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WORLD BANK
The World Bank is an international finance
institution that provides loans to developing
countries for capital programmers. The World
Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty.
According to the World Bank's Articles of
Agreement (As amended effective 16 February
1989) all of its decisions must be guided by a
commitment to promote foreign
investment, international trade and
facilitate capital investment.
•    On July 1, 1944, a group of 44 Allied Nations convened
    the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference
    at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA.

         On December 27, 1945, majority of the participants
    of the Bretton Woods Conference signed the Articles of
    Agreement. Six months later, on June 25, 1946, the
    World Bank opened for the business. All the participants,
    except the Soviet Union, eventually joined the World
    Bank. Other communist countries like Cuba, and Poland
    subsequently ceased to be members.
The World Bank differs from the World Bank Group,
in that the World Bank comprises only two institutions:
the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD) and the International Development
Association (IDA), whereas the latter incorporates these
two in addition to three more: International Finance
Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee
Agency (MIGA), and International Centre for Settlement
of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
The International Bank for Reconstruction
    and Development (IBRD) is one of five
   institutions that compose the World Bank
      Group. The IBRD is an international
 organization whose original mission was to
     finance the reconstruction of nations
devastated by World War II. Now, its mission
  has expanded to fight poverty by means of
 financing states. Its operation is maintained
 through payments as regulated by member
                      states.
The International Development
Association (IDA), is the part of the World Bank
    that helps the world’s poorest countries. It
complements the World Bank's other lending arm
— the International Bank for Reconstruction and
  Development (IBRD) — which serves middle-
  income countries with capital investment and
                 advisory services.

IDA was created on September 24, 1960 and is
responsible for providing long-term, interest-free
 loans to the world's 78 poorest countries, 39 of
               which are in Africa.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes
    sustainable private sector investment in developing
                          countries.
     IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is
    headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States.
Established in 1956, IFC is the largest multilateral source of
 loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the
  developing world. It promotes sustainable private sector
                 development primarily by:

1. Financing private sector projects and companies located
                   in the developing world.
    2. Helping private companies in the developing world
    mobilize financing in international financial markets.
3. Providing advice and technical assistance to businesses
                       and governments.
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) is a
member organization of the World Bank Group that offers political
    risk insurance. It was established to promote foreign direct
investment into developing countries. MIGA was founded in 1988
       with a capital base of $1 billion and is headquartered
   in Washington, DC. 175 member countries comprise MIGA's
                           shareholders.

     MIGA promotes foreign direct investment into developing
   countries by insuring investors against political risk, advising
    governments on attracting investment, sharing information
 through on-line investment information services, and mediating
      disputes between investors and governments. MIGA's
membership in the World Bank Group enables the organization to
  intervene with host governments to resolve claims before they
                             are filed.
The International Centre for Settlement of Investment
    Disputes (ICSID), an institution of the World Bank
    Group based in Washington, D.C., was established
in 1966 pursuant to the Convention on the Settlement of
  Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of
   Other States (the ICSID Convention or Washington
Convention). As of May 2011, 157 countries had signed
                  the ICSID Convention.

  ICSID has an Administrative Council, chaired by the
 World Bank's President, and a Secretariat. It provides
facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of investment
   disputes between member countries and individual
                           investors.
OBJECTIVES

   The World Bank was organized with the following objectives:

  1. To assist in the reconstruction and development of member
countries whose economies were destroyed or disrupted by war,
and to encourage the development of the productive facilities and
           resources of the less developed countries.

    2. To promote private foreign investments by means of
guarantees or participations in loans, and to supplement private
  investment by providing suitable conditions and finance for
                       private purposes.

 3. To promote the long-range balanced growth of international
   trade and the maintenance of equilibrium in the balance of
    payments by encouraging international investment for the
    development of the productive resources of the member
                          countries.
4. To arrange the loans made or guaranteed by it in
 relation to international loans through other channels so
that the more useful and urgent projects will be given first
                            priority.

5. To conduct its operations with due regard to the effect
of international investment on business conditions in the
member countries, and to bring about a smooth transition
   from a wartime to a peacetime economy during the
                 immediate postwar years.
CAPITALIZATION

  The initial authorized capital stock of the World Bank was $10 billion.
This was divided into 100,000 shares of the par value of $100,000 each.
   In 1992, the authorized capital stock of the bank is $152.25 billion.

  Based on the Articles of Agreement, the capital subscription of each
                 member is divided into three parts:

  1. Two Percent of each subscription is payable in gold or US dollar,
 which may be used freely by the World Bank in any of its operations.

 2. Eighteen percent of each subscription is payable in the currency of
                  the subscribing member country.

3. The remaining 80% of each subscription is not available to the world
bank for lending. However, this is subject to call if required by the World
                  bank in order to meet its obligations.
Leadership

   The President of the Bank, currently Robert B.
Zoellick, is responsible for chairing the meetings of
       the Boards of Directors and for overall
 management of the Bank. Traditionally, the Bank
President has always been a US citizen nominated
by the United States, the largest shareholder in the
 bank. The nominee is subject to confirmation by
  the Board of Executive Directors, to serve for a
              five-year, renewable term.
Voting power
   In 2010, voting powers at the World Bank were revised to increase the voice of
  developing countries, notably China. The countries with most voting power are
    now the United States (15.85%), Japan (6.84%), China (4.42%), Germany
 (4.00%), the United Kingdom (3.75%), France (3.75%), and Italy (2.91%). Under
the changes, known as 'Voice Reform – Phase 2', countries other than China that
 saw significant gains included South Korea, Turkey, Mexico, Singapore, Greece,
  Brazil, India, and Spain. Most developed countries' voting power was reduced,
 along with a few poor countries such as Nigeria. The voting powers of the United
                  States, Russia and Saudi Arabia were unchanged.

The changes were brought about with the goal of making voting more universal in
regards to standards, rule-based with objective indicators, and transparent among
   other things. Now, developing countries have an increased voice in the "Pool
   Model," backed especially by Europe. Additionally, voting power is based on
 economic size in addition to International Development Association contributions.
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY
         FUND
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international
   organization that was conceived on July 22, 1944 originally with 45
   members and came into existence on December 27, 1945 when 29
countries signed the agreement, with a goal to stabilize exchange rates
    and assist the reconstruction of the world’s international payment
system. Countries contributed to a pool which could be borrowed from,
  on temporary basis, by countries with payment imbalances. The IMF
   works to improve the economies of its member countries. The IMF
 describes itself as “an organization of 187 countries (as of July 2010),
working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability,
facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable
    economic growth, and reduce poverty.”The organization's stated
      objectives are to promote international economic cooperation,
 international trade, employment, and exchange rate stability, including
by making resources available to member countries to meet balance of
        payments needs. Its headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
OBJECTIVES

1.To promote international monetary cooperation through
a permanent institution which provides the machinery for
    consultation and collaboration about international
                   monetary problems.

  2. To facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of
international trade, and to contribute to the promotion of
  high levels of sustained employment, production, and
          income among the member countries.

  3. To promote exchange stability, to maintain orderly
 exchange arrangements among member, and to avoid
           competitive exchange depreciation.
4. To assist in the establishment of a multilateral system of
    payments regarding current transactions between
   members and in the elimination of foreign exchange
   restrictions which hamper the growth of world trade.

  5. To provide confidence to members with balance of
    payments problems by extending loans to them.

   6. To shorten the duration and reduce the degree of
disequilibrium in the international balance of payments of
                         members.
Other IMF Facilities
 1. Extended fund facility – to support balance of payments for
 longer periods and in greater amounts than under the credit
                             trashes.

2. Supplementary financing facility – to supplement borrowings
   from the upper credit tranches and extended fund facility.

3. Compensatory financing facility – to assist primary products of
 exporting member countries with balance of payments due to
                  decline in export income.

   4. Oil facility – to extend financial assistance to member
   countries with balance of payments problems caused by
         increases in the costs of petroleum products.
Technical Assistance

 One of the major activities of the IMF is to extend
technical assistance to its member countries. IMF
 experts, upon request of member countries, give
     advice in connection with the following:

               -- stabilization programs
         -- simplication exchange systems
    -- modification of central banking machinery
-- reform of fiscal systems and budgetary controls
         -- preparation of financial statistics
Principal Functions
1. To promote investment in the region of private and public
              capital development purposes.

2. To utilize the resources at its disposal for giving loans for
    the less developed member countries in the region.

 3. To meet requests from the members in the region for
assistance in the coordination of their development policies
                         and plans.

  4. To provide technical assistance for the preparation,
        financing and execution of development
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK
The Asian Development Bank is an international
  development finance institution owned by its member
 countries. Its main role is to help promote the economic
and social growth of its developing member countries by
   lending funds and extending technical assistance.

The bank started its operation in December 1966 with its
      headquarters in Manila. It has 52 members.
Lending Operations

      The lending operations of the Asian
Development Bank take into the consideration of
                the following:

        - adjustment in national economies
     - capacities of local institution to absorb
assistance and implement ADB-financed projects
    - relative levels of economic development
    - availability of other sources of financing
MAJOR SECTORS
The major sectors covered by ADB loans are the following:

              - agriculture and agro-industry
                           - energy
             - industry and non-fuel minerals
                    - development banks
              - transport and communication
               - water supply and sanitation
                         - education
                   - health and population
                     - multi-project loans
1773

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  • 2. The World Bank is an international finance institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmers. The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty. According to the World Bank's Articles of Agreement (As amended effective 16 February 1989) all of its decisions must be guided by a commitment to promote foreign investment, international trade and facilitate capital investment.
  • 3. On July 1, 1944, a group of 44 Allied Nations convened the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA. On December 27, 1945, majority of the participants of the Bretton Woods Conference signed the Articles of Agreement. Six months later, on June 25, 1946, the World Bank opened for the business. All the participants, except the Soviet Union, eventually joined the World Bank. Other communist countries like Cuba, and Poland subsequently ceased to be members.
  • 4. The World Bank differs from the World Bank Group, in that the World Bank comprises only two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA), whereas the latter incorporates these two in addition to three more: International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
  • 5. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is one of five institutions that compose the World Bank Group. The IBRD is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by World War II. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means of financing states. Its operation is maintained through payments as regulated by member states.
  • 6. The International Development Association (IDA), is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. It complements the World Bank's other lending arm — the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) — which serves middle- income countries with capital investment and advisory services. IDA was created on September 24, 1960 and is responsible for providing long-term, interest-free loans to the world's 78 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa.
  • 7. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries. IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. Established in 1956, IFC is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. It promotes sustainable private sector development primarily by: 1. Financing private sector projects and companies located in the developing world. 2. Helping private companies in the developing world mobilize financing in international financial markets. 3. Providing advice and technical assistance to businesses and governments.
  • 8. The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) is a member organization of the World Bank Group that offers political risk insurance. It was established to promote foreign direct investment into developing countries. MIGA was founded in 1988 with a capital base of $1 billion and is headquartered in Washington, DC. 175 member countries comprise MIGA's shareholders. MIGA promotes foreign direct investment into developing countries by insuring investors against political risk, advising governments on attracting investment, sharing information through on-line investment information services, and mediating disputes between investors and governments. MIGA's membership in the World Bank Group enables the organization to intervene with host governments to resolve claims before they are filed.
  • 9. The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), an institution of the World Bank Group based in Washington, D.C., was established in 1966 pursuant to the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (the ICSID Convention or Washington Convention). As of May 2011, 157 countries had signed the ICSID Convention. ICSID has an Administrative Council, chaired by the World Bank's President, and a Secretariat. It provides facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes between member countries and individual investors.
  • 10. OBJECTIVES The World Bank was organized with the following objectives: 1. To assist in the reconstruction and development of member countries whose economies were destroyed or disrupted by war, and to encourage the development of the productive facilities and resources of the less developed countries. 2. To promote private foreign investments by means of guarantees or participations in loans, and to supplement private investment by providing suitable conditions and finance for private purposes. 3. To promote the long-range balanced growth of international trade and the maintenance of equilibrium in the balance of payments by encouraging international investment for the development of the productive resources of the member countries.
  • 11. 4. To arrange the loans made or guaranteed by it in relation to international loans through other channels so that the more useful and urgent projects will be given first priority. 5. To conduct its operations with due regard to the effect of international investment on business conditions in the member countries, and to bring about a smooth transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy during the immediate postwar years.
  • 12. CAPITALIZATION The initial authorized capital stock of the World Bank was $10 billion. This was divided into 100,000 shares of the par value of $100,000 each. In 1992, the authorized capital stock of the bank is $152.25 billion. Based on the Articles of Agreement, the capital subscription of each member is divided into three parts: 1. Two Percent of each subscription is payable in gold or US dollar, which may be used freely by the World Bank in any of its operations. 2. Eighteen percent of each subscription is payable in the currency of the subscribing member country. 3. The remaining 80% of each subscription is not available to the world bank for lending. However, this is subject to call if required by the World bank in order to meet its obligations.
  • 13. Leadership The President of the Bank, currently Robert B. Zoellick, is responsible for chairing the meetings of the Boards of Directors and for overall management of the Bank. Traditionally, the Bank President has always been a US citizen nominated by the United States, the largest shareholder in the bank. The nominee is subject to confirmation by the Board of Executive Directors, to serve for a five-year, renewable term.
  • 14. Voting power In 2010, voting powers at the World Bank were revised to increase the voice of developing countries, notably China. The countries with most voting power are now the United States (15.85%), Japan (6.84%), China (4.42%), Germany (4.00%), the United Kingdom (3.75%), France (3.75%), and Italy (2.91%). Under the changes, known as 'Voice Reform – Phase 2', countries other than China that saw significant gains included South Korea, Turkey, Mexico, Singapore, Greece, Brazil, India, and Spain. Most developed countries' voting power was reduced, along with a few poor countries such as Nigeria. The voting powers of the United States, Russia and Saudi Arabia were unchanged. The changes were brought about with the goal of making voting more universal in regards to standards, rule-based with objective indicators, and transparent among other things. Now, developing countries have an increased voice in the "Pool Model," backed especially by Europe. Additionally, voting power is based on economic size in addition to International Development Association contributions.
  • 16. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was conceived on July 22, 1944 originally with 45 members and came into existence on December 27, 1945 when 29 countries signed the agreement, with a goal to stabilize exchange rates and assist the reconstruction of the world’s international payment system. Countries contributed to a pool which could be borrowed from, on temporary basis, by countries with payment imbalances. The IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries. The IMF describes itself as “an organization of 187 countries (as of July 2010), working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty.”The organization's stated objectives are to promote international economic cooperation, international trade, employment, and exchange rate stability, including by making resources available to member countries to meet balance of payments needs. Its headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
  • 17. OBJECTIVES 1.To promote international monetary cooperation through a permanent institution which provides the machinery for consultation and collaboration about international monetary problems. 2. To facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, and to contribute to the promotion of high levels of sustained employment, production, and income among the member countries. 3. To promote exchange stability, to maintain orderly exchange arrangements among member, and to avoid competitive exchange depreciation.
  • 18. 4. To assist in the establishment of a multilateral system of payments regarding current transactions between members and in the elimination of foreign exchange restrictions which hamper the growth of world trade. 5. To provide confidence to members with balance of payments problems by extending loans to them. 6. To shorten the duration and reduce the degree of disequilibrium in the international balance of payments of members.
  • 19. Other IMF Facilities 1. Extended fund facility – to support balance of payments for longer periods and in greater amounts than under the credit trashes. 2. Supplementary financing facility – to supplement borrowings from the upper credit tranches and extended fund facility. 3. Compensatory financing facility – to assist primary products of exporting member countries with balance of payments due to decline in export income. 4. Oil facility – to extend financial assistance to member countries with balance of payments problems caused by increases in the costs of petroleum products.
  • 20. Technical Assistance One of the major activities of the IMF is to extend technical assistance to its member countries. IMF experts, upon request of member countries, give advice in connection with the following: -- stabilization programs -- simplication exchange systems -- modification of central banking machinery -- reform of fiscal systems and budgetary controls -- preparation of financial statistics
  • 21. Principal Functions 1. To promote investment in the region of private and public capital development purposes. 2. To utilize the resources at its disposal for giving loans for the less developed member countries in the region. 3. To meet requests from the members in the region for assistance in the coordination of their development policies and plans. 4. To provide technical assistance for the preparation, financing and execution of development
  • 23. The Asian Development Bank is an international development finance institution owned by its member countries. Its main role is to help promote the economic and social growth of its developing member countries by lending funds and extending technical assistance. The bank started its operation in December 1966 with its headquarters in Manila. It has 52 members.
  • 24. Lending Operations The lending operations of the Asian Development Bank take into the consideration of the following: - adjustment in national economies - capacities of local institution to absorb assistance and implement ADB-financed projects - relative levels of economic development - availability of other sources of financing
  • 25. MAJOR SECTORS The major sectors covered by ADB loans are the following: - agriculture and agro-industry - energy - industry and non-fuel minerals - development banks - transport and communication - water supply and sanitation - education - health and population - multi-project loans