Presentation on air pollution UET Bannu


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Presentation on air pollution UET Bannu

  1. 1.
  2. 2. To be presented: Air Pollution BY: Waleed Ahmad & Hamid Anwar
  3. 3. Outline of Presentation: <ul><li>Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Units of measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Air Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution control </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The phenomena of presence of one or more contaminants in air in such amount and duration that may adversely affect human, animals or plants life , property or comfort is called Air Pollution. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Types Of Air Pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>Two types. </li></ul><ul><li>1- Indoor Air Pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>Inside home . </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking, </li></ul><ul><li>Stove, </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticide, </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetics, </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>material </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>2- Outdoor Air Pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles, </li></ul><ul><li>Factories, </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic </li></ul><ul><li>eruption etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Units of measurement: </li></ul><ul><li>micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb) </li></ul><ul><li>ppm = Vp/Va </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate Matter, sizes are expressed in micron or micrometer (µm). </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Air Pollutants/ Contaminants: </li></ul><ul><li>The substances which contaminate air are called air pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollutants categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Two broad categories. </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Primary: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary pollutants are those released directly into the air. Such as CO, NO 2 , SO 2 etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Secondary: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Pollutants are converted into other compounds in atmosphere due to chemical reaction with each other or Photochemical reaction, e.g Smog, HNO 3 , H 3 SO 4 , SO 3 , O 3 . </li></ul>
  9. 9.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Sources of Air Pollutants: </li></ul><ul><li>Two main sources. </li></ul><ul><li>1- Natural Sources: Forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds, and natural radioactivity. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>2- Human-made sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Burning fuels (mobile or stationary), power plants , fertilizers , fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish and many cleaning products. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Different Air Pollutants: </li></ul><ul><li>There are several air pollutants, but Six of them are very common which are known as “ Criteria Pollutants” are following. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon mono oxide (CO) </li></ul><ul><li>Lead (Pb) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen di-oxide (NO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone (O 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur di-oxide (SO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate Matter </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Criteria Pollutants and their health significant: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Carbon Monoxide: </li></ul><ul><li>Colorless, odorless & toxic gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed when carbon-containing fuel is not burned completely. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor vehicles are the predominant source of carbon monoxide. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>What are the impacts of carbon monoxide? </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease O 2 carrying capacity of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Weaken heart contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Affect lungs & brain function. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>2- Lead (Pb): </li></ul><ul><li>Highly toxic metal used in household products, </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile fuel, </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Airborne lead associated automobile exhaust. </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Damage central nerves system. </li></ul><ul><li>Damaging mental development of young children. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>3- Ozone (O 3 ): </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone is a pungent-smelling, colorless gas. </li></ul><ul><li>VOC + NOx + Sunlight = Ozone </li></ul><ul><li>The highest ozone levels occur on hot summer afternoons. </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce lungs function. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakens the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy crops & forest. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>4- Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ): </li></ul><ul><li>Belongs to a family of gases called sulfur oxides (SOX). </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly one-third of atmospheric sulfur compounds come from human-made sources. </li></ul><ul><li>  Of this one-third, only 5% of SO 2  emissions come from mobile sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory and pulmonary difficulties; </li></ul><ul><li>React with NOX and other chemicals cause acid rain. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>5-Nitrogen Oxides (NOX): </li></ul><ul><li>Comprise a family of highly reactive gases </li></ul><ul><li>(NO 2 ,NO and N 2 O). </li></ul><ul><li>The burning of fossil fuels, produce NO and NO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>In the atmosphere, NO reacts to form NO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2  is a lung irritant, </li></ul><ul><li>Cause of acid rain, </li></ul><ul><li>Cause ground level ozone. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>6-Particulate Matter (PM): </li></ul><ul><li>PM either solid particles or liquid droplets. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in micrometers ( µm ). </li></ul><ul><li>PM < 10 µm in diameter posses the greatest health risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles < 2.5 µm in diameter are described as being “fine” particles. </li></ul><ul><li>PM > 2.5 µm in diameter is usually the result of smoke and dust from industry and agricultural production. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles < 2.5 µm generally come from combustion of fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Inhaled and lodged in the lungs and produce respiratory illness. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these Six Criteria Pollutants. </li></ul>Primary Primary Primary & secondary Primary & secondary Primary & secondary Primary & secondary Primary & secondary Primary & secondary Primary & secondary Primary Primary Secondary Primary & secondary 9 ppm (10 mg/m 3 ) 35 ppm (40 mg/m 3 ) 53 ppb(100 µ g m/m 3 ) 75 ppb(157 µgm/m 3 ) 120 ppb (10 µ g m/m 3 ) 50 µgm/m 3 150 µgm/m 3 15 µgm/m 3 35 µgm/m 3 30 ppb (80 µ g m/m 3 ) 140 ppb (365 µ g m/m 3 ) 500ppb (1.3 mg/m 3 ) 1.5µgm/m3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8-hours average 1-hour average Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Annual average Ozone (O 3 ) 8-hour average 1-hour average Particulate Matter ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ) Annual average 24-hour average Particulate Matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) Annual average 24-hour average Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) Annual average 24-hour average 3-hour average Lead (Pb) 3-month average Type Standard Pollutant
  21. 21. <ul><li>Impacts of Pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>Negative impacts on health like, lungs damage, skin disease, heart problems etc. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Green house effect which increase average temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Depletion of ozone layers. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Damage crops and plants. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Acid rain. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Affect Structures appearance . </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Air Pollution Control: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Cyclone separator: </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>2- Scrubbers: </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>3- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>4- Electrostatic Precipitators: </li></ul>