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Marketing Research Insights 22 Visual Displays by Kathryn Korostoffand Michael Lieberman
© 2009 by Kathryn Korostoff & Michael Lieberman Copyright holder is licensing this under the Creative Commons License, Attribution 3.0. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/ Please feel free to post this on your blog or email it to whomever you believe would benefit from reading it. Thank you. 2
Contents Page Introduction………………………………4 Research Process…………………………..5 Customer Satisfaction/Unmet Needs………..8 Competitive Analysis……………………...15 Win/Loss Research………………………..19 Brand Awareness & Equity……………..….22 Brand Position……………………...….…27 Segmentation…………………………....33 About the Authors…………………….…37 3
Introduction A picture is worth a thousand words. A graphic is worth more. Understanding topical relationships between cause and effects is a vital marketing research reporting requisite. A good researcher presents clear,  actionable results, the best approaches to the marketing challenge the client must solve—the answer. Often the most effective method for conveying these results are visual. Marketing research graphics can deliver insights into almost all marketing strategies and activities. In some cases, standard pie charts and bar graphs are sufficient. But in our experience, such standard visual displays are overused and simply don’t tell enough of a story to have impact. To really convey the “so what” results from a primary research study, something more is needed. This volume is a concise overview intended to showcase compelling marketing research visuals that assist in the design and delivery of impactful results. It strives to share a mix of direct analytic results and synthesis-oriented displays; an array of options for use by students, product managers, C-suite executives,  marketing  and marketing research professionals. 4
Research Process 5
Explaining Research Options to Audience Use:  Raises awareness of research options among groups new to market research.  Often used during project planning meetings to help set expectations and explain trade-offs. 6 High Social Network Monitoring Customer Advisory Councils Immediacy Focus Groups In-depth Interviews Quantitative Surveys Low Low High Suitable for Extrapolation
Agency Selection Weighted Scorecard 7 Use: Aids in agency selection process by getting agreement on selection criteria and weights. Agencies are then judged on criteria, and weights applied, to reach a total score. In this example, Agency A’s superior presentation skills are a significant factor in making it a better choice for the client.
Customer Satisfaction/               Unmet Needs 8
MATRIX Analysis 9 Use: This visual  displays  a customer value management (CVM) quadrant. By constructing a visual critical path the CVM can serve as an organization’s strategic navigation. Attributes migrate from CVM categories, beginning as ‘Unmet Needs’ and migrating clockwise.  The CVM method becomes a precise technique for assessing the role of new product features,  predicting how they will migrate, and provides a map of the strategic directions of the product or corporate communication. Strengths Unmet Needs These are the "primary strengths" of the Brand.  These are "target issues" to improve brand equity.  The Brand is performing below average and these attributes are important.   Stronger Impact Impact on Satisfaction/Purchase Intent Consumer concerns are being met, though these attributes are not important for brand equity. Potential for resource misallocation.      These attributes are not crucial. Immediate focus should be on brand attributes. Weaker Impact Low Priority Potential Advantages Weaker Performance Stronger Performance Average Performance Scores
Identify Unmet Needs Based on Current Product Perceptions: Laptop Example Use: Easily focuses audience on areas of opportunity (where importance is high and satisfaction is low).  Most often used with quantitative data, but can be used with qualitative if clearly stated. 10 Takes less desk space High To use on sofa Satisfaction with Current Product Looks cool To loan to kids To take on airplanes Low Low High Importance
IdentifyEmergingNeeds and Current Brand Perceptions: Digital Camera Example Use: Identifies areas of emerging opportunity based on potential for brand differentiation and perceived importance.  Helps audience quickly see key results. Most often used with quantitative data, but can be used with qualitative if clearly stated. Battery life False 20x zoom All Brands do this Equally Well 9+ Megapixels 2 inch+ LCD Storage capacity True False True Item is becoming MORE important to me 11
Key Drivers Map Example for Brand Loyalty Use: Identifies areas of needed improvement by displaying results for sources of  hypothesized customer disloyalty.   For example, in this case, lack of product attribute Z is observed by many clients, but has little impact on loyalty.  In contrast, competitors’  “cool” packaging is widely observed by clients and  has a strong impact. This display helps audience quickly see areas for action. Works well with non-technical audiences. 12 ,[object Object],High Competitorshave cooler packaging Impact on Customer Loyalty ,[object Object]
Number of retailers
Pricing too highLow Low High Frequency of Perception
Customer Satisfaction Results Use: Summarizes items driving and deterring customer loyalty. Useful for non-technical audiences seeking key take-aways without a lot of details. Blue arrows at bottom indicate the dependent variables used in the data analysis.  Supporting data would detail  relative strength of each item. 13 Drives Disloyal Behaviors Drives Loyal Behaviors ,[object Object]
Support requests resolved within 30 minutes
Product installed and operational in <20 minutes
Call center wait time exceeds3 minutes
Support requests unresolved
Product interface perceived as complexPropensity to spread positive word of mouth $ Value of average purchase
Customer Loyalty Drivers by Stage Use: For Customer Satisfaction or Loyalty studies that identify those variables driving positive scores by stage.  Often useful in organizations that want to assign performance goals for specific functional areas. In this case,  the areas of focus are pre-sales, sales and product development (deployment of the product has implications for product design).  A useful Management Summary display, typically supported by details in the body of a full report. This example is B2B, but can be used for consumer data as well. 14 ,[object Object]
Customer perception “Stands behind its products”Pre-sales ,[object Object]
Proposal content
Financing optionsSales ,[object Object]
TCODeployment
Competitive Analysis 15
Competitive Issue Targeting 16 Use:  Compares client brand strength versus a competitor on attributes that drive brand loyalty.  Often used during Customer Satisfaction and Product Positioning studies. This graphic explains the six Loyalty quadrants attributes can be placed into. Critical Weaknesses Parity Issues Leverageable  Strengths Stronger Brand performs better than competition Brand parity Brand underperformance Impact on Loyalty Low Priority Issues Secondary Weaknesses Weaker Attribute performance Better Worse
BioTech Difference with Competitors:Company Characteristics 17 Use:  An at-a-glance summary of brand strengths vis-à-vis key competitors, this quadrant map is a guide to where the client company, BioTech, needs to allocate its communication resources. Communication Resource Priorities Key Vulnerabilities StrategicAdvantages Ample availabilityof inhalers at pharmacy Offers asthma productswhich are a good value for the money BioTech Higher Than Both Competitors Arnold Higher, InnoPharma Lower than BioTech InnoPharmaHigher, Arnold Lower than BioTech BioTechLower than Both Competitors Offers easy-to-use asthma administration devices Regularly conducts clinicaloutcomes studies regardingasthma Provides samples of bronchodilators Is dedicated tothe treatment of asthma Provides samples of bronchodilatorsdelivery devices Potential Vulnerabilities PotentialAdvantages
Classic Venn Diagram 18 Use: Classic Venn-style diagram.  Shows how groups overlap, in this case to show that over time, an increasing percent of customers are favorable to both competing brands (suggesting that the brands may be losing perceived competitive differentiators). Favorableto Brand A Favorableto Brand B 2006 12% Favorableto Brand A Favorableto Brand B 34% 2009
Win/Loss Research 19
Win/Loss Research Display Use: Clearly profiles win causes versus loss causes.  For example, in this case the client’s wins are most often driven by Factor A (evident in 60% of Wins) and Factor B (evident in 25%). Other miscellaneous win factors exist, but were fragmented (and thus are not on the chart). In contrast, some loss factors overlap (they often occur in the same accounts,) so those percents add up to more than 100. 20 Loss Win Factor A Factor E 60% 50% Factor B Factor F 25% 30% Factor G 30%
Loss Factors Outweighing Win Factors Use: Summarizes key factors identified in a Win/Loss study. Illustrates a case where three factors driving losses are outweighing two other factors that drive wins.  Of course, other variations may exist. For example, in some cases, two strong Win factors could outweigh two Loss factors. Helps non-technical clients  focus on key results. 21 Loss Win
Brand Awareness & Equity 22
Summary for Brand Awareness Research 23 ,[object Object],[object Object]
Structural Equation Model  Skincare Brand Equity Skincare Components Latent Measurement Skincare Attributes Performance Skincare Benefits Does not dry out skin Cleans well Leaves skin soft and smooth Does not leave skin itchy Is for everyday use   Skincare Purchase Intent (.80) (.62) Product Bouquet Has products that are fun to use Has a long-lasting fragrance Has products that make you smell great The color of the product is natural (.08) Skincare Brand Equity Skincare/Brand  Rating (.65) Is dermatologist recommended Made with the &quot;latest&quot; ingredients Contains familiar ingredients Its products are made from natural ingredients that are good for you Genuine & Natural (.12) Skincare Indulgence Is relaxing Turns my everyday shower into a few        special minutes Has a calming effect Helps keep my skin looking young (.48) Recommend  Skincare (.77) Quality &  Value Makes a great gift Is a product I would be proud to display in my bathroom Costs a little more, but worth it (.52)
Structural Equations Model: Skincare 26 Use:  Structural Equations Modeling is a very powerful multivariate technique that incorporates a number of statistical analyses. The true strength of Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) is that it can be expressed in path diagrams, thus allowing clients and marketing managers to understand the output of SEM with a minimum of statistical background. SEM’s other main advantage is that it includes latent variables (Skincare brand equity) that are a compilation of discrete brand intent measurements (to the left).  SEM is widely used in Brand Equity and Loyalty studies.
Brand Position 27
Correspondence Analysis - Total 28 Biolin Mix Variety of delivery forms Biolin Preferred for conservative therapy Insa-lin Mix Insa-lin Reduces PPGlevels Good value Easy for patient to administer Trusted brand Effective when mixed Effective with oralantidiabetes agents Lowers HbA1c Effective without weight gain Consistent per doseresponse Duration of action Biolog Predictable day-to-day Consistent throughout day Mimics physiologicpatterns Insalog Landis Pharma Reduces risk of nocturnalhypoglycemia Preferred for intensivetherapy

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22 Visual Displays Of Marketing Research Insights

  • 1. Marketing Research Insights 22 Visual Displays by Kathryn Korostoffand Michael Lieberman
  • 2. © 2009 by Kathryn Korostoff & Michael Lieberman Copyright holder is licensing this under the Creative Commons License, Attribution 3.0. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/ Please feel free to post this on your blog or email it to whomever you believe would benefit from reading it. Thank you. 2
  • 3. Contents Page Introduction………………………………4 Research Process…………………………..5 Customer Satisfaction/Unmet Needs………..8 Competitive Analysis……………………...15 Win/Loss Research………………………..19 Brand Awareness & Equity……………..….22 Brand Position……………………...….…27 Segmentation…………………………....33 About the Authors…………………….…37 3
  • 4. Introduction A picture is worth a thousand words. A graphic is worth more. Understanding topical relationships between cause and effects is a vital marketing research reporting requisite. A good researcher presents clear, actionable results, the best approaches to the marketing challenge the client must solve—the answer. Often the most effective method for conveying these results are visual. Marketing research graphics can deliver insights into almost all marketing strategies and activities. In some cases, standard pie charts and bar graphs are sufficient. But in our experience, such standard visual displays are overused and simply don’t tell enough of a story to have impact. To really convey the “so what” results from a primary research study, something more is needed. This volume is a concise overview intended to showcase compelling marketing research visuals that assist in the design and delivery of impactful results. It strives to share a mix of direct analytic results and synthesis-oriented displays; an array of options for use by students, product managers, C-suite executives, marketing and marketing research professionals. 4
  • 6. Explaining Research Options to Audience Use: Raises awareness of research options among groups new to market research. Often used during project planning meetings to help set expectations and explain trade-offs. 6 High Social Network Monitoring Customer Advisory Councils Immediacy Focus Groups In-depth Interviews Quantitative Surveys Low Low High Suitable for Extrapolation
  • 7. Agency Selection Weighted Scorecard 7 Use: Aids in agency selection process by getting agreement on selection criteria and weights. Agencies are then judged on criteria, and weights applied, to reach a total score. In this example, Agency A’s superior presentation skills are a significant factor in making it a better choice for the client.
  • 8. Customer Satisfaction/ Unmet Needs 8
  • 9. MATRIX Analysis 9 Use: This visual displays a customer value management (CVM) quadrant. By constructing a visual critical path the CVM can serve as an organization’s strategic navigation. Attributes migrate from CVM categories, beginning as ‘Unmet Needs’ and migrating clockwise. The CVM method becomes a precise technique for assessing the role of new product features, predicting how they will migrate, and provides a map of the strategic directions of the product or corporate communication. Strengths Unmet Needs These are the &quot;primary strengths&quot; of the Brand. These are &quot;target issues&quot; to improve brand equity. The Brand is performing below average and these attributes are important. Stronger Impact Impact on Satisfaction/Purchase Intent Consumer concerns are being met, though these attributes are not important for brand equity. Potential for resource misallocation. These attributes are not crucial. Immediate focus should be on brand attributes. Weaker Impact Low Priority Potential Advantages Weaker Performance Stronger Performance Average Performance Scores
  • 10. Identify Unmet Needs Based on Current Product Perceptions: Laptop Example Use: Easily focuses audience on areas of opportunity (where importance is high and satisfaction is low). Most often used with quantitative data, but can be used with qualitative if clearly stated. 10 Takes less desk space High To use on sofa Satisfaction with Current Product Looks cool To loan to kids To take on airplanes Low Low High Importance
  • 11. IdentifyEmergingNeeds and Current Brand Perceptions: Digital Camera Example Use: Identifies areas of emerging opportunity based on potential for brand differentiation and perceived importance. Helps audience quickly see key results. Most often used with quantitative data, but can be used with qualitative if clearly stated. Battery life False 20x zoom All Brands do this Equally Well 9+ Megapixels 2 inch+ LCD Storage capacity True False True Item is becoming MORE important to me 11
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  • 14. Pricing too highLow Low High Frequency of Perception
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  • 16. Support requests resolved within 30 minutes
  • 17. Product installed and operational in <20 minutes
  • 18. Call center wait time exceeds3 minutes
  • 20. Product interface perceived as complexPropensity to spread positive word of mouth $ Value of average purchase
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  • 27. Competitive Issue Targeting 16 Use: Compares client brand strength versus a competitor on attributes that drive brand loyalty. Often used during Customer Satisfaction and Product Positioning studies. This graphic explains the six Loyalty quadrants attributes can be placed into. Critical Weaknesses Parity Issues Leverageable Strengths Stronger Brand performs better than competition Brand parity Brand underperformance Impact on Loyalty Low Priority Issues Secondary Weaknesses Weaker Attribute performance Better Worse
  • 28. BioTech Difference with Competitors:Company Characteristics 17 Use: An at-a-glance summary of brand strengths vis-à-vis key competitors, this quadrant map is a guide to where the client company, BioTech, needs to allocate its communication resources. Communication Resource Priorities Key Vulnerabilities StrategicAdvantages Ample availabilityof inhalers at pharmacy Offers asthma productswhich are a good value for the money BioTech Higher Than Both Competitors Arnold Higher, InnoPharma Lower than BioTech InnoPharmaHigher, Arnold Lower than BioTech BioTechLower than Both Competitors Offers easy-to-use asthma administration devices Regularly conducts clinicaloutcomes studies regardingasthma Provides samples of bronchodilators Is dedicated tothe treatment of asthma Provides samples of bronchodilatorsdelivery devices Potential Vulnerabilities PotentialAdvantages
  • 29. Classic Venn Diagram 18 Use: Classic Venn-style diagram. Shows how groups overlap, in this case to show that over time, an increasing percent of customers are favorable to both competing brands (suggesting that the brands may be losing perceived competitive differentiators). Favorableto Brand A Favorableto Brand B 2006 12% Favorableto Brand A Favorableto Brand B 34% 2009
  • 31. Win/Loss Research Display Use: Clearly profiles win causes versus loss causes. For example, in this case the client’s wins are most often driven by Factor A (evident in 60% of Wins) and Factor B (evident in 25%). Other miscellaneous win factors exist, but were fragmented (and thus are not on the chart). In contrast, some loss factors overlap (they often occur in the same accounts,) so those percents add up to more than 100. 20 Loss Win Factor A Factor E 60% 50% Factor B Factor F 25% 30% Factor G 30%
  • 32. Loss Factors Outweighing Win Factors Use: Summarizes key factors identified in a Win/Loss study. Illustrates a case where three factors driving losses are outweighing two other factors that drive wins. Of course, other variations may exist. For example, in some cases, two strong Win factors could outweigh two Loss factors. Helps non-technical clients focus on key results. 21 Loss Win
  • 33. Brand Awareness & Equity 22
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  • 35. Structural Equation Model Skincare Brand Equity Skincare Components Latent Measurement Skincare Attributes Performance Skincare Benefits Does not dry out skin Cleans well Leaves skin soft and smooth Does not leave skin itchy Is for everyday use   Skincare Purchase Intent (.80) (.62) Product Bouquet Has products that are fun to use Has a long-lasting fragrance Has products that make you smell great The color of the product is natural (.08) Skincare Brand Equity Skincare/Brand Rating (.65) Is dermatologist recommended Made with the &quot;latest&quot; ingredients Contains familiar ingredients Its products are made from natural ingredients that are good for you Genuine & Natural (.12) Skincare Indulgence Is relaxing Turns my everyday shower into a few special minutes Has a calming effect Helps keep my skin looking young (.48) Recommend Skincare (.77) Quality & Value Makes a great gift Is a product I would be proud to display in my bathroom Costs a little more, but worth it (.52)
  • 36. Structural Equations Model: Skincare 26 Use: Structural Equations Modeling is a very powerful multivariate technique that incorporates a number of statistical analyses. The true strength of Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) is that it can be expressed in path diagrams, thus allowing clients and marketing managers to understand the output of SEM with a minimum of statistical background. SEM’s other main advantage is that it includes latent variables (Skincare brand equity) that are a compilation of discrete brand intent measurements (to the left). SEM is widely used in Brand Equity and Loyalty studies.
  • 38. Correspondence Analysis - Total 28 Biolin Mix Variety of delivery forms Biolin Preferred for conservative therapy Insa-lin Mix Insa-lin Reduces PPGlevels Good value Easy for patient to administer Trusted brand Effective when mixed Effective with oralantidiabetes agents Lowers HbA1c Effective without weight gain Consistent per doseresponse Duration of action Biolog Predictable day-to-day Consistent throughout day Mimics physiologicpatterns Insalog Landis Pharma Reduces risk of nocturnalhypoglycemia Preferred for intensivetherapy
  • 39. Correspondence Analysis - Total 29 Use: This multidimensional correspondence map represents a snapshot of the current market position of biotech products that includes measures of attribute importance and brand market share. Bubble location indicates relative association of brands to product attributes. Useful to think as the companies as ‘planets’ and attributes as ‘moons’. It is commonly used in Pharmaceutical and Consumer Package Good studies. Figures on the map are interpreted below. Size of Attribute Bubble indicates combined stated and derived importance. Size of Product Bubble indicates percentage of patients treated. BioTech Pharmaceuticals products are highlighted in bright red. Key Selling Point = High Stated/High Derived Importance. Value-Added Benefit = Low Stated/High Derived Importance. Essential Support Point = High Stated/Low Derived Importance.
  • 40. Multidimensional Scaling 30 Main Causes/Main Effects of Weather Changes Cutting down of rain forest in South America and Asia Lack of recycling of household waste Deforestation in the UK Pollution by industry Too much building/ construction on flood plains Hole in the ozone layer Greenhouse gas emissions/greenhouse effect Floods Pollution caused Warmer winters by the motor car Changes in planning laws Wetter winters Hotter summers Droughts Wetter summers Changes in agriculture New diseases, e.g. malaria Overpopulation Main Effects of Climate Changes Main Causes of Climate Change
  • 41. Multidimensional Scaling 31 Main Causes/Main Effects of Weather Changes Use: Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a set of related statistical techniques often used in information visualization for exploring similarities or dissimilarities in data. Our graphic is an environmental cause and effect visual to show how population and policies affect climate changes in the United Kingdom. A multidimensional scaling map is based on derived Euclidean distances; it does not have traditional x-y axes as, say, a quadrant map. Rather, the graphic is analyzed based on the proximity of causes to effects.
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  • 49. A Priori Example for Tech Segmentation 34 (An Option for Cases Where Needs-Based Segmentation is Impractical) Use: In some market segmentation studies, pure needs-based models can be ineffective (for various reasons). In such cases (and especially for technology markets), it is sometimes useful to segment based on category-level needs and awareness. To ensure usefulness, segments would be mapped to demographic and tactical factors. The upper right quadrant is the most attractive. Upper left quadrant is also attractive, but will have a longer sales cycle (such that specific sales and marketing implications exist). I need it & I know it! I need it BUT I don’t know it! Need Exists I don’t need it & I know it! I don’t need it and am unaware Need is Articulated Low High Low High
  • 50. 35 VOTE Overview Use: The Vote overview allows a political strategist to categorize what motives people to vote with five simple additions to the poll. These questions lead to the segments in the graphic. I may not know a lot about a candidate before I vote for him, but that is okay. It would really bother me if I didn&apos;t understand what the candidate stood for. I vote for the candidate who is most in line with my core issues. Image always determines who I vote for. I don&apos;t have a problem changing my opinion about who to vote for. High-Stakes Gamblers Candidate Analysts Rational TypicalInformationSeekers Decision Dominance Consistency Seekers Impulse Voters Emotional Low High Uncertainty Tolerance
  • 51. 36 Multidimensional Preference Maps What do You Want Your Look to Say About You? Use: Multidimensional preference analysis is a visual factor analysis. Proximity of personality attributes indicates group association relative to others on the map. The length of the attribute vector indicates the relative power of its impact on the graph. For example, ‘The Latest Woman’ thinks of herself more ‘feminine’ than ‘sexy’. Answers the question, ‘What attributes define a brand, or segmentation group.’ Deployed often in Fashion and Pharmaceutical segmentations. I am fun and whimsical I take risks and push the limits I am sophisticated Cheeky Chicks Fashion Mondaine I have an eye for fashion I love being a woman I am conservative I am successful Bourgeois I am sexy The Latest Woman I am feminine I am professional
  • 52. About the Authors Kathryn Korostoff Over the past 20 years, Kathryn has personally directed more than 600 primary market research projects and published over 100 bylined articles in trade magazines. Currently, Kathryn spends her time assisting companies as they create market research departments, develop market research strategies, or otherwise optimize their use of market research. Most recently, Kathryn founded Research Rockstar, to provide clients with easy access to market research training and management tools. She can be reached at KKorostoff@ResearchRockstar.com. Her Twitter tag is @ResearchRocks. Michael Lieberman 37 Michael D. Lieberman has more than nineteen years of experience as a researcher and statistician in the marketing research field. He has worked extensively with clients in financial services, information technology, food service, telecommunications, financial services, political polling, public relations, and advertising testing fields. H e founded Multivariate Solutions in 1998 and now works with an international clientele including advertising firms, political strategy groups, and full service marketing research companies. Michael has taught at City University of New York and is currently on the faculty of the University of Georgia as an adjunct professor of statistics and marketing research. He can be reached at michael@mvsolution.com. His Twitter tag is @Statmaven.
  • 53. 38 Thank you. Any comments or questions? KKorostoff@ResearchRockstar.com Michael@mvsolution.com