertical structure member carrying the green house structure
viii. Purlin: a member who connects cladding supporting bars to the columns
ix. Ridge: highest horizontal section in top of the roof
x. Girder: horizontal structure member, connecting columns on gutter height
xi. Bracings: To support the structure against wind
xii. Arches: Member supporting covering materials
xiii. Foundation pipe: Connection between the structure and ground
xiv. Span width: Center to center distance of the gutters in multispan houses
xv. Green house length: dimension of the green house in the direction of gable
xvi. Green house width: dimension of the green house in the direction of the gutter
6. DRIP IRRIGATION AND
The plant is required to take up very large amounts of water and nutrients, with a
relatively small root system, and manufacture photosynthates for a large amount of
flower per unit area with a foliar system relatively small in relation to required
A. Watering system: Micro irrigation system is the best for watering plants in a
greenhouse. Micro sprinklers or drip irrigation equipments can be used. Basically
the watering system should ensure that water does not fall on the leaves or flowers
as it leads to disease and scorching problems. In micro sprinkler system, water
under high pressure is forced through nozzles arranged on a supporting stand at
about 1 feet height. This facilitates watering at the base level of the plants.
B. Equipments required for drip irrigation system include
i. A pump unit to generate 2.8kg/cm2 pressure
ii. Water filtration system – sand/silica/screen filters
iii. PVC tubing with dripper or emitters
C. Drippers of different types are available:
i. Labyrinth drippers
ii. Turbo dripper
iii. Pressure compensating drippers – contain silicon membrane which
assures uniform flow rate for years
iv. Button drippers- easy and simple to clean. These are good for pots,
orchards and are available with side outlet/top outlet or micro tube out let
v. Pot drippers – cones with long tube.
D. Water output in drippers:
i. 16mm dripper at 2.8kg/cm2 pressure gives 2.65 litres/hour ( LPH).
ii. 15mm dripper at 1 kg/cm2 pressure gives 1 to 4 litres per hour.
E. Filters: Depending upon the type of water, different kinds of filters can be used.
i. Gravel filter: Used for filtration of water obtained for open canals and reservoirs
that are contaminated by organic impurities, algae etc. The filtering is done by
beds of basalt or quartz.
ii. Hydrocyclone: Used to filter well or river water that carries sand particles.
iii. Disc flitersL: Used to remove fine particles suspended in water
iv. Screen filters: Stainless steel screen of 120 mesh (0.13mm) sizes. This is used
for second stage filtration of irrigation water.
a.Subsidy: The Dept of Horticulture, Govt is providing subsidy of 65%, 90% and 50%
on cost of polyhouse, irrigation system and planting material respectively. The
back ended subsidy will be provided to financing bank in respect to the
beneficiaries immediately after the release of first instalment of loan. The subsidy
admissible to the borrower under the scheme will be kept in the Subsidy Reserve
Fund A/c – borrower-wise in the books of the financing banks.
b. Refinance to Banks:
The 90% of the amount financed to the borrower under the scheme by banks will be eligible
for the refinance from NABARD.
c. Bank Finance:
i. Term Loan: The banks may finance 90% of the project cost as term loan. The
eligible amount of subsidy would also be allowed as term loan.
ii. Margin Money: The entrepreneurs should normally meet 10% of the project cost
out of their own resources.
iii. Interest Rate: Interest rate will be decided by financing banks from time to time.
However, the repayment programme has been worked out at 14% rate of interest.
iv. Security: Banks may obtain security as per RBI norms.
v. Repayment: The principal and interest will be repayable in seven years, with
moratorium of 01 year.
• Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) belongs to the genus Lycopersicon under
Solanaceae family. Tomato is a herbaceous sprawling plant growing to 1-3 m in
height with weak woody stem. The flowers are yellow in colour and the fruits of
cultivated varieties vary in size from cherry tomatoes, about 1–2 cm in size to
beefsteak tomatoes, about 10 cm or more in diameter. Most cultivars produce red
fruits when ripe. Tomato is a native to Peruvian and Mexican region. Though there
are no definite records of when and how it came to India, the Portuguese perhaps
introduced it to India.
• Tomato is one of the most important "protective foods" because of its special
nutritive value. It is one of the most versatile vegetable with wide usage in Indian
culinary tradition. Tomatoes are used for soup, salad, pickles, ketchup, puree,
sauces and in many other ways It is also used as a salad vegetable. Tomato has
very few competitors in the value addition chain of processing.
B. CLIMATE: It is a warm season crop and the moderate temperature ranging from
18oC to 30oC is best for its growth and flowering. This crop cannot tolerate low
temperature and is very much susceptible to frost. However, it can be sown under
polyhouse during December-January at slightly improved condition for raising
early summer crop with better quality of fruits.
C.SOIL :The tomato crop can be raised in a wide variety of soil ranging from light
textured sandy or sandy loam to heavy clay soils. The soil should be rich in nutrients
and organic matter. The ideal soil pH is 6.00 to 7.00 for its growth. High organic
matter content inoil is highly essential for higher production and quality.
D. BED PREPARATION:A raised bed is always preferred for plantation of Tomato
Cultivation. After fumigation, the beds of following dimensions are prepared.
1. Top width - 90cm
2. Path width- 50 cm
3. Height - 40 cm
E. PLANTING DISTANCE:
1) 40 cm between two plants
2) 50 cm between two rows
G. PLANTING MATERIAL: The seedlings of 05-06 weeks old are used for transplanting,
depending on temperature and light conditions during propagation. Ideal seedling
size is about 16 cm.
The varieties which are preferred for cultivation under polyhouse are –
a. Tomato - By Syngenta - Him Sona, Him Shekha, Insona, 34774 etc.
b. Cherry tomato – By Monsento -Olleh, Raisy etc.
Besides the varieties developed by HAU and IARI are also available for protected
The harvesting of tomato fruits start from 90 days after transplanting. The total
crop period for tomatoes is 8-9 month after planting. The harvesting is done
daily or alternate day depending on market distance and customer choice. For
long distance marketing, the fruits are picked at matured green or breaker
stage. For processing the fully matured red ripe fruits are harvested in order to
optimize the quality parameters. The optimum storage condition of 12oC
temperature and 86 to 90 per cent relative humidity is required for tomatoes.
Under polyhouse condition from well maintained tomato crop average 30 kg/m2
or 10 kg/plant of marketable fruits are obtained.
Capsicum (Capsicum annum) belongs to the family Solanaceae and is an
important member of chilli group. Green pepper is reported to be the native of
tropical America. In India its introduction is believed to be through the
Portuguese. In India it is cultivated commercially in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,
Himachal Pradesh and in some parts of Uttar Pradesh. In North India, it is
known as "Simla Mirch" and is an important summer crop grown extensively in
the mild hills of Himachal Pradesh to supply to the plains. It is variously called
as capsicum, green pepper, sweet pepper, bell pepper, etc. In shape and
pungency it is different from chilli. It is fleshy, blocky, of various shapes, more
like a bell and hence named bell pepper. Almost all the varieties of green
pepper are very mild in pungency and some of them are non-pungent, and as
such they can be used as stuffed vegetable.
B. CLIMATE :
Capsicum grown under plolyhouse require following climatic conditions to get
good quality and better yield round the year.
Name of crop Day (0C) Night (0C) Humidity (%) Light intensity (Lux)
Capsicum 21-28 18-20 60-65 50000-60000
Higher temperature is detrimental to fruit set. High temperature and low relative
humidity at the time of flowering increases the transpiration pull resulting in
abscission of buds, flowers and small fruits. Moreover, higher night temperatures
are found to be responsible for the higher capsaicin (pungency) content in green
Although sweet pepper can be grown in almost all types of soils, well drained clay
loam soil is considered ideal for its cultivation. It can withstand acidity to a certain
extent. Levelled and raised beds have been found more suitable than sunken beds
for its cultivation. On sandy loam soils, the crop can be successfully grown
provided the manuring is done heavily and the crop is irrigated properly and timely.
The most suitable pH range of soil for green pepper is 6 to 6.5.
D. BED PREPARATION:
A raised bed is always preferred for plantation of capsicum. Bed should be highly
porous, well drained, providing adequate aeration for root development. The raised
bed for capsicum plantation should have following dimensions.
Top width - 100 cm
Path width – 90 cm
Height – 40 cm.
E. PLANTING DISTANCE:
Plant to Plant distance: 40 cm
Row to Row distance : 50 c
F. PLANTING MATERIAL :
• The planting material should be healthy, resistant to diseases & pests.
• Age of the seedling should be 35 to 40 days old.
• Height of the seedling should be 16-20 cm.
• Plant should possess good rooting system.
• Seedling should have at least 4-6 leaves on the stem at the time of plantation.
Other characteristics like fruit shape, fruit colour, production, fruit quality and vigour
should also be considered while selecting plant material of good variety of
• There are a number of varieties of green pepper cultivated in India. The important
ones are as under
• California Wonder
• Chinese Giant
• World Beater
• Yolo Wonder
• There are some other varieties of capsicum such as Early Giant. Bullnose, King of
North. Ruby King, Indra, Bombay, Orobelle etc. which are grown in India under
Harvesting of capsicum is done at green, breaker and coloured (red/yellow etc.)
stage. It depends upon the purpose for which it is grown and distance for the
ultimate market. In India fruits are harvested at break stage for long distant
markets. For local market, it is better to harvest coloured stage. Breaker stage
is the one when 10% of the fruit surface is coloured and when more than 90%
of the fruit surface is coloured it is considered as coloured stage
Harvesting starts after 60 to 75 days after transplanting & should be done with the
help of sharp knife. Harvesting at the proper stage of maturity, careful and
minimal handling of the produce will help in maintaining better fruit quality and
reduce storage losses. Harvesting is generally done during morning and
evening hours. Avoid harvesting immediately after fogging to check the
disease and pest under control and to maintain better keeping quality of fruit.
Generally, Harvesting of capsicum is done by skilled worker in green house
and kept in plastic containers an send to the packing hall.
Average yield of capsicum is 6 to 8 kg/ plant.
A. INTRODUCTION :
• Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) known as Kihra in Hindi is an important summer
vegetable commonly grown throughout India. The cucumber is used as salad, as
pickle and also cooked vegetable. It has a cooling effect, prevents constipation,
useful in jaundice and seed have number of ayurvedic uses.
B. CLIMATE :
The cucumber is a warm season crop and grows best at a temperature between
180C and 240C. It does not withstand even light frost
Cucumber can be grown in all types of soil from sandy to heavy soils. Loam, silt
loam and clay loam soils are considered best for getting higher yield. Soil pH
between 5.5 and 6.7 is favorable for its cultivation.
D. BED PREPARATION:
A raised bed is always preferred for plantation of Cucumber cultivation. After
fumigation, the beds of following dimensions are prepared.
1. Top width- 90cm.
2. Path width- 50cm.
3. Height- 40cm
E. PLANTING DISTANCE:
• Plant to Plant distance: 45 cm
• Row to Row distance : 75 cm.
F. PLANTING MATERIAL:
Seeds can be sown directly in the bed as cucumber has good germination % of
seedling of five to six weeks age can be used for transplanting, depending on
temperature and light conditions during propagation.
• There are a number of varieties of cucumber cultivated in India. The important
ones are -
• Japnese Lon Green
• Khira poona
• Balam Khira
Harvest may begin 50 to 65 days after planting. Cucumber is harvested both for
fresh market and for processing. They should be picked at frequent intervals in
order to avoid losses due to over sized or over mature fruits. Once harvesting
starts the fruits are generally picked at 2-4 days intervals depending upon
market information. For commercial purpose, cucumber is harvested at
immature stage 5-7 days after pollination depending upon the cultivars
Average yield of capsicum is 6 to 8 kg/ plant
A. INTRODUCTION :
Depending on the species and varieties, roses have various uses. They may be used
as cut flowers, and garden plants. They may also be used in making rose oil, rose
water and gulkhand. Model project is on production of roses for use as cut flowers,
which have an important place in preparation of bouquets, floral arrangements,
worship, social occasions and presentation of gifts. Measured in terms of volume of
trade in the international market cut roses rank first in popularity. Further, with the
advancement in production and marketing of cut roses and also on account of recent
economic liberalisation there has been an upsurge of interest in production of cut
roses in plastic green houses in India.
Plenty of light, humid and moderate temperature ranging from 150C to 280C may be
considered as ideal conditions for roses in the tropical and subtropical climate of
India. At temperature below 150C roses can be grown, but the interval between
flushes become longer. At higher temperature, say above 300C, roses can be grown
provided high humidity is maintained and evaporation is slowed down.
C. SOIL :
Well drained soil rich in organic matter and oxygen is good for roses. Organic matter
as high as 30 per cent in the top 30 cm of the growing beds is preferred by many
growers. The pH of the soil should be around 6 to 6.5.
D. BED PREPARATION:
• Top width – 90 cm
• Bottom width – 100 cm
• Height – 45 cm
• Path way – 50 cm
E. PLANTING DISTANCE:
• Plant to Plant distance: 17 cm
• Row to Row distance : 45 cm
F. PLANTING MATERIAL:
Rose plant used for plantation should be 2-3 month old and have minimum two dark green
colour leaves. Bud union of rose plant should not be covered with soil. It should be 2-3 cm
above the ground level. The sprout coming out of the union should face towards the path at
the time of plantation. Rose plants are planted in a zigzag method on the bed.
G. TYPES OF ROSES AND VARIETIES:
• The major types of roses which are commercially important are as under:-
• Hybrid Tea Roses : These have large flowers (4 cm.) long stems (125 cm). Yield
varies from 100-200 stems/sqm. Hybrid Teas fetch higher price than other types.
• A few well-known varieties of this group are SONIA, VIVALDI, TINEKE, MELODY,
DARLING and ONLY LOVE.
• Floribunda Roses : These have small flowers (2.5 cm) and shorter stems (less
than 60 cm), but yield much higher than other types. Examples of this type are
FRISCO, MERCEDES, JAGUAR, KISS and FLORENCE.
• Spray Roses : A single stem of this type may carry 5-6 flowers, but stem yield per
sqm is low. Important varieties belonging to the type are EVELIEN, JOY and
Roses should attain the right stage for harvesting. If cut too early, flowers miss
reserve food and therefore, may not develop into full flowers. If cut too late,
longevity diminishes. As such, roses should be cut just as the buds are opening,
after the sepals have almost fully curled up and the colour is fully visible. In small
flowered varieties and Floribundas, the flowers are cut just when they begin to open
the cluster. The cutting may be done in the evening or early morning with long stem.
The lower end of cut stems are immediately placed in clean plastic buckets
containing a clean solution of 500 ppm citric acid or in chrysal - RVB. Thereafter, the
buckets containing cut roses are brought to the grading and packing Shed/Hall
Harvesting Stages S
.No Particulars Place of cutting Month from date of
1 Ground shoot
At 5th five pair of leaves from bottom of
3 to 3.5
2nd or 3rd five pair of leaves from first cut 4.5 to 5
3 Second /
2nd or 3rd five pair of leaves from first cut 6th month onwards
• The rose should be cut with the help of sharp cut and hold secateurs. Ground shoot
cutting should be done on 5th five pair of leaf then one or two eye buds sprout from
lower leaves below the cut. These sprouts will grow into flowers in the period of 35
to 50 days. This varies from variety to variety. Later on the first harvest should be
taken on 2nd or 3rd five pair of the leaves above the first cut. During summer season
or when there is less leaf area on plant it is always advisable to take cut on 3rd five
pair of leaves above the first cut. Always bend thin stems and take cut on 3rd five
pair of leaves above the first cut. Always bend thin stems and take cut on thick
stems to get strong shoots.
• The regular harvesting is done on 2nd five pair of leaves. Sometimes under cutting is
also practiced as it is an important technique to keep rose plants at reasonable
height. Harvesting cut should be sharp and inclined direction for avoiding the
deposition of water or spray solution. When the temperature is low in the green
house harvesting is done only once i.e. during early morning hours. When there is
high day temperature it is necessary to take second harvesting in later afternoon.
• Cut stages of roses play an important role in harvesting. Cut stages of roses for
export is stage 0 and 1 whereas cut stage is 2 and 3 for domestic market.
M. YIELD: Average yield of roses is 30 to 35 stem/ plant per year.
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