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Kanban the hard way

 Mike Burrows (@asplake)
           mike@djaa.com




                               Kanban the Hard Way
  http://positiveincline.com




                                        March 2013
Kanban the hard way

 Mike Burrows (@asplake)
           mike@djaa.com




                               Kanban the Hard Way
  http://positiveincline.com




                                        March 2013
                    Now with
                     Values!
Transparency   Flow   Leadership
Kanban the Hard Way
                           March 2013
What do we see?




                                 Transparency
We see work items




                                Kanban the Hard Way
                                         March 2013
Transparency   Customer Focus
We see variety




                                          Kanban the Hard Way
                                                   March 2013
Transparency   Understanding    Flow
We see work items organised by need




                                              Kanban the Hard Way
                                                       March 2013
               Transparency   Understanding
What does this work item need?




                                         Kanban the Hard Way
                                                  March 2013
          Transparency   Understanding
What do these need?




                               Kanban the Hard Way
                                        March 2013
Transparency   Understanding
And this one?




                                  Kanban the Hard Way
                                           March 2013
Transparency      Understanding
Work items organised by need,
arranged in a left-to-right progression




                                               Kanban the Hard Way
                                                        March 2013
                Transparency   Understanding
We see also some secondary organisation




                                                  Kanban the Hard Way
                                                           March 2013
                   Transparency   Understanding
We see also some secondary organisation




                                                  Kanban the Hard Way
                                                           March 2013
                   Transparency   Understanding
What do we see?




                                        Kanban the Hard Way
                                                 March 2013
Transparency   Understanding   Flow
What don’t we see?




How are people organised?




                                Kanban the Hard Way
                                         March 2013
                      Respect
Kanban works with your organisation
           …and on it




                                      Kanban the Hard Way
                                               March 2013
It lives! It moves!




                        Kanban the Hard Way
                                 March 2013
       Customer Focus
Kanban the Hard Way
                               March 2013
It lives! It moves!




                                     Flow
Kanban the Hard Way
                               March 2013
It lives! It moves!




                                     Flow
Kanban the Hard Way
                               March 2013
It lives! It moves!




                                     Flow
Kanban the Hard Way
                               March 2013
It lives! It moves!




                                     Flow
It lives! It moves!




                          Kanban the Hard Way
                                   March 2013
Balance        Flow
It lives! It moves!




                          Kanban the Hard Way
                                   March 2013
Balance        Flow
It lives! It moves!




                                    Kanban the Hard Way
                                             March 2013
Respect   Balance        Flow
Simple rules combine to give us the
               behaviour we desire




                                      Kanban the Hard Way
                                               March 2013
             Transparency   Flow
Simple rules combine to give us the
               behaviour we desire




                                        Kanban the Hard Way
                                                 March 2013
                         Transparency
Your process can evolve faster and more
             safely than you may realise




                                           Kanban the Hard Way
                                                    March 2013
    Transparency
Your process can evolve faster and more
             safely than you may realise




                                             Kanban the Hard Way
                                                      March 2013
                              Transparency
Every limit, every policy
     is a leverage point




                             Kanban the Hard Way
                                      March 2013
              Transparency
A Little Queuing Theory

                    Work in Progress
Average Cycle Time =
                      Throughput
Where:                                      John Little
                         how long it takes one item to
     Cycle Time (CT) =
                         go through the system

Work in Progress (WIP) how many items are in




                                                          Kanban the Hard Way
                     = the system at any time

                       how many items are
     Throughput (TH) =




                                                                   March 2013
                       produced per unit of time

                         Understanding         Flow
Theory and practice meet in a CFD

120




100

                                      On hold
                                      Proposed
 80
                                      Prioritised
                                      Ready for
                                      Dev
                                      Dev
 60
                                      Testing
                                      Ready for




                                                    Kanban the Hard Way
                                      Release
 40                                   Released
                                      Implemented



 20




                                                             March 2013
  0




       Transparency   Understanding   Flow
Kanban works with your process
         …and on it




                                 Kanban the Hard Way
                                          March 2013
“The work will teach you how to do it”
                    (Estonian proverb)




                                                Kanban the Hard Way
                                                         March 2013
                                Understanding
How we wish change worked



                      There




                                      Kanban the Hard Way
Here




                                               March 2013
                      Understanding
What change really feels like:
        the J Curve




                                         Kanban the Hard Way
                                                  March 2013
                         Understanding
What change really feels like:
        the J Curve




                                         Kanban the Hard Way
                                                  March 2013
                         Understanding
Evolutionary change with
      many small J’s

Increasing “fitness”




                                               Kanban the Hard Way
                       Increasing capability
                       for change




                                                        March 2013
                               Understanding
Decades of experience in these small J’s of
       “safe to fail” experiments
   SPC: Shewhart, Deming
   TPS: Ohno, Shook, Rother
   TOC: Goldratt
   Lean: Womack & Jones, Liker, Reinertsen
   Six Sigma: Motorola, GE
   Systems Thinking:




                                                               Kanban the Hard Way
    Deming, Ackoff, Gall, Meadows, Senge
   Complexity Science: Snowden
   Beyond Budgeting: Bogsnes, Hope & Fraser




                                                                        March 2013
   Agile, XP, etc: Beck, Cockburn, Jeffries et al
   Lean Startup: Ries
                             Collaboration     Understanding
Decades of experience in these small J’s of
       “safe to fail” experiments

 Plan - Do - Check – Act
 Check - Plan - Do
 Look - Ask - Model - Discuss - Act
 Define - Measure - Analyse -




                                                       Kanban the Hard Way
  Improve - Control
 Build - Measure – Learn
 TOC’s 5 Focusing Steps, POOGI




                                                                March 2013
                       Collaboration   Understanding
Foundational principles
       that make evolutionary change possible

1. Start with what you do now                          Understanding

2. Agree to pursue incremental,
  evolutionary change                                   Agreement


3. Initially, respect current roles,




                                                                       Kanban the Hard Way
  responsibilities & job titles                           Respect


4. Encourage acts of leadership at




                                                                                March 2013
  all levels in your organization                       Leadership
  – from individual contributor to senior management
Core practices
        that stimulate and sustain change

                                       Transparency
1. Visualise
                                            Balance
2. Limit Work-in-Progress
                                             Flow
3. Manage Flow
                                      Customer Focus
4. Make Policies Explicit




                                                       Kanban the Hard Way
                                       Transparency
5. Implement Feedback Loops
6. Improve Collaboratively,




                                                                March 2013
                                       Collaboration
  evolve experimentally
Core practices
        that stimulate and sustain change


1. Visualise                           Transparency

4. Make Policies Explicit
5. Implement Feedback Loops
2. Limit Work-in-Progress                   Balance




                                                       Kanban the Hard Way
3. Manage Flow                               Flow

                                      Customer Focus
6. Improve Collaboratively,




                                                                March 2013
  evolve experimentally                Collaboration
Kanban works within your system
        …and beyond it




                                  Kanban the Hard Way
                                           March 2013
Kanban works…

with your organisation
and on it

with your process
and on it




                         Kanban the Hard Way
within your system




                                  March 2013
and beyond it
Keywords

   Organisation
       Visualisation, visual management
       Knowledge discovery process
       Sense-making
       Self-organisation
   Process
       Pull system, kanban system, flow




                                                                  Kanban the Hard Way
       Bottleneck, variation, variety
       Emergent behaviour, leverage points
       Evolutionary change; fitness
       Cumulative Flow Diagram (CFD)




                                                                           March 2013
   System
       Kanban Method
       Models for collaborative improvement (several, growing)
References




                                                        Kanban the Hard Way
                                                                 March 2013
   Kanban, David J. Anderson
    http://agilemanagement.net/index.php/kanbanbook/
Resources

   kanbandev
    http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/kanbandev/
   kanbanops
    http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/kanbanops/
   #kanban
    https://twitter.com/#!/search/realtime/%23kanban




                                                       Kanban the Hard Way
   djaa.com (agilemanagement.net)
   leankanbanuniversity.com
   limitedwipsociety.org




                                                                March 2013
Thank you.

Questions?




                                     Kanban the Hard Way
                                              March 2013
       Mike Burrows (@asplake)
                 mike@djaa.com
        http://positiveincline.com

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2013 02 kanban the hard way v5 - London Lean Kanban Day #llkd13

  • 1. Kanban the hard way Mike Burrows (@asplake) mike@djaa.com Kanban the Hard Way http://positiveincline.com March 2013
  • 2. Kanban the hard way Mike Burrows (@asplake) mike@djaa.com Kanban the Hard Way http://positiveincline.com March 2013 Now with Values!
  • 3.
  • 4. Transparency Flow Leadership
  • 5. Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 What do we see? Transparency
  • 6. We see work items Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Customer Focus
  • 7. We see variety Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding Flow
  • 8. We see work items organised by need Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding
  • 9. What does this work item need? Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding
  • 10. What do these need? Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding
  • 11. And this one? Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding
  • 12. Work items organised by need, arranged in a left-to-right progression Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding
  • 13. We see also some secondary organisation Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding
  • 14. We see also some secondary organisation Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding
  • 15. What do we see? Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Understanding Flow
  • 16. What don’t we see? How are people organised? Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Respect
  • 17. Kanban works with your organisation …and on it Kanban the Hard Way March 2013
  • 18. It lives! It moves! Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Customer Focus
  • 19. Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 It lives! It moves! Flow
  • 20. Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 It lives! It moves! Flow
  • 21. Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 It lives! It moves! Flow
  • 22. Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 It lives! It moves! Flow
  • 23. It lives! It moves! Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Balance Flow
  • 24. It lives! It moves! Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Balance Flow
  • 25. It lives! It moves! Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Respect Balance Flow
  • 26. Simple rules combine to give us the behaviour we desire Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency Flow
  • 27. Simple rules combine to give us the behaviour we desire Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency
  • 28. Your process can evolve faster and more safely than you may realise Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency
  • 29. Your process can evolve faster and more safely than you may realise Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency
  • 30. Every limit, every policy is a leverage point Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Transparency
  • 31. A Little Queuing Theory Work in Progress Average Cycle Time = Throughput Where: John Little how long it takes one item to Cycle Time (CT) = go through the system Work in Progress (WIP) how many items are in Kanban the Hard Way = the system at any time how many items are Throughput (TH) = March 2013 produced per unit of time Understanding Flow
  • 32. Theory and practice meet in a CFD 120 100 On hold Proposed 80 Prioritised Ready for Dev Dev 60 Testing Ready for Kanban the Hard Way Release 40 Released Implemented 20 March 2013 0 Transparency Understanding Flow
  • 33. Kanban works with your process …and on it Kanban the Hard Way March 2013
  • 34. “The work will teach you how to do it” (Estonian proverb) Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Understanding
  • 35. How we wish change worked There Kanban the Hard Way Here March 2013 Understanding
  • 36. What change really feels like: the J Curve Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Understanding
  • 37. What change really feels like: the J Curve Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Understanding
  • 38. Evolutionary change with many small J’s Increasing “fitness” Kanban the Hard Way Increasing capability for change March 2013 Understanding
  • 39. Decades of experience in these small J’s of “safe to fail” experiments  SPC: Shewhart, Deming  TPS: Ohno, Shook, Rother  TOC: Goldratt  Lean: Womack & Jones, Liker, Reinertsen  Six Sigma: Motorola, GE  Systems Thinking: Kanban the Hard Way Deming, Ackoff, Gall, Meadows, Senge  Complexity Science: Snowden  Beyond Budgeting: Bogsnes, Hope & Fraser March 2013  Agile, XP, etc: Beck, Cockburn, Jeffries et al  Lean Startup: Ries Collaboration Understanding
  • 40. Decades of experience in these small J’s of “safe to fail” experiments  Plan - Do - Check – Act  Check - Plan - Do  Look - Ask - Model - Discuss - Act  Define - Measure - Analyse - Kanban the Hard Way Improve - Control  Build - Measure – Learn  TOC’s 5 Focusing Steps, POOGI March 2013 Collaboration Understanding
  • 41. Foundational principles that make evolutionary change possible 1. Start with what you do now Understanding 2. Agree to pursue incremental, evolutionary change Agreement 3. Initially, respect current roles, Kanban the Hard Way responsibilities & job titles Respect 4. Encourage acts of leadership at March 2013 all levels in your organization Leadership – from individual contributor to senior management
  • 42. Core practices that stimulate and sustain change Transparency 1. Visualise Balance 2. Limit Work-in-Progress Flow 3. Manage Flow Customer Focus 4. Make Policies Explicit Kanban the Hard Way Transparency 5. Implement Feedback Loops 6. Improve Collaboratively, March 2013 Collaboration evolve experimentally
  • 43. Core practices that stimulate and sustain change 1. Visualise Transparency 4. Make Policies Explicit 5. Implement Feedback Loops 2. Limit Work-in-Progress Balance Kanban the Hard Way 3. Manage Flow Flow Customer Focus 6. Improve Collaboratively, March 2013 evolve experimentally Collaboration
  • 44. Kanban works within your system …and beyond it Kanban the Hard Way March 2013
  • 45. Kanban works… with your organisation and on it with your process and on it Kanban the Hard Way within your system March 2013 and beyond it
  • 46. Keywords  Organisation  Visualisation, visual management  Knowledge discovery process  Sense-making  Self-organisation  Process  Pull system, kanban system, flow Kanban the Hard Way  Bottleneck, variation, variety  Emergent behaviour, leverage points  Evolutionary change; fitness  Cumulative Flow Diagram (CFD) March 2013  System  Kanban Method  Models for collaborative improvement (several, growing)
  • 47. References Kanban the Hard Way March 2013  Kanban, David J. Anderson http://agilemanagement.net/index.php/kanbanbook/
  • 48. Resources  kanbandev http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/kanbandev/  kanbanops http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/kanbanops/  #kanban https://twitter.com/#!/search/realtime/%23kanban Kanban the Hard Way  djaa.com (agilemanagement.net)  leankanbanuniversity.com  limitedwipsociety.org March 2013
  • 49. Thank you. Questions? Kanban the Hard Way March 2013 Mike Burrows (@asplake) mike@djaa.com http://positiveincline.com

Editor's Notes

  1. "kanban" refers to the tokens This is "knowledge work" made visible, even physical
  2. Not all work is alike!
  3. The primary organisation is the vertical one, organising work items according to what they need most
  4. Easy! This one needs development
  5. Appropriate developers with the capacity to work on them
  6. This one needs rework so that its testing can finish
  7. So we keep asking “what does this work item need” until we’ve make sense of it all. Then we establish an order, so that work moves rightwards as it approaches completion.It’s a way to visualize what in product development circles is known as the “knowledge discovery process”. It’s about finding a realistic and appropriately-detailed abstraction of the process, one that is based on how things really operate in the real world, not based on imposing some idealised workflow.That’s the vertical swimlanes…
  8. Related work grouped togetherPerhaps a project, or simply a large item broken in to smaller itemsThese swimlanes can come and go as needed
  9. We might maintain a special area for tracking work that is out with suppliers or other teams.For some teams, managing these external dependencies is a huge part of what they do, and their kanban systems must reflect that if it’s going to be much use to them
  10. So now what do we see?Work happening, rework needed, work that is stuck,work that is waiting. It’s all there!How much work is in play, where it is, where the issues areThis is visual management; the visualisation providing high quality information for the fast, pattern-matching part of our brains. We get attuned to our boards, and we are very quick to recognize that something is amiss.
  11. It is really important to understand that it’s work, not people, that is organised in our visualisationSometimes, what we don’t see is as important as what we do seeBy not visualising it we avoid constraining it, let it find its natural shape.By making it seem less important than the things we do visualise, we allow it to change, perhaps even encourage it to changeSelf organisation is HUGE! From the perspective of the wider organisation it’s key to finding fitness & creating resilience. From the team’s perspective it greatly enhances the opportunity for people to find meaning in their work.
  12. Kanban as a sense-making tool, leading to visualization of the knowledge discovery processWe're making space for collaborative, self-organised problem-solving around what is actually needed right nowSelf-organisation, fitness, resilience, meaning. It’s all good If we’re in the business of building better workplaces, this seems a pretty good place to start.What we need to see now is some dynamics. Process in action, process evolution in action too
  13. When a work item reaches the right hand side it is complete, delivered. Feels good!
  14. New work can move up to occupy the gaps left behind, up to the work-in-progress limits (the numbers in brackets here on each column). What we’re seeing in operation is a kanban system (a type of pull system), one specially adapted for knowledge work. Although many of the aims are the same, this is not Toyota’s kanban!
  15. We see how pull gives us a nice unforced flow. Work flows rightwards, while the gaps (availability signals) flow back upstream. It seems that the whole board is connected. We see work itemsproceed at a good pace across the board.
  16. We see how pull gives us a nice unforced flow. Work flows rightwards, while the gaps (availability signals) flow back upstream. It seems that the whole board is connected. We see work itemsproceed at a good pace across the board.
  17. We see how pull gives us a nice unforced flow. Work flows rightwards, while the gaps (availability signals) flow back upstream. It seems that the whole board is connected. We see work itemsproceed at a good pace across the board.
  18. We see how pull gives us a nice unforced flow. Work flows rightwards, while the gaps (availability signals) flow back upstream. It seems that the whole board is connected. We see work itemsproceed at a good pace across the board.
  19. Looking at the overall workload, we never have more in the system than we can deal with effectively. It's not just that welimit painful multi-tasking and over-commitment, we avoid wasteful over-production. Once again, the benefits are shared between the team and the wider organisation.
  20. Looking at the overall workload, we never have more in the system than we can deal with effectively. It's not just that welimit painful multi-tasking and over-commitment, we avoid wasteful over-production. Once again, the benefits are shared between the team and the wider organisation.
  21. The overall design of the kanban system, then the detail of the WIP limits Selection policies Quality & completeness criteriaOverall performance is the product of these, the team, and of course the work itself
  22. Down in the bottom left corner we have a very brief description of the rules that determine which stickies get pulled in which order. The system is explicitly designed to deal with variety. Obviously this is important for the customer, but it matters to the team and to the wider organisation too! Systems that can deal comfortablt with variety are much better places to live in. You avoid the disruption and waste that goes with re-organising for each new project, and you get benefits in flow too. Work is delivered faster for the same cost.Let’s see just how easy change can be!
  23. Team demo before testThat was easy!
  24. WIP limit from 4 to 3That was easy!
  25. What Kanban is exposing here are “Leverage points”. These are places in the structure of a system where change can be implemented; what we have here are leverage points whose impact can far outweigh the cost of change. Just from our little animation you can see that WIP limits play an vital role in determining the speed at which work moves. And when we reduce it we also heighten our awareness of the bumps and bottlenecks in the road. This is good, but sometimes you can have too much of a good thing! Sometimes we carefully increase WIP to protect bottlenecks. We have to keep in mind too that the mix of people and work will change, so we keep limits under review all the time.The green stickies are our criteria for allowing work to move from one column to the next. These can be a great catalyst for creativity. I have direct experience of teams adopting simple, quality-enhancing practices from their own initiative.Down in the bottom left corner we have a very brief description of the rules that determine which stickies get pulled in which order. The system is explicitly designed to deal with variety. Obviously this is important for the customer, but it matters to the team and to the wider organisation too! Systems that can deal comfortablt with variety are much better places to live in. You avoid the disruption and waste that goes with re-organising for each new project, and you get benefits in flow too. Work is delivered faster for the same cost.Let’s see just how easy change can be!
  26. We have to be a little careful in how we apply this mathematical law to our work, but in general:More WIP does mean longer lead timesReducing WIP tends to reduce lead times.That’s good!Reduce WIP too far though and throughput tends to suffer. That cusp is where improvement happens!
  27. So if constant change is so necessary, let’s do itdeliberately, like we mean it!Cycles of improvement: hypothesis followed by validationIf the key question to organising work was “What does this one need?”, the key question for process improvement is “How will we know?”We see in this chart the story of one real team’s journey. A team that at the beginning didn’t really have things under control. A team that soon found that it didn’t know clearly enough what the “Testing” column actually meant. A team that was unsure about making releases. A team that worked on stuff that the business had already lost interest in.Also, a team that improved, sometimes radically, sometimes in barely noticeable increments. A team that took responsibility. Here were see a 7 month lead time reduce by more than half, and throughput actually increase in spite of the overhead of supporting a new system. You can’t see here (but I know) that the team soon got to a point where they could make releases at will, and where lead times were measured in weeks and then days, not months.That team was my team, and I’m proud of them!
  28. And it’s a good job that we can make it that easy. Evolutionary change is very necessary.These sources of unpredictabilityadd frustration for customers, pain for workers, and expense for the organisationRevealing and addressing these sources of unpredictability in economically sensible ways is win all round!End result: speed with smoothness, predictability.For a while anyway! It’s a constant battle in an ever-changing world.
  29. Don’t waste the bad stuff, learn from it“How is this even possible?” is a good question to ask. We look for solutions that make good outcomes more likely without adding too great an economic overhead. Not deluding ourselves that we can always fix outcomes at the outset, but making sure that we’re maximising feedback and learning at every opportunity.
  30. Making your policies and parameters open to challenge and improvement Constantly giving you feedback, provoking the right conversations NOT overlaying yet more process, INSTEAD helping work to flow more smoothly
  31. Let’s talk a little about getting started with Kanban
  32. Not an exhaustive list!
  33. PDCA or PDSA (popularized by Deming, though he called it the Shewhart cycle) is most recognized one. Cf the scientific method ("hypothesis"–"experiment"–"evaluation" or plan, do and check).CPD and LAMBDA start not with planning but with looking at the work as it currently is, perhaps the most appropriate approach to knowledge work.DMAIC (from Six Sigma) is interesting because of the explicit relationship between improvement and control, control here referring to systems for detecting that things aren’t working as well as they should.BML (from Lean Startup) deserves credit for moving the focus away from narrow definitions of “value” or “done” to an emphasis on learning (restoring a key element of Lean that sometimes gets lost).
  34. Helping you find balance & resilience, to the benefit of team, customer & wider organisationMaking expectations clearer and more manageableKeeping risk where it can be managed most effectively
  35. Visualisation, variety, self-organisation, evolution, fitnessFlow, leverage points, improvementFoundational: understanding, respect, agreementSeek resilience, balance, smoothnessRelationships, disintermediation