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  1. 1. AIR POLLUTION AND ITS CONSEQUENCE DR. VAIBHAV GUPTA MPH 1styear Student Dept. of community medicine JSSMC 13/02/2013 MODERATOR: DR.N.C.ASHOK H.O.D.
  2. 2.  Introduction  Composition  Air impurities  Self cleansing mechanisms  Air pollution  Sources  Pollutants  Monitoring  Effects  Prevention & control  Disinfection Plan of presentation
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Air supplies the life-giving oxygen  Human body cooled by air contact  Hearing & smell stimuli transmitted  Disease agents may be conveyed  Pollution of air by dust, smoke, toxic gases & chemical vapours
  4. 4. COMPOSITION Air is a Mechanical mixture of gases.  Nitrogen (78.1%)  Oxygen (20.93%)  Carbon dioxide (0.03%)  Others gases : Argon Neon krypton Helium
  5. 5. Air Impurities Respiration: Of men and animals Combustion: Of coal ,gas, oil, etc. Decomposition: Of organic matter Processes: Trade, traffic and manufacturing processes given off dust , fumes, vapours, gases.
  6. 6. Self cleansing mechanisms  Wind  Sunlight  Rain  Plant life
  7. 7. AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.
  8. 8.  An increase in any of the constituents of the atmosphere which is harmful to the living beings and their environment, is known as air pollution . According to W.H.O
  9. 9. Sources Of Air Pollution  Automobiles: motor vehicles  Industries:  Domestic sources:  Tobacco smoke  Miscellaneous:- a)Pesticide b)Radioactive fallout c)Fertilizer dust d)Mining activity e)Mills and plants  Natural sources : Wind fungi Borne dust Bacteria
  10. 10. Air Pollutants o Carbon monoxide o Sulphur dioxide o Lead o Carbon dioxide o Hydrocarbons o Cadmium o Hydrogen sulphide o Ozone o Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) o Particulate matter
  11. 11. Major Pollutants 1. Carbon Monoxide 2. Sulfur Dioxide 3. Nitrogen Dioxide 4. Particulate Matter 5. Ground Level Ozone
  12. 12. • colorless, odorless • produced when carbon does not burn in fossil fuels • present in car exhaust • deprives body of O2 causing headaches, fatigue, and impaired vision Carbon Monoxide
  13. 13. Sulfur Dioxide • produced when coal and fuel oil are burned • present in power plant exhaust • narrows the airway, causing wheezing and shortness of breath, especially in those with asthma
  14. 14. Nitrogen Dioxide • reddish, brown gas • produced when nitric oxide combines with oxygen in the atmosphere • present in car exhaust and power plants • affects lungs and causes wheezing; increases chance of respiratory infection
  15. 15. Particular Matter  particles of different sizes and structures that are released into the atmosphere  present in many sources including fossil fuels, dust, smoke, fog, etc.  can build up in respiratory system  aggravates heart and lung disease; increases risk of respiratory infection
  16. 16. Ground Level Ozone  at upper level, ozone shields Earth from sun’s harmful UV rays  at ground level, ozone is harmful pollutants  formed from car, power and chemical plant exhaust  irritate respiratory system and asthma; reduces lung function by inflaming and damaging lining of lungs
  17. 17. SMOG • Combination of gases with water vapor and dust • Combination of words smoke and fog. • Forms when heat and sunlight react gases (photochemical smog) • Occurs often with heavy traffic, high temperatures, and calm winds
  18. 18. ITS EFFECTS • 1st smog related deaths were in London in 1873; death toll 500 people; can you imagine how much worse the atmosphere is now?! • Limits visibility • Decreases UV radiation • Yellow/black color over cities • Causes respiratory problems and bronchial related deaths
  19. 19. Monitoring Of Air Pollution INDICATORS:- A. Sulphur dioxide - concentration in air B. Smoke or soiling index C. Grit & dust measurement D. Coefficient of haze- amount of smoke or aerosol in air E. Air pollution index- arbitrary index takes into account one or more pollutants .
  20. 20. Monitoring Of Air Pollution in India  National air quality monitoring programme, sponsored by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) since 1990 has generated data base in major Indian cities.  The trend shows Suspended particulate matter exceeds CPCB standards in all cities most of the time through out the year.
  21. 21. Effects Of Air Pollution  Health aspects  Social & economic aspects  Other effects
  22. 22. Health aspects Immediate effects Delayed effects Respiratory system Chronic bronchitis Acute bronchitis Lung cancer Suffocation Emphysema Bronchial asthma Respiratory allergies
  23. 23. Social & Economic aspects  Destruction of plant & animal life, corrosion of metals, damage to buildings, cost of cleaning & maintenance, repairs. Reduces visibility in towns. It can soil & damage clothing's.
  24. 24. Other Effects of air pollution:  Greenhouse effect  Acid rain  Increased UV radiation  Global warming
  25. 25. Green house effect  Green houses gases; such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methan etc. Move in and out of the atmosphere. They trap some of heat radiated out from the earth that would normally move out into space. It is natural and is caused by the earths carbon and water cycles & the heat from the sun.
  26. 26. Rain consisting of water droplet that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution – most notably the excessive amounts of sulphur & nitrogen released by cars & industrial processes. Acid rain
  27. 27. Global warming  The increase of earths average surface temperature due to effect of green house gases , such as carbon dioxide emission form burning fossil flues or from deforestation which trap that would other wise escape from earth.
  28. 28. Indoor air pollution Sources of indoor air pollutants Pollutant Sources Respirable particles Tobacco smoke, stove, aerosol spray. Carbon monoxide Combustion equipment, gas heaters. Nitrogen dioxide Gas cookers, cigarettes Sulphur dioxide Coal combustion Carbon dioxide Combustion, respiration Formaldehyde Particle board, carpet adhesives, insulation Others organic vapours(benzene ,toluene) Solvents, adhesives, aerosol sprays Ozone Electric arcing, UV light sources
  29. 29. Prevention & Control of Air Pollution  Containment: 1.Dust collection system 2.Scrubber system  Replacement  International action  Dilution  Legislation
  30. 30. So, what can u do? • Ride your bike • Tell your friends and family about pollution • Make sure your parents get pollution checks on their cars • Ride the school bus
  31. 31. Contd……… Learn more; stay up to date Join a group to stop pollution Encourage your parents to carpool to work Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you leave the room
  32. 32. Disinfection of air  Mechanical Ventilation  Ultraviolet Radiation  Chemical Mists  Dust Control
  33. 33. THANK YOU