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Air 
Pollution
Air & Its Pollution 
A person needs per 
day about 
– 1.4 kg of water 
– 0.7 kg of food 
– 14 kg of air
Air Pollution 
Air pollution may be defined as the presence 
in the air (outdoor atmosphere) of one or 
more contaminants or combinations 
thereof in such quantities and of such 
durations as may be or tend to be 
injurious to human, animal or plant life, 
or property, or which unreasonably 
interferes with the comfortable 
enjoyment of life or property or 
conduct of business.
Air Pollutants 
A pollutant can be solid (large or sub-molecular), 
liquid or gas . 
It may originate from a natural or anthropogenic 
source or both. 
It is estimated that anthropogenic sources have 
changed the composition of global air by less 
than 0.01%. 
However, it is widely accepted that even a small 
change can have a significant adverse effect 
on the climate, ecosystem and species on the 
planet. 
Examples of these are acid rains, CO, SOx, NOx, 
SPM, RSPM,CO2, ozone in the lower 
atmosphere, and photochemical smog.
Air Pollution and Public Opinion 
• Not a new phenomena: Smoke from Burning of 
Coal 
• Problems in many urban areas in late 1800s and 
early 1900 due to coal use 
• 1000s of deaths attributed to air pollution 
episodes in London 
– large number of pollution sources 
– restricted air volume 
– failure to recognize problem 
– CO presence: lethal 
• Photochemical smog
Sources of Air Pollution 
Why Air Quality? 
1.Point source 
stacks of thermal power stations, brick kilns, lime kilns, boiler etc. 
2. Area source 
Cluster of point sources, spill of chemicals, crude/product spills in ocean etc. 
3. Line source 
Car, scooter, train, aircraft: white line in sky behind a jet plane?
Type of Pollutants 
Why Air Quality? 
1. Primary pollutants 
pollutants which are being emitted into the air directly by point/area/line 
sources. 
Examples: CO, NOx, SO2, Pb, SPM, RSPM, VOCs 
2. Secondary pollutants 
pollutants which are getting formed from primary pollutants in the 
atmosphere. Some of the reactions are catalyzed by sun light. 
Examples: acid rains, smog, O3, H2O2, formaldehyde, 
peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN)
Why Air Pollution? 
• Main cause: Combustion 
Fuel (C,H,S,N,Pb,Hg,ash) + Air (N2 + O2) 
CO2, CO, NOx, SOx, Pb, Hg, SPM, 
RSPM(PM10), VOCs 
Coal: 500 MT 
Crude Oil based products:120 MT 
Natural gas: 31 NBCM 
Biomass: 400-500 MT 
(NOX,SPM/RSPM)
Why Air Pollution contd.. 
Usage/handling of Chemicals: paint, 
varnishes, perfumes, CFCs, petrol 
pumps, etc. 
Cement handling, insulation on 
winding of 
motors/alternators/transformers
Combustion processes 
1.Electricity generation 
Total generation capacity: 162,366.80 MW 
Thermal : 104,423.98 MW (64.6%) 
Hydro : 36,953.40 MW (24.7 %) 
Nuclear : 4560.0 MW (2.9%) 
Renewable : 16,429 MW ( 7.7%) 
2.Transport : 18 % of total energy 
Liquid fuels : 97.5% total petroleum products 
Electricity : 1.0% of total 
3. Industry :coal, petroleum products, electricity 
4. Domestic sector :biomass, petroleum products, electricity 
5. Agriculture :electricity, petroleum products
Coal combustion having S 
If the Indian coal is burnt at a rate of 1.00 kg per second having a 
sulphur content of 1.00 %, what is the annual rate of emission of SO2. 
The sulphur in the ash is found to be 5 %. 
• Sulphur burnt: 1.00 x 1/100=0.01 kg/s 
• Sulfur converted to SO2 = 0.01 x 0.95 = 0.0095 kg/s 
• S + O2 =SO2 
• SO2 produced = 0.0095 x 64/32 = 0.019 kg/s or 600,000 kg/y
Pollutants generation 
Fuel Combustion 
VOC 
1% 
Pb 
5% 
CO 
3% 
S in coals:0.5-2.5% 
Sox 
43% 
Nox 
25% 
PM10 
23% 
Sox 
CO 
Pb 
Nox 
VOC 
PM10 
N2+O2=NOx
Transport 
VOC 
17% 
PM10 
10% 
Nox 
21% 
Sox 
1% 
CO 
36% 
Pb 
15% 
Sox 
CO 
Pb 
Nox 
VOC 
PM10 
Diesel:350 ppm 
2010: 50 ppm 
Octane number enhancer: 
Tetraethyl lead, GM 1922
Industrial 
VOC 
51% 
PM10 
28% 
Nox 
3% 
Sox 
8% 
CO 
Pb 6% 
4% 
Sox 
CO 
Pb 
Nox 
VOC 
PM10 
SOx 
51%
Agencies responsible for controlling 
air pollution in India 
The Air (Prevention and Control of 
Pollution) Act, 1981 
Central pollution control board (CPCB) 
State pollution control boards (SPCB) 
Set procedure : ambient air, industry wise norms 
FIR against the firm/sealing of the industry
National 
Ambient Air 
Quality 
Standards 
(NAAQS) 
in India, 
1994 
Pollutants Time- Concentration in ambient air 
weighted 
average 
Industrial 
Areas 
Residential, 
Rural & 
other Areas 
Sensitive 
Areas 
SulphurDioxide (SO2) 80 μg/m3 60 μg/m3 15 μg/m3 
Annual 
Average* 
24 
hours** 
120 
μg/m3 
80 μg/m3 30 μg/m3 
Oxides of Annual 
80 μg/m3 60 μg/m3 15 μg/m3 
Nitrogen as 
Average* 
(NO2) 24 
hours** 
120 
μg/m3 
80 μg/m3 30 μg/m3 
Suspended Particulate Annual 
360 
140 μg/m3 70 μg/m3 
Matter (SPM) 
Average* 
μg/m3 
24 
hours** 
500 
μg/m3 
200 μg/m3 100 
μg/m3 
Respirable Particulate Annual 
120 
60 μg/m3 50 μg/m3 
Matter (RPM) (size less than 
Average* 
μg/m3 
10 microns) 24 
hours** 
150 
μg/m3 
100 μg/m3 75 μg/m3 
Annual 
Average* 
1.0 μg/m3 0.75 μg/m3 0.50 
μg/m3 
Lead (Pb) 
24 
hours** 
1.5 μg/m3 1.00 μg/m3 0.75 
μg/m3 
Ammonia1 Annual 
Average* 
0.1 mg/ 
m3 
0.1 mg/ m3 0.1 
mg/m3 
24 
hours** 
0.4 mg/ 
m3 
0.4 mg/m3 0.4 
mg/m3 
8 
hours** 
5.0 
mg/m3 
2.0 mg/m3 1.0 mg/ 
m3 
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 
1 hour 10.0 
mg/m3 
4.0 mg/m3 2.0 
mg/m3 
Environmentally 
Sensitive areas 
(ESA): landscape, 
wild life & history 
^ annual mean of 104 measurements in a year 
^^ 24/8 h values should be met 98% of time in a year
Remember (24 h) 
Pollutant National ambient air quality standards 
(NAAQS) for India 
Values are in μg/m3 
Maximum 
permissible 
limits of 
pollutants in 
air set by 
WHO 
Industrial 
areas 
Residential 
rural & other 
areas 
Sensitive 
areas 
Sulphur 
dioxide 
120 80 30 100 – 150 
Nitrogen 
dioxide 
120 80 30 150 
Total SPM 500 200 100 150 – 230
Particulate Matter 
Suspended Particulate Matter 
Fine Particulate Matter
What is Particulate Matter? 
• Particulate matter, or PM, is 
the term for particles found 
in the air, including dust, dirt, 
soot, smoke, and liquid 
droplets. 
• These small particles can 
remain suspended in the air 
for long periods of time. 
• Some particles are large or 
dark enough to be seen as 
soot or smoke. Others are 
so small that individually 
they can only be detected 
with an electron microscope.
Sources of Particulate Matter 
PM10
Types of Fine Particulate Matter 
• Primary Particles 
– These particles are 
emitted directly from air 
pollution sources such as 
power plants, factories, 
automobile exhaust, 
construction sites, 
unpaved roads, wood 
burning 
• Secondary Particles 
– Formed in the atmosphere 
indirectly when gases 
from burning fuels react 
with sunlight and water 
vapor and are chemically 
transformed into particles, 
secondary pollutants: 
solid/liquid
A few definitions 
• Solid or liquid particles with sizes from 
0.001 – 100 μm may be in air 
• General term for these is aerosols 
• Dust originates from grinding or crushing 
• Fumes are solid particles formed when 
vapors condense 
• Smoke describes particles released in 
combustion processes 
• Smog is used to describe air pollution and 
is combination of smoke+fog
Hukka
Bronian Motion
What Is PM10 & PM2.5 ? 
Hair cross section (70 
mm) 
PM2.5 
(2.5 μm) 
PM10 
(10μm) 
Human Hair (70 μm diameter)
Health Effects From Particulate Matter 
• Many scientific studies 
have linked breathing 
PM to a series of 
significant health 
problems, including: 
– aggravated asthma 
– increases in respiratory 
symptoms like coughing 
and difficult or painful 
breathing 
– chronic bronchitis 
– decreased lung function 
– premature death
Health Effects of Particulate 
Matter 
• Impact depends on particle size, shape 
and composition 
• Large particles trapped in nose 
• Particles >10 μm removed in 
tracheobronchial system 
• Particles <0.5 μm reach lungs but are 
exhaled with air 
• Particles 2 – 4 μm most effectively 
deposited in lungs
Stokes Law 
Aerodynamic diameter: Diameter of the sphere having the same settling 
velocity as that of the particle 
Given by George Gabriel Stokes in 1851 
Where, 
acceleration of gravity (g), m/s2 
particle diameter (d), m 
density of particle (ρp), kg/m3 
density of medium (ρm), kg/m3 
viscosity of medium (μ), kg/m s
Human respiratory system
Other Effects From Particles 
• Visibility Impairment 
– PM is the major cause of 
reduced visibility (haze). 
• Aesthetic Damage 
– Soot, a type of PM, stains and 
damages stone and other 
materials, including objects 
such as monuments and 
statues. 
• Plant Damage 
– PM can form a film on plant 
leaves interfering with 
photosynthesis and plant 
growth
Particulate Matter and Taj 
The deposition of 
SPM on the 
shimmering 
white marble of 
the Taj Mahal 
imparts yellow 
tinge to the 
marble surface
Emission norms for heavy Diesel vehicles 
Norms CO( g/km) HC (g/km) NOx (g/km) PM(g/km) 
1991Norms 14 3.5 18 
1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4 
India stage 
2000 norms 
4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 
Bharat 
stage-II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 
Bharat 
Stage-III 2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10 
Bharat 
Stage-IV 1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02
Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) 
Standard Reference Date Region 
India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide 
Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai 
2003.04 NCR*, 10 Cities† 
2005.04 Nationwide 
Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 10 Cities† 
2010.04 Nationwide 
Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 10 Cities† 
* National Capital Region (Delhi) 
† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, 
Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra
Standards & Some Case Studies, 
2005 
• SPM Standard is 200 microgram/m3 (24 h avg) 
• RSPM or PM10 is 100 microgram/m3 (24 h avg) 
• The highest SPM level of 4,772 microgram per cubic 
meter was recorded at Meera Bagh while the lowest of 
1,068 microgram per cubic meter at Defence Colony. 
The prescribed limit is 200. 
• The highest RSPM level was 2,292 microgram per cubic 
meter at Meera bagh and minimum was 586 in Rajpur 
Road, near the Delhi University. The prescribed limit is 
100. 
• Police claimed to have fined around 500 people for 
bursting crackers after 10.00 PM. The maximum 
punishment is imprisonment up to five years and fine up 
to Rs 100,000.
Carbon Monoxide 
• Most abundant air 
pollutant 
• Produced by incomplete 
combustion 
– insufficient O2 
– low temperature 
– short residence time 
– poor mixing 
• Major source (~ 77%) is 
motor vehicle exhaust
Carbon Monoxide 
Misc 
10% 
Industrial 
7% 
Fuel Combustion 
6% 
Transport 
77% 
Misc 
Industrial 
Fuel Combustion 
Transport
Carbon Monoxide 
• Colorless and odorless 
• When inhaled, binds to hemoglobin in blood to form 
carboxyhemoglobin, reducing the oxygen carrying capacity 
• brain function reduced, heart rate increased at lower levels 
• asphyxiation occurs at higher levels 
• % COHb = β(1- e-γt) (CO) 
• % COHb = Carboxyhemoglobin as % saturation 
• CO = Carbonmonoxide conc. in ppm 
• γ = 0.402 h-1 
• β= 0.15 %/ ppm CO 
• t = exposure time in hours
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Monoxide 
• Typical Levels 
– busy roadways: 5 – 50 ppm 
– congested highways: up to 100 ppm
Emission norms for heavy Diesel vehicles 
Norms CO( g/km) HC (g/km) NOx (g/km) PM(g/km) 
1991Norms 14 3.5 18 
1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4 
India stage 
2000 norms 
4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 
Bharat 
stage-II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 
Bharat 
Stage-III 2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10 
Bharat 
Stage-IV 1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02
Sulfur Oxides (SOx) 
• SO2, SO3, SO4 
2 
formed during 
combustion of fuel 
containing sulfur 
• H2S released is 
converted to SO2 
• 10 Tg/yr natural 
sources 
• 75 Tg/yr 
anthropogenic 
sources
SOx
Sulfur Dioxide: Health Effects 
• High concentrations of SO2 can result in 
temporary breathing impairment. 
• Longer-term exposures to high concentrations of 
SO2, in conjunction with high levels of PM, 
include respiratory illness, alterations in the 
lungs' defenses, and aggravation of existing 
cardiovascular disease 
• Short-term exposures of asthmatic individuals to 
elevated SO2 levels may result in reduced lung 
function.
Sulfur Dioxide: Environmental 
Effects 
• Acid Rain Decreased Visibility
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) 
• Primarily NO and NO2 
• NO3, N2O, N2O3, N2O4, 
N2O5 are also known to 
occur 
• Thermal NOx created 
by oxidation of 
atmospheric N2 when T 
 1000 K 
• Fuel NOx from 
oxidation of N in fuel
NOx 
Transport 
45% 
Misc 
1% 
Industrial 
4% 
Fuel Combustion 
50% 
Misc 
Industrial 
Fuel Combustion 
Transport
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) 
• NO has few health effects, but is oxidized 
to NO2 
• NO2 irritates lungs and promotes 
respiratory infections 
• NO2 reacts with hydrocarbons in presence 
of sunlight to produce smog 
• NO2 reacts with hydroxyl radicals to 
produce nitric acid – acid precipitation
Lead 
• Sources: 
– gasoline (historical) 
– metals processing 
• Highest air Pb 
concentrations 
– in the vicinity of 
nonferrous and ferrous 
smelters, and battery 
manufacturers.
Pb
Lead: Health Effects 
• Accumulates in the blood, bones, and soft 
tissues. 
• Adversely affects the kidneys, liver, nervous 
system, and other organs. 
• Excessive exposure to Pb may cause 
neurological impairments, such as seizures, 
mental retardation, and behavioral disorders. 
• May be a factor in high blood pressure and 
subsequent heart disease.
Photochemical Smog 
hydrocarbons + NOx + sunlight → 
photochemical smog (oxidants) 
• primary 
oxidants 
produced: 
– ozone (O3) 
– formaldehyde 
– peroxyacetyl 
nitrate (PAN)
Ozone depletion mechanism 
• Different chemicals are responsible for the destruction of 
the ozone layer 
• Topping the list : 
– chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) 
– man-made, non-toxic and inert in the troposphere 
– In the stratosphere are photolysed, releasing reactive chlorine 
atoms that catalytically destroy ozone
Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) 
• Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) high energy electromagnetic wave emitted from the 
sun. It is made up of wavelengths ranging from 100nm to 400nm. 
• UV radiation includes UV-A, the least dangerous form of UV radiation, with a 
wavelength range between 315nm to 400nm, UV-B with a wavelength range 
between 280nm to 315nm, and UV-C which is the most dangerous between 100nm 
to 280nm. UV-C is unable to reach Earth’s surface due to stratospheric ozone’s 
ability to absorb it. (Last, 2006)
Sun Protection Factor 
Sunscreens: 4, 8, 15, 30, 45 
The SPF of a sunscreen indicates the time period you can stay in the sun without burning based on your skin complexion. 
Recommended SPF 
Skin Type 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5+ hr 
Very Fair / 
Extremely Sensitive 
15 30 30 45 45 
Fair / Sensitive 15 15 30 30 45 
Fair 15 15 15 30 30 
Medium 8 8 15 15 30 
Dark 4 8 8 15 15 
Note: Reapply sunscreen often, especially after swimming or sweating.
Photochemical Smog
Photochemical Smog
Ozone: Health Effects 
• Increased incidents of respiratory 
distress. 
• Repeated exposures to ozone: 
– Increased susceptibility to respiratory 
infection 
– Lung inflammation 
– Aggravation of pre-existing respiratory 
diseases such as asthma. 
– Decrease in lung function and increased 
respiratory symptoms such as chest pain and 
cough.
Ozone: Environmental Effects 
• Ozone also affects 
vegetation and ecosystems 
– reductions in agricultural and 
commercial forest yields 
($0.5 billion/yr in US alone) 
– reduced growth and 
survivability of tree seedlings 
– increased plant susceptibility 
to disease, pests, and other 
environmental stresses 
(e.g., harsh weather).
Ozone Revised Standards 
• In 1997, the 1-hour ozone standard of 
0.12 parts per million (ppm) was replaced 
with a new 8-hour 0.08 ppm standard.
Units of Measurement 
• μg/m3 – mass:volume 
• parts per million (ppm) – volume:volume 
( L mol -1 
)( K )( kPa/ 
) 
ppm = C × T P 
22.414 / 273 101.325 2 2 
( MW 
)( 1000 
L/m 
3 ) 
where C = concentration in μg/m3
Landmark datelines to capital 
clean 
• April 1995: Mandatory fitting of catalytic convertors 
• April 1996: Low sulphur diesel introduced 
• April 1998: Introduction of CNG buses in Delhi 
• Sept 1998: Complete removal of lead in petrol 
• Dec 1998: Restrict plying of goods vehicles during 
the day 
• Sept 1999: Amendment of Motor Vehicles Act to 
include CNG 
• April 2000: Private vehicles to be registered only if 
they conform to Euro II standards 
• April 2000: Eight-year-old commercial vehicles 
phased out 
• Nov 2002: Conversion of all public transport buses 
to CNG
Air Pollution Control 
Mobile Emissions: Line sources 
Stationary Emissions: Point sources
Type of the engines 
1. Spark Ignition (SI) Engines: 1880 Nicholas Otto, German engineer 
Compression ratio: 1: 8, Gasoline-Octane number, 88  91(IOCL Extra Premium) 
Four stroke: Intake stroke (Gasoline + Air) 
Compression stroke 
Power stroke : spark is given to have combustion: Faraday dynamo 
Exhaust stroke 
CO, HC, NOx and PM 
2. Compression Ignition (CI) Engines: 1893 Rudolf Diesel, German 
Compression ratio: 1:15, Diesel-Cetane number, 46+ 
Four stroke: Intake stroke (Air only) 
Compression stroke 
Power stroke : Diesel injected to have combustion 
Exhaust stroke 
NOx are higher and PM
Emissions in Internal Combustion Engines 
Rich Mixture
Two 
Way 
Catalytic 
Converter 
Two 
pollutants: 
CO 
HC 
Leaded 
gasoline 
spoils 
converters 
A two-way catalytic converter has two 
simultaneous tasks: 
Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon 
dioxide: 2CO + O2 → 2CO2 
Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons 
(unburnt and partially-burnt fuel) to carbon 
dioxide and water: 2CxHy + (2x+y/2)O2 → 
2xCO2 + yH2O
Three 
Way 
Catalytic 
Converter 
Three 
pollutants: 
CO 
HC 
 
NOx 
Leaded 
gasoline 
spoils 
converters 
A three-way catalytic converter has three 
simultaneous tasks: 
Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen 
and oxygen: 2NOx → xO2 + N2 
Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon 
dioxide: 2CO + O2 → 2CO2 
Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to 
carbon dioxide and water: 2CxHy + 
(2x+y/2)O2 → 2xCO2 + yH2O
Three 
Way 
Catalytic 
Converter 
Three 
pollutants: 
CO 
HC 
 
NOx 
Leaded 
gasoline 
spoils 
converters
Catalytic 
Converters 
use 
Platinum/ 
Palladium/ 
Rhodium 
catalysts
Cleaner/Alternative Fuel 
• Vaporization of Gasoline should be reduced. 
• Oxygen containing additives reduce air 
requirement. Eg., ethanol, methyl tertiary butyl 
ether (MTBE) ( ill health effects). 
– Methanol: (Less photochemically reactive VOC, but 
emits HCHO (eye irritant), difficult to start in winters: 
Can be overcome by M85 (85 % methanol, 15 % 
gasoline) 
– Ethanol: GASOHOL(10 % ethanol  90% Gasoline), 
– CNG: Low HC, NOx high, Inconvenient refueling, 
leakage hazard. 
– LPG: Propane, NOx high
Air Pollution Control 
Stationary Sources 
• Pre-combustion Control 
– Switching to Less Sulphur and N Fuel: Alternate fuels 
• Combustion Control 
– Improving the combustion process: grate/pulverized 
– New burners to reduce NOx 
– New Fluidized bed boilers 
– Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) 
• Coal converted into CO + H2 and then burnt 
• Post-Combustion Control 
– Particulate collection devices 
– Flue gas desulphurization
Cleaner/Alternative Fuels 
• Oxygen containing additives reduce air 
requirements and combustion is better 
• Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ( ill health 
effects) 
• Biodiesel 
• Ethanol: GASOHOL(10 % ethanol  90% 
Gasoline) 
• Methanol [M80, 80 % methanol, 20 % gasoline] 
• CNG 
• LPG 
• Hydrogen
BIODIESEL 
A cleaner-burning, renewable, and domestically 
produced diesel fuel 
Biodiesel can be made from various oils: 
edible and inedible viz: jatropha, 
pongamia, mustard, soybean, corn, 
sunflower, animal fat, and even waste 
grease 
Biodiesel is primarily sold as B20 (Diesel 
80+20 Biodiesel) 
U.S. Congress designated B20 as an 
approved alternative fuel in 1998
A BETTER FUEL VS DIESEL 
Features Benefits 
 Higher cetane 
 Greater lubricity 
 Superior detergency 
 Higher flash point 
 More mileage 
 Greater horsepower 
 Less smoke 
 Smoother running engines 
 Quicker starts 
 Longer engine life 
 Reduced maintenance
Cleaner Emissions vs. Diesel 
Emission Type B100 B20 
Carbon Monoxide - 43.2% - 12.6% 
Hydrocarbons - 56.3% - 11% 
Particulates - 55.4% - 18 % 
Nitrogen Oxides + 5.8% +1.2 % 
Carcinogens - 60% - 90% - 12% - 20% 
Mutagens - 80% - 90% - 20% 
Carbon Dioxide * - 78.3% - 15.7% 
* Life cycle emissions of CO2 
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Golden, Colorado
FUEL ETHANOL AND BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, WORLD TOTAL, 1990-2003 
(billion liters)
FROM THE FARMER TO THE FUEL TANK 
Energy Crop 
RD 
Farming 
Oilseed 
Meal 
Crushing Crop Oil 
Biodiesel Production 
Biodiesel 
Market 
Glycerin
Biodiesel Production by Transesterification 
Basics : 
Chemical reaction between vegetable or animal oils/fats with alcohol producing ethyl or 
methyl esters (Biodiesel) + glycerin (by-product) 
catalyst 
+ + 
Vegetable or 
animal oil 
Alcohol Biodiesel Glycerin 
Raw materials 
- Vegetable oils (rapeseed, soya, sunflower, castor, palm, cotton, peanut, others) 
or animal; 
- Alcohol (methanol or ethanol) 
- Catalysts (sodium hydroxide)
Biodiesel Production by Transesterification 
Catalyst 
Oil Purificatio 
n 
Transesterifica 
tion Purification Biodiesel 
Soaps 
Water Glycerine 
Water 
Purificatio 
n 
Glycerine 
Alcohol
ETHANOL 
Henry Ford designed the famed Model T 
Ford to run on alcohol and he had said 
“the fuel of the future” in 1908
Renewable 
 Zero Carbon Balance 
 Not dependent on petroleum 
 Large scale of production 
 High miscibility with gasoline and it is a perfect 
substitute for tetraethyl lead/aromatics 
 Oxygenated Compound 
 Reduces CO emission 
 Low toxic 
 Sulfur free 
WHY ETHANOL?
DISADVANTAGES ETHANOL 
 Low heating value (70 % of gasoline) 
 Ignition difficulty in winter 
 Metal corrosion 
 Effect on plastic and rubber components
WORLD ETHANOL PRODUCTION 
2007 data 
Country Billion of liters 
USA 24.60 
Brazil 18.99 
European Union 2.16 
China 1.83 
Canada 0.80 
Thailand 0.28 
Columbia 0.27 
India 12.3
FUEL PROPERTIES 
Gasoline 
(CnH1.87n) 
Methanol 
(CH3OH) 
Ethanol 
(C2H5OH) 
Stoichiometric A/F 
ratio 14.6 6.47 9.00 
Density (kg/m3) 720-780 792 785 
RON 95 106 107 
MON 80-90 92 89 
Low heating value 
(MJ/kg) 44 20 26.9 
Heat of 
vaporization (kJ/kg) 305 1,103 840 
LHV of stoich. 
mixture (MJ/kg) 2.83 2.68 2.69 
Auto-ignition 
temperature (°C) 260-460 460 360
ETHYL ALCOHOL 
Raw Materials 
 Sugary materials: molasses, sugar cane 
juice, fruits 
 Starch materials: corn, barley, rice, wheat 
 Cellulosic materials: wood, agricultural 
residues
METHANOL 
 United States Auto Club : 1965 
 Formula one : gasoline 
 High octane number : RON of 107 and MON of 92 
 Not suitable for CI engines 
 Proven technology 
 Heating value half of gasoline 
 No engine modification required
METHANOL 
Methanol economy: in 2005 by George A. Olah 
Nobel Prize (1994) 
 Methanol: as gasoline supplement/ 
replacement 
 Direct : DMFC (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell) 
 Indirect : Hydrogen Fuel Cells
METHANOL PRODUCTION ROUTES 
Wood pyrolysis 
From Syn-gas (CO+H2) via F-T process 
(depends upon catalyst, temperature and pressure conditions) 
Methanol and Ethanol may be the 
Liquid Fuels of Coming Future
NG/CNG/PNG/LNG 
 Mixture of HCs 
 Main Constituent is Methane 96% 
 Heating value 37-40 MJ/Nm3 
(billing is based on heating value) 
 Sulphur free 
 High octane number (130+) 
 CO and unburnt HCs emission low 
 Low cost ?
NG PRODUCTION IN INDIA 
in BCM 
Year OIL ONGC PVT/JV Total 
1996/07 1.50 21.28 0.48 23.26 
1999/00 1.73 23.25 3.47 28.45 
2004/05 2.01 22.99 6.78 31.77 
2005/06 2.27 22.57 7.36 32.20 
2006/07 2.27 22.25 7.04 31.58 
2009/10 47.51 
As per 2007 data of MoPNG
NG NET WORK 
 GAIL (INDIA) LTD. main player in gas 
transport 
 A total of 5300 km gas pipe line in our country 
11 states covered 
HBJ (Hajira-Bilaspur-Jagdispur) 2800 km 
Capacity: 60 SMCMD; 900 mm Diameter 
Pressure: 20-40 Bar, Boosters: 200-350 km 
 Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline: 2300 km 
 Myanmar-Bangladesh-India Pipe Line
Number of natural gas vehicles and refilling 
stations in the world by end 2005 
Country Vehicles Ref. stations 
Argentina 1,439,527 1,402 
Brazil 1,000,424 1,124 
Pakistan 800,000 740 
Italy 382,000 509 
India* 204,000 198 
US 130,000 1,340 
China 97,200 355 
Ukraine 67,000 147 
Egypt 62,150 90 
Colombia 60,000 90 
*2006/07 408,880 356 (Delhi and Mumbai)
Number of natural gas vehicles and refilling 
stations in the world by end 2005 contd… 
Country Vehicles Ref. stations 
Iran 48,029 72 
Venezuela 44,146 149 
Russia 41,780 213 
Germany 27,200 558 
Japan 24,684 288 
Canada 20,505 222 
Sweden 7,000 65 
UK 543 20 
Others 200,000 1,000 
Total 4,706,000 8,643 
Petroleum review, 2006
LPG 
 Domestic fuel 
 Mixture of Propane (20%)  Butane (80%) 
 LPG is highly volatile liquid and expands 
to 247 times of its liquid volume 
 Mercaptans added (50 ppm) 
 Liquefaction pressure: Propane 10 bar; Butane 
3 bar 
 14.2 kg MS Cylinders for domestic use 
and 19  49.5 kg others 
 Vehicle usage allowed by government
HHYYDDRROOGGEENN EENNEERRGGYY 
Widely regarded as the ultimate fuel 
and energy storage medium for 
future 
 Environment friendly 
 Hydrogen has high energy density 
(120MJ/kg vs 44.4 MJ/kg Petrol) 
 Produced from water, fossil fuels, 
biomass, solar energy etc.
HHYYDDRROOGGEENN PPRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN RROOUUTTEESS 
 Catalytic steam reforming of natural 
gas/coal/biomass 
 Electrolytic decomposition of water 
 Solar radiations
Fuels 
Photosynthesis 
Electricity 
Photovoltaics 
CO 
Sugar 
H O 
O 
2 
2 
2 
Solar energy based production options 
O H 
2 2 
H2O 
Semiconductor/Liquid 
Junctions 
SC 
Heating 
ee-- 
Electrolysis of water
Stationary Emissions: Point 
Sources 
Control of Particulate Matter 
Device Selection Depends on 
• Particle Size 
• Concentration 
• Corrosivity 
• Volumetric Flow Rate 
• Required Collection Efficiency 
• Cost
Cyclone 
• For PM  5 micron 
• Efficiency  90% 
• Maintenance Free 
• Inexpensive 
• ReCyclone® System 
- YouTube.MP4
Fabric Filters 
• Eff. – 100 % Particles 
0.01 micron 
• Can not operate in 
moist environment 
• Large  Expensive 
• Competitive with ESP 
• Cloth material-temperature 
dependant
Bag Materilas 
1.Cotton 
2.Nylon 
3.Polyester 
4.Fiberglass 
5.Asbestos 
6.Stainless steel: 
woven 
7.Ceramic 
filter bag,filter 
fabric,filter cage-cox 
filter cloth - 
YouTube.MP4
Electrostatic Precipitator 
• Wires are charged with high 
negative voltage. 100 KV 
• PM negatively charged  move 
towards grounded collector 
plates 
• Removal98%, All size 
• Little pressure drop, low OM 
cost but initial cost high 
• Occupy large space 
• Plate Area Requirement 
depends on Efficiency required 
– Efficiency = 1-e-wA/Q 
– A is total area of collection 
plate 
– Q Volumetric flow rate of 
the gas 
– W is drift velocity 
Electrostatic Precipitator 
System Working.avi - 
YouTube.MP4
Sulfur Dioxide Control 
CaCO3+SO2+2H2O=CaSO3.2H2O+CO2 
or CaO+SO2+2H2O=CaSO3.2H2O

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12 air pollution

  • 2.
  • 3. Air & Its Pollution A person needs per day about – 1.4 kg of water – 0.7 kg of food – 14 kg of air
  • 4. Air Pollution Air pollution may be defined as the presence in the air (outdoor atmosphere) of one or more contaminants or combinations thereof in such quantities and of such durations as may be or tend to be injurious to human, animal or plant life, or property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property or conduct of business.
  • 5. Air Pollutants A pollutant can be solid (large or sub-molecular), liquid or gas . It may originate from a natural or anthropogenic source or both. It is estimated that anthropogenic sources have changed the composition of global air by less than 0.01%. However, it is widely accepted that even a small change can have a significant adverse effect on the climate, ecosystem and species on the planet. Examples of these are acid rains, CO, SOx, NOx, SPM, RSPM,CO2, ozone in the lower atmosphere, and photochemical smog.
  • 6. Air Pollution and Public Opinion • Not a new phenomena: Smoke from Burning of Coal • Problems in many urban areas in late 1800s and early 1900 due to coal use • 1000s of deaths attributed to air pollution episodes in London – large number of pollution sources – restricted air volume – failure to recognize problem – CO presence: lethal • Photochemical smog
  • 7. Sources of Air Pollution Why Air Quality? 1.Point source stacks of thermal power stations, brick kilns, lime kilns, boiler etc. 2. Area source Cluster of point sources, spill of chemicals, crude/product spills in ocean etc. 3. Line source Car, scooter, train, aircraft: white line in sky behind a jet plane?
  • 8. Type of Pollutants Why Air Quality? 1. Primary pollutants pollutants which are being emitted into the air directly by point/area/line sources. Examples: CO, NOx, SO2, Pb, SPM, RSPM, VOCs 2. Secondary pollutants pollutants which are getting formed from primary pollutants in the atmosphere. Some of the reactions are catalyzed by sun light. Examples: acid rains, smog, O3, H2O2, formaldehyde, peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN)
  • 9. Why Air Pollution? • Main cause: Combustion Fuel (C,H,S,N,Pb,Hg,ash) + Air (N2 + O2) CO2, CO, NOx, SOx, Pb, Hg, SPM, RSPM(PM10), VOCs Coal: 500 MT Crude Oil based products:120 MT Natural gas: 31 NBCM Biomass: 400-500 MT (NOX,SPM/RSPM)
  • 10. Why Air Pollution contd.. Usage/handling of Chemicals: paint, varnishes, perfumes, CFCs, petrol pumps, etc. Cement handling, insulation on winding of motors/alternators/transformers
  • 11. Combustion processes 1.Electricity generation Total generation capacity: 162,366.80 MW Thermal : 104,423.98 MW (64.6%) Hydro : 36,953.40 MW (24.7 %) Nuclear : 4560.0 MW (2.9%) Renewable : 16,429 MW ( 7.7%) 2.Transport : 18 % of total energy Liquid fuels : 97.5% total petroleum products Electricity : 1.0% of total 3. Industry :coal, petroleum products, electricity 4. Domestic sector :biomass, petroleum products, electricity 5. Agriculture :electricity, petroleum products
  • 12. Coal combustion having S If the Indian coal is burnt at a rate of 1.00 kg per second having a sulphur content of 1.00 %, what is the annual rate of emission of SO2. The sulphur in the ash is found to be 5 %. • Sulphur burnt: 1.00 x 1/100=0.01 kg/s • Sulfur converted to SO2 = 0.01 x 0.95 = 0.0095 kg/s • S + O2 =SO2 • SO2 produced = 0.0095 x 64/32 = 0.019 kg/s or 600,000 kg/y
  • 13. Pollutants generation Fuel Combustion VOC 1% Pb 5% CO 3% S in coals:0.5-2.5% Sox 43% Nox 25% PM10 23% Sox CO Pb Nox VOC PM10 N2+O2=NOx
  • 14. Transport VOC 17% PM10 10% Nox 21% Sox 1% CO 36% Pb 15% Sox CO Pb Nox VOC PM10 Diesel:350 ppm 2010: 50 ppm Octane number enhancer: Tetraethyl lead, GM 1922
  • 15. Industrial VOC 51% PM10 28% Nox 3% Sox 8% CO Pb 6% 4% Sox CO Pb Nox VOC PM10 SOx 51%
  • 16. Agencies responsible for controlling air pollution in India The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 Central pollution control board (CPCB) State pollution control boards (SPCB) Set procedure : ambient air, industry wise norms FIR against the firm/sealing of the industry
  • 17. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in India, 1994 Pollutants Time- Concentration in ambient air weighted average Industrial Areas Residential, Rural & other Areas Sensitive Areas SulphurDioxide (SO2) 80 μg/m3 60 μg/m3 15 μg/m3 Annual Average* 24 hours** 120 μg/m3 80 μg/m3 30 μg/m3 Oxides of Annual 80 μg/m3 60 μg/m3 15 μg/m3 Nitrogen as Average* (NO2) 24 hours** 120 μg/m3 80 μg/m3 30 μg/m3 Suspended Particulate Annual 360 140 μg/m3 70 μg/m3 Matter (SPM) Average* μg/m3 24 hours** 500 μg/m3 200 μg/m3 100 μg/m3 Respirable Particulate Annual 120 60 μg/m3 50 μg/m3 Matter (RPM) (size less than Average* μg/m3 10 microns) 24 hours** 150 μg/m3 100 μg/m3 75 μg/m3 Annual Average* 1.0 μg/m3 0.75 μg/m3 0.50 μg/m3 Lead (Pb) 24 hours** 1.5 μg/m3 1.00 μg/m3 0.75 μg/m3 Ammonia1 Annual Average* 0.1 mg/ m3 0.1 mg/ m3 0.1 mg/m3 24 hours** 0.4 mg/ m3 0.4 mg/m3 0.4 mg/m3 8 hours** 5.0 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3 1.0 mg/ m3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 1 hour 10.0 mg/m3 4.0 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3 Environmentally Sensitive areas (ESA): landscape, wild life & history ^ annual mean of 104 measurements in a year ^^ 24/8 h values should be met 98% of time in a year
  • 18. Remember (24 h) Pollutant National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for India Values are in μg/m3 Maximum permissible limits of pollutants in air set by WHO Industrial areas Residential rural & other areas Sensitive areas Sulphur dioxide 120 80 30 100 – 150 Nitrogen dioxide 120 80 30 150 Total SPM 500 200 100 150 – 230
  • 19. Particulate Matter Suspended Particulate Matter Fine Particulate Matter
  • 20. What is Particulate Matter? • Particulate matter, or PM, is the term for particles found in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. • These small particles can remain suspended in the air for long periods of time. • Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen as soot or smoke. Others are so small that individually they can only be detected with an electron microscope.
  • 21. Sources of Particulate Matter PM10
  • 22. Types of Fine Particulate Matter • Primary Particles – These particles are emitted directly from air pollution sources such as power plants, factories, automobile exhaust, construction sites, unpaved roads, wood burning • Secondary Particles – Formed in the atmosphere indirectly when gases from burning fuels react with sunlight and water vapor and are chemically transformed into particles, secondary pollutants: solid/liquid
  • 23. A few definitions • Solid or liquid particles with sizes from 0.001 – 100 μm may be in air • General term for these is aerosols • Dust originates from grinding or crushing • Fumes are solid particles formed when vapors condense • Smoke describes particles released in combustion processes • Smog is used to describe air pollution and is combination of smoke+fog
  • 24. Hukka
  • 26. What Is PM10 & PM2.5 ? Hair cross section (70 mm) PM2.5 (2.5 μm) PM10 (10μm) Human Hair (70 μm diameter)
  • 27. Health Effects From Particulate Matter • Many scientific studies have linked breathing PM to a series of significant health problems, including: – aggravated asthma – increases in respiratory symptoms like coughing and difficult or painful breathing – chronic bronchitis – decreased lung function – premature death
  • 28. Health Effects of Particulate Matter • Impact depends on particle size, shape and composition • Large particles trapped in nose • Particles >10 μm removed in tracheobronchial system • Particles <0.5 μm reach lungs but are exhaled with air • Particles 2 – 4 μm most effectively deposited in lungs
  • 29. Stokes Law Aerodynamic diameter: Diameter of the sphere having the same settling velocity as that of the particle Given by George Gabriel Stokes in 1851 Where, acceleration of gravity (g), m/s2 particle diameter (d), m density of particle (ρp), kg/m3 density of medium (ρm), kg/m3 viscosity of medium (μ), kg/m s
  • 31. Other Effects From Particles • Visibility Impairment – PM is the major cause of reduced visibility (haze). • Aesthetic Damage – Soot, a type of PM, stains and damages stone and other materials, including objects such as monuments and statues. • Plant Damage – PM can form a film on plant leaves interfering with photosynthesis and plant growth
  • 32. Particulate Matter and Taj The deposition of SPM on the shimmering white marble of the Taj Mahal imparts yellow tinge to the marble surface
  • 33. Emission norms for heavy Diesel vehicles Norms CO( g/km) HC (g/km) NOx (g/km) PM(g/km) 1991Norms 14 3.5 18 1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4 India stage 2000 norms 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 Bharat stage-II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 Bharat Stage-III 2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10 Bharat Stage-IV 1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02
  • 34. Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) Standard Reference Date Region India 2000 Euro 1 2000 Nationwide Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2001 NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai 2003.04 NCR*, 10 Cities† 2005.04 Nationwide Bharat Stage III Euro 3 2005.04 NCR*, 10 Cities† 2010.04 Nationwide Bharat Stage IV Euro 4 2010.04 NCR*, 10 Cities† * National Capital Region (Delhi) † Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra
  • 35. Standards & Some Case Studies, 2005 • SPM Standard is 200 microgram/m3 (24 h avg) • RSPM or PM10 is 100 microgram/m3 (24 h avg) • The highest SPM level of 4,772 microgram per cubic meter was recorded at Meera Bagh while the lowest of 1,068 microgram per cubic meter at Defence Colony. The prescribed limit is 200. • The highest RSPM level was 2,292 microgram per cubic meter at Meera bagh and minimum was 586 in Rajpur Road, near the Delhi University. The prescribed limit is 100. • Police claimed to have fined around 500 people for bursting crackers after 10.00 PM. The maximum punishment is imprisonment up to five years and fine up to Rs 100,000.
  • 36.
  • 37. Carbon Monoxide • Most abundant air pollutant • Produced by incomplete combustion – insufficient O2 – low temperature – short residence time – poor mixing • Major source (~ 77%) is motor vehicle exhaust
  • 38. Carbon Monoxide Misc 10% Industrial 7% Fuel Combustion 6% Transport 77% Misc Industrial Fuel Combustion Transport
  • 39. Carbon Monoxide • Colorless and odorless • When inhaled, binds to hemoglobin in blood to form carboxyhemoglobin, reducing the oxygen carrying capacity • brain function reduced, heart rate increased at lower levels • asphyxiation occurs at higher levels • % COHb = β(1- e-γt) (CO) • % COHb = Carboxyhemoglobin as % saturation • CO = Carbonmonoxide conc. in ppm • γ = 0.402 h-1 • β= 0.15 %/ ppm CO • t = exposure time in hours
  • 41. Carbon Monoxide • Typical Levels – busy roadways: 5 – 50 ppm – congested highways: up to 100 ppm
  • 42. Emission norms for heavy Diesel vehicles Norms CO( g/km) HC (g/km) NOx (g/km) PM(g/km) 1991Norms 14 3.5 18 1996 Norms 11.2 2.4 14.4 India stage 2000 norms 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 Bharat stage-II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15 Bharat Stage-III 2.1 1.6 5.0 0.10 Bharat Stage-IV 1.5 0.96 3.5 0.02
  • 43. Sulfur Oxides (SOx) • SO2, SO3, SO4 2 formed during combustion of fuel containing sulfur • H2S released is converted to SO2 • 10 Tg/yr natural sources • 75 Tg/yr anthropogenic sources
  • 44. SOx
  • 45. Sulfur Dioxide: Health Effects • High concentrations of SO2 can result in temporary breathing impairment. • Longer-term exposures to high concentrations of SO2, in conjunction with high levels of PM, include respiratory illness, alterations in the lungs' defenses, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease • Short-term exposures of asthmatic individuals to elevated SO2 levels may result in reduced lung function.
  • 46. Sulfur Dioxide: Environmental Effects • Acid Rain Decreased Visibility
  • 47.
  • 48. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) • Primarily NO and NO2 • NO3, N2O, N2O3, N2O4, N2O5 are also known to occur • Thermal NOx created by oxidation of atmospheric N2 when T 1000 K • Fuel NOx from oxidation of N in fuel
  • 49. NOx Transport 45% Misc 1% Industrial 4% Fuel Combustion 50% Misc Industrial Fuel Combustion Transport
  • 50. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) • NO has few health effects, but is oxidized to NO2 • NO2 irritates lungs and promotes respiratory infections • NO2 reacts with hydrocarbons in presence of sunlight to produce smog • NO2 reacts with hydroxyl radicals to produce nitric acid – acid precipitation
  • 51.
  • 52. Lead • Sources: – gasoline (historical) – metals processing • Highest air Pb concentrations – in the vicinity of nonferrous and ferrous smelters, and battery manufacturers.
  • 53. Pb
  • 54. Lead: Health Effects • Accumulates in the blood, bones, and soft tissues. • Adversely affects the kidneys, liver, nervous system, and other organs. • Excessive exposure to Pb may cause neurological impairments, such as seizures, mental retardation, and behavioral disorders. • May be a factor in high blood pressure and subsequent heart disease.
  • 55. Photochemical Smog hydrocarbons + NOx + sunlight → photochemical smog (oxidants) • primary oxidants produced: – ozone (O3) – formaldehyde – peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN)
  • 56. Ozone depletion mechanism • Different chemicals are responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer • Topping the list : – chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) – man-made, non-toxic and inert in the troposphere – In the stratosphere are photolysed, releasing reactive chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone
  • 57. Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) • Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) high energy electromagnetic wave emitted from the sun. It is made up of wavelengths ranging from 100nm to 400nm. • UV radiation includes UV-A, the least dangerous form of UV radiation, with a wavelength range between 315nm to 400nm, UV-B with a wavelength range between 280nm to 315nm, and UV-C which is the most dangerous between 100nm to 280nm. UV-C is unable to reach Earth’s surface due to stratospheric ozone’s ability to absorb it. (Last, 2006)
  • 58. Sun Protection Factor Sunscreens: 4, 8, 15, 30, 45 The SPF of a sunscreen indicates the time period you can stay in the sun without burning based on your skin complexion. Recommended SPF Skin Type 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5+ hr Very Fair / Extremely Sensitive 15 30 30 45 45 Fair / Sensitive 15 15 30 30 45 Fair 15 15 15 30 30 Medium 8 8 15 15 30 Dark 4 8 8 15 15 Note: Reapply sunscreen often, especially after swimming or sweating.
  • 61. Ozone: Health Effects • Increased incidents of respiratory distress. • Repeated exposures to ozone: – Increased susceptibility to respiratory infection – Lung inflammation – Aggravation of pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. – Decrease in lung function and increased respiratory symptoms such as chest pain and cough.
  • 62. Ozone: Environmental Effects • Ozone also affects vegetation and ecosystems – reductions in agricultural and commercial forest yields ($0.5 billion/yr in US alone) – reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings – increased plant susceptibility to disease, pests, and other environmental stresses (e.g., harsh weather).
  • 63. Ozone Revised Standards • In 1997, the 1-hour ozone standard of 0.12 parts per million (ppm) was replaced with a new 8-hour 0.08 ppm standard.
  • 64. Units of Measurement • μg/m3 – mass:volume • parts per million (ppm) – volume:volume ( L mol -1 )( K )( kPa/ ) ppm = C × T P 22.414 / 273 101.325 2 2 ( MW )( 1000 L/m 3 ) where C = concentration in μg/m3
  • 65. Landmark datelines to capital clean • April 1995: Mandatory fitting of catalytic convertors • April 1996: Low sulphur diesel introduced • April 1998: Introduction of CNG buses in Delhi • Sept 1998: Complete removal of lead in petrol • Dec 1998: Restrict plying of goods vehicles during the day • Sept 1999: Amendment of Motor Vehicles Act to include CNG • April 2000: Private vehicles to be registered only if they conform to Euro II standards • April 2000: Eight-year-old commercial vehicles phased out • Nov 2002: Conversion of all public transport buses to CNG
  • 66. Air Pollution Control Mobile Emissions: Line sources Stationary Emissions: Point sources
  • 67. Type of the engines 1. Spark Ignition (SI) Engines: 1880 Nicholas Otto, German engineer Compression ratio: 1: 8, Gasoline-Octane number, 88 91(IOCL Extra Premium) Four stroke: Intake stroke (Gasoline + Air) Compression stroke Power stroke : spark is given to have combustion: Faraday dynamo Exhaust stroke CO, HC, NOx and PM 2. Compression Ignition (CI) Engines: 1893 Rudolf Diesel, German Compression ratio: 1:15, Diesel-Cetane number, 46+ Four stroke: Intake stroke (Air only) Compression stroke Power stroke : Diesel injected to have combustion Exhaust stroke NOx are higher and PM
  • 68. Emissions in Internal Combustion Engines Rich Mixture
  • 69. Two Way Catalytic Converter Two pollutants: CO HC Leaded gasoline spoils converters A two-way catalytic converter has two simultaneous tasks: Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 → 2CO2 Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (unburnt and partially-burnt fuel) to carbon dioxide and water: 2CxHy + (2x+y/2)O2 → 2xCO2 + yH2O
  • 70. Three Way Catalytic Converter Three pollutants: CO HC NOx Leaded gasoline spoils converters A three-way catalytic converter has three simultaneous tasks: Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx → xO2 + N2 Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 → 2CO2 Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water: 2CxHy + (2x+y/2)O2 → 2xCO2 + yH2O
  • 71. Three Way Catalytic Converter Three pollutants: CO HC NOx Leaded gasoline spoils converters
  • 72. Catalytic Converters use Platinum/ Palladium/ Rhodium catalysts
  • 73. Cleaner/Alternative Fuel • Vaporization of Gasoline should be reduced. • Oxygen containing additives reduce air requirement. Eg., ethanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ( ill health effects). – Methanol: (Less photochemically reactive VOC, but emits HCHO (eye irritant), difficult to start in winters: Can be overcome by M85 (85 % methanol, 15 % gasoline) – Ethanol: GASOHOL(10 % ethanol 90% Gasoline), – CNG: Low HC, NOx high, Inconvenient refueling, leakage hazard. – LPG: Propane, NOx high
  • 74. Air Pollution Control Stationary Sources • Pre-combustion Control – Switching to Less Sulphur and N Fuel: Alternate fuels • Combustion Control – Improving the combustion process: grate/pulverized – New burners to reduce NOx – New Fluidized bed boilers – Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) • Coal converted into CO + H2 and then burnt • Post-Combustion Control – Particulate collection devices – Flue gas desulphurization
  • 75. Cleaner/Alternative Fuels • Oxygen containing additives reduce air requirements and combustion is better • Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ( ill health effects) • Biodiesel • Ethanol: GASOHOL(10 % ethanol 90% Gasoline) • Methanol [M80, 80 % methanol, 20 % gasoline] • CNG • LPG • Hydrogen
  • 76. BIODIESEL A cleaner-burning, renewable, and domestically produced diesel fuel Biodiesel can be made from various oils: edible and inedible viz: jatropha, pongamia, mustard, soybean, corn, sunflower, animal fat, and even waste grease Biodiesel is primarily sold as B20 (Diesel 80+20 Biodiesel) U.S. Congress designated B20 as an approved alternative fuel in 1998
  • 77. A BETTER FUEL VS DIESEL Features Benefits  Higher cetane  Greater lubricity  Superior detergency  Higher flash point  More mileage  Greater horsepower  Less smoke  Smoother running engines  Quicker starts  Longer engine life  Reduced maintenance
  • 78. Cleaner Emissions vs. Diesel Emission Type B100 B20 Carbon Monoxide - 43.2% - 12.6% Hydrocarbons - 56.3% - 11% Particulates - 55.4% - 18 % Nitrogen Oxides + 5.8% +1.2 % Carcinogens - 60% - 90% - 12% - 20% Mutagens - 80% - 90% - 20% Carbon Dioxide * - 78.3% - 15.7% * Life cycle emissions of CO2 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Golden, Colorado
  • 79. FUEL ETHANOL AND BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, WORLD TOTAL, 1990-2003 (billion liters)
  • 80. FROM THE FARMER TO THE FUEL TANK Energy Crop RD Farming Oilseed Meal Crushing Crop Oil Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Market Glycerin
  • 81. Biodiesel Production by Transesterification Basics : Chemical reaction between vegetable or animal oils/fats with alcohol producing ethyl or methyl esters (Biodiesel) + glycerin (by-product) catalyst + + Vegetable or animal oil Alcohol Biodiesel Glycerin Raw materials - Vegetable oils (rapeseed, soya, sunflower, castor, palm, cotton, peanut, others) or animal; - Alcohol (methanol or ethanol) - Catalysts (sodium hydroxide)
  • 82. Biodiesel Production by Transesterification Catalyst Oil Purificatio n Transesterifica tion Purification Biodiesel Soaps Water Glycerine Water Purificatio n Glycerine Alcohol
  • 83. ETHANOL Henry Ford designed the famed Model T Ford to run on alcohol and he had said “the fuel of the future” in 1908
  • 84. Renewable  Zero Carbon Balance  Not dependent on petroleum  Large scale of production  High miscibility with gasoline and it is a perfect substitute for tetraethyl lead/aromatics  Oxygenated Compound  Reduces CO emission  Low toxic  Sulfur free WHY ETHANOL?
  • 85. DISADVANTAGES ETHANOL  Low heating value (70 % of gasoline)  Ignition difficulty in winter  Metal corrosion  Effect on plastic and rubber components
  • 86. WORLD ETHANOL PRODUCTION 2007 data Country Billion of liters USA 24.60 Brazil 18.99 European Union 2.16 China 1.83 Canada 0.80 Thailand 0.28 Columbia 0.27 India 12.3
  • 87. FUEL PROPERTIES Gasoline (CnH1.87n) Methanol (CH3OH) Ethanol (C2H5OH) Stoichiometric A/F ratio 14.6 6.47 9.00 Density (kg/m3) 720-780 792 785 RON 95 106 107 MON 80-90 92 89 Low heating value (MJ/kg) 44 20 26.9 Heat of vaporization (kJ/kg) 305 1,103 840 LHV of stoich. mixture (MJ/kg) 2.83 2.68 2.69 Auto-ignition temperature (°C) 260-460 460 360
  • 88. ETHYL ALCOHOL Raw Materials  Sugary materials: molasses, sugar cane juice, fruits  Starch materials: corn, barley, rice, wheat  Cellulosic materials: wood, agricultural residues
  • 89. METHANOL  United States Auto Club : 1965  Formula one : gasoline  High octane number : RON of 107 and MON of 92  Not suitable for CI engines  Proven technology  Heating value half of gasoline  No engine modification required
  • 90. METHANOL Methanol economy: in 2005 by George A. Olah Nobel Prize (1994)  Methanol: as gasoline supplement/ replacement  Direct : DMFC (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell)  Indirect : Hydrogen Fuel Cells
  • 91. METHANOL PRODUCTION ROUTES Wood pyrolysis From Syn-gas (CO+H2) via F-T process (depends upon catalyst, temperature and pressure conditions) Methanol and Ethanol may be the Liquid Fuels of Coming Future
  • 92. NG/CNG/PNG/LNG  Mixture of HCs  Main Constituent is Methane 96%  Heating value 37-40 MJ/Nm3 (billing is based on heating value)  Sulphur free  High octane number (130+)  CO and unburnt HCs emission low  Low cost ?
  • 93. NG PRODUCTION IN INDIA in BCM Year OIL ONGC PVT/JV Total 1996/07 1.50 21.28 0.48 23.26 1999/00 1.73 23.25 3.47 28.45 2004/05 2.01 22.99 6.78 31.77 2005/06 2.27 22.57 7.36 32.20 2006/07 2.27 22.25 7.04 31.58 2009/10 47.51 As per 2007 data of MoPNG
  • 94. NG NET WORK  GAIL (INDIA) LTD. main player in gas transport  A total of 5300 km gas pipe line in our country 11 states covered HBJ (Hajira-Bilaspur-Jagdispur) 2800 km Capacity: 60 SMCMD; 900 mm Diameter Pressure: 20-40 Bar, Boosters: 200-350 km  Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline: 2300 km  Myanmar-Bangladesh-India Pipe Line
  • 95. Number of natural gas vehicles and refilling stations in the world by end 2005 Country Vehicles Ref. stations Argentina 1,439,527 1,402 Brazil 1,000,424 1,124 Pakistan 800,000 740 Italy 382,000 509 India* 204,000 198 US 130,000 1,340 China 97,200 355 Ukraine 67,000 147 Egypt 62,150 90 Colombia 60,000 90 *2006/07 408,880 356 (Delhi and Mumbai)
  • 96. Number of natural gas vehicles and refilling stations in the world by end 2005 contd… Country Vehicles Ref. stations Iran 48,029 72 Venezuela 44,146 149 Russia 41,780 213 Germany 27,200 558 Japan 24,684 288 Canada 20,505 222 Sweden 7,000 65 UK 543 20 Others 200,000 1,000 Total 4,706,000 8,643 Petroleum review, 2006
  • 97. LPG  Domestic fuel  Mixture of Propane (20%) Butane (80%)  LPG is highly volatile liquid and expands to 247 times of its liquid volume  Mercaptans added (50 ppm)  Liquefaction pressure: Propane 10 bar; Butane 3 bar  14.2 kg MS Cylinders for domestic use and 19 49.5 kg others  Vehicle usage allowed by government
  • 98. HHYYDDRROOGGEENN EENNEERRGGYY Widely regarded as the ultimate fuel and energy storage medium for future  Environment friendly  Hydrogen has high energy density (120MJ/kg vs 44.4 MJ/kg Petrol)  Produced from water, fossil fuels, biomass, solar energy etc.
  • 99. HHYYDDRROOGGEENN PPRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN RROOUUTTEESS  Catalytic steam reforming of natural gas/coal/biomass  Electrolytic decomposition of water  Solar radiations
  • 100. Fuels Photosynthesis Electricity Photovoltaics CO Sugar H O O 2 2 2 Solar energy based production options O H 2 2 H2O Semiconductor/Liquid Junctions SC Heating ee-- Electrolysis of water
  • 101. Stationary Emissions: Point Sources Control of Particulate Matter Device Selection Depends on • Particle Size • Concentration • Corrosivity • Volumetric Flow Rate • Required Collection Efficiency • Cost
  • 102. Cyclone • For PM 5 micron • Efficiency 90% • Maintenance Free • Inexpensive • ReCyclone® System - YouTube.MP4
  • 103. Fabric Filters • Eff. – 100 % Particles 0.01 micron • Can not operate in moist environment • Large Expensive • Competitive with ESP • Cloth material-temperature dependant
  • 104. Bag Materilas 1.Cotton 2.Nylon 3.Polyester 4.Fiberglass 5.Asbestos 6.Stainless steel: woven 7.Ceramic filter bag,filter fabric,filter cage-cox filter cloth - YouTube.MP4
  • 105. Electrostatic Precipitator • Wires are charged with high negative voltage. 100 KV • PM negatively charged move towards grounded collector plates • Removal98%, All size • Little pressure drop, low OM cost but initial cost high • Occupy large space • Plate Area Requirement depends on Efficiency required – Efficiency = 1-e-wA/Q – A is total area of collection plate – Q Volumetric flow rate of the gas – W is drift velocity Electrostatic Precipitator System Working.avi - YouTube.MP4
  • 106. Sulfur Dioxide Control CaCO3+SO2+2H2O=CaSO3.2H2O+CO2 or CaO+SO2+2H2O=CaSO3.2H2O

Editor's Notes

  1. So why was AIRNOW developed? Even though EPA, state and local agencies have made great strides in reducing air pollution levels over the past 30 years, there are still approximately 146 million people living in counties where monitored air quality was unhealthy based on 2002 data. From the graph on the right, you can see that the two primary pollutants contributing to this problem are ozone (these numbers reflect areas violating the existing 1-hr standard and the newer 8-hr standard) and particles. As you can see, poor air quality impacts a significant percentage of the population in the United States.
  2. So why was AIRNOW developed? Even though EPA, state and local agencies have made great strides in reducing air pollution levels over the past 30 years, there are still approximately 146 million people living in counties where monitored air quality was unhealthy based on 2002 data. From the graph on the right, you can see that the two primary pollutants contributing to this problem are ozone (these numbers reflect areas violating the existing 1-hr standard and the newer 8-hr standard) and particles. As you can see, poor air quality impacts a significant percentage of the population in the United States.
  3. PM is the major cause of reduced visibility in many parts of the United States. Airborne particles also can cause damage to paints and building materials.
  4. Nature and Sources of the Pollutant: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless and at high levels, a poisonous gas, formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It is a component of motor vehicle exhaust, which contributes about 60 percent of all CO emissions nationwide. High concentrations of CO generally occur in areas with heavy traffic congestion. In cities, as much as 95 percent of all CO emissions may come from automobile exhaust. Other sources of CO emissions include industrial processes, non-transportation fuel combustion, and natural sources such as wildfires. Peak CO concentrations typically occur during the colder months of the year when CO automotive emissions are greater and nighttime inversion conditions (where air pollutants are trapped near the ground beneath a layer of warm air) are more frequent. Carbon monoxide enters the blood-stream through the lungs and reduces oxygen delivery to the body&amp;apos;s organs and tissues. At much higher levels of exposure, CO can be poisonous and even healthy individuals may be affected. Visual impairment, reduced work capacity, reduced manual dexterity, poor learning ability, and difficulty in performing complex tasks are all associated with exposure to elevated CO levels.
  5. Acuity: the capacity of the eye to see fine detail
  6. .
  7. Nature and Sources of the Pollutant: Sulfur dioxide belongs to the family of sulfur oxide gases. These gases are formed when fuel containing sulfur (mainly, coal and oil) is burned and during metal smelting and other industrial processes. Most SO2 monitoring stations are located in urban areas. The highest monitored concentrations of SO2 are recorded in the vicinity of large industrial facilities.
  8. Health and Environmental Effects: High concentrations of SO2 can result in temporary breathing impairment for asthmatic children and adults who are active outdoors. Short-term exposures of asthmatic individuals to elevated SO2 levels while at moderate exertion may result in reduced lung function that may be accompanied by such symptoms as wheezing, chest tightness, or shortness of breath. Other effects that have been associated with longer-term exposures to high concentrations of SO2, in conjunction with high levels of PM, include respiratory illness, alterations in the lungs&amp;apos; defenses, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. The subgroups of the population that may be affected under these conditions include individuals with cardiovascular disease or chronic lung disease, as well as children and the elderly.
  9. Together, SO2 and NOx are the major precursors to acidic deposition (acid rain), which is associated with the acidification of soils, lakes, and streams, accelerated corrosion of buildings and monuments, and reduced visibility. Sulfur dioxide also is a major precursor to PM-2.5, which is a significant health concern as well as a main pollutant that impairs visibility.
  10. Nature and Sources of the Pollutant: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a reddish brown, highly reactive gas that is formed in the ambient air through the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO). Nitrogen oxides (NOx), the term used to describe the sum of NO, NO2 and other oxides of nitrogen, play a major role in the formation of ozone. The major sources of man-made NOx emissions are high-temperature combustion processes, such as those occurring in automobiles and power plants. Home heaters and gas stoves also produce substantial amounts of NO2 in indoor settings.
  11. Nature and Sources of the Pollutant: In the past, automotive sources were the major contributor of Pb emissions to the atmosphere. As a result of EPA&amp;apos;s regulatory efforts to reduce the content of Pb in gasoline, the contribution from the transportation sector has declined over the past decade. Today, metals processing is the major source of Pb emissions to the atmosphere. The highest air concentrations of Pb are found in the vicinity of nonferrous and ferrous smelters, and battery manufacturers.
  12. Health and Environmental Effects: Exposure to Pb occurs mainly through inhalation of air and ingestion of Pb in food, water, soil, or dust. It accumulates in the blood, bones, and soft tissues. Lead can adversely affect the kidneys, liver, nervous system, and other organs. Excessive exposure to Pb may cause neurological impairments, such as seizures, mental retardation, and behavioral disorders. Even at low doses, Pb exposure is associated with damage to the nervous systems of fetuses and young children, resulting in learning deficits and lowered IQ. Recent studies also show that Pb may be a factor in high blood pressure and subsequent heart disease. Lead can also be deposited on the leaves of plants, presenting a hazard to grazing animals.
  13. Health and Environmental Effects: Short-term (1-3 hours) and prolonged (6-8 hours) exposures to ambient ozone have been linked to a number of health effects of concern. For example, increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits for respiratory causes have been associated with ambient ozone exposures. Repeated exposures to ozone can make people more susceptible to respiratory infection, result in lung inflammation, and aggravate pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Other health effects attributed to ozone exposures include significant decreases in lung function and increased respiratory symptoms such as chest pain and cough. These effects generally occur while individuals are engaged in moderate or heavy exertion. Children active outdoors during the summer when ozone levels are at their highest are most at risk of experiencing such effects. Other at-risk groups include adults who are active outdoors (e.g., outdoor workers), and individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. In addition, longer-term exposures to moderate levels of ozone present the possibility of irreversible changes in the lungs which could lead to premature aging of the lungs and/or chronic respiratory illnesses. Ozone also affects vegetation and ecosystems, leading to reductions in agricultural and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased plant susceptibility to disease, pests, and other environmental stresses (e.g., harsh weather). In long-lived species, these effects may become evident only after several years or even decades, thus having the potential for long-term effects on forest ecosystems. Ground-level ozone damage to the foliage of trees and other plants also can decrease the aesthetic value of ornamental species as well as the natural beauty of our national parks and recreation areas
  14. Health and Environmental Effects: Short-term (1-3 hours) and prolonged (6-8 hours) exposures to ambient ozone have been linked to a number of health effects of concern. For example, increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits for respiratory causes have been associated with ambient ozone exposures. Repeated exposures to ozone can make people more susceptible to respiratory infection, result in lung inflammation, and aggravate pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Other health effects attributed to ozone exposures include significant decreases in lung function and increased respiratory symptoms such as chest pain and cough. These effects generally occur while individuals are engaged in moderate or heavy exertion. Children active outdoors during the summer when ozone levels are at their highest are most at risk of experiencing such effects. Other at-risk groups include adults who are active outdoors (e.g., outdoor workers), and individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. In addition, longer-term exposures to moderate levels of ozone present the possibility of irreversible changes in the lungs which could lead to premature aging of the lungs and/or chronic respiratory illnesses. Ozone also affects vegetation and ecosystems, leading to reductions in agricultural and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased plant susceptibility to disease, pests, and other environmental stresses (e.g., harsh weather). In long-lived species, these effects may become evident only after several years or even decades, thus having the potential for long-term effects on forest ecosystems. Ground-level ozone damage to the foliage of trees and other plants also can decrease the aesthetic value of ornamental species as well as the natural beauty of our national parks and recreation areas
  15. Revised Ozone Standards: In 1997, EPA revised the national ambient air quality standards for ozone by replacing the 1-hour ozone 0.12 parts per million (ppm) standard with a new 8-hour 0.08 ppm standard. The revision to the O3 standard was set such that the 1-hour standard will no longer apply once an area has air quality data meeting the 1-hour standard. Although areas that do not meet the new 8-hour standard will not be designated &amp;quot;nonattainment&amp;quot; until the year 2000, EPA is beginning to track trends in 8-hour levels of ozone.
  16. Energy conservation reauthorization act of 1998 – Public law - 105-388, amended EPAct to give B20 alternative fuel status. Because the biodiesel produced stays liquid at the lowest temperature. – B20 using Virgin Vegetable oils only has a 2 degree F change to #2 diesel. Therefore Normal diesel precautions are the only thing noticed.
  17. RON: MON:
  18. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Demonstration Project |Objective: To reduce SO2 emissions by 95% or more at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology, significantly reduce space requirements, and create no new waste streams. Technology/Project Description: Pure Air built a single SO2 absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. Although the largest capacity absorber module of its time in the United States, space requirements were modest because no spare or backup absorber modules were required. The absorber performed three functions in a single vessel: prequenching, absorbing, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber was of a co-current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to that in conventional scrubbers. These features all combined to yield a state-of-the-art SO2 absorber that was more compact and less expensive than contemporary conventional scrubbers. Other technical features included the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combined the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Pure Air also demonstrated a unique gypsum agglomeration process, PowerChip®, to significantly enhance handling characteristics of adsorbed flue gas desulfurization AFGD-derived gypsum.