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INTRODUCTION TO 
ENVIRONMENTAL 
STUDIES 
Part II 
Part I already covered by 
Civil Engg. Faculty
 CE-102 Civil Engineering Department 
 Lectures: 3/week ; 21 total ; 3 credits 
 Evaluation : 50 marks 
MTE : 40 marks 
CW : 10 
Tutorial, Assignments, Regularity in class 
Soft copy of lectures
S. 
No. 
Name of Books/Author(s)/Publisher Year of 
Publ. 
1 Introduction to Environmental 
Engineering, M.L. Davis and D.A. 
Cornwell, McGraw Hill, New York 3/e 
1998 
2 Introduction to Environmental 
Engineering and Science, G.M. Masters, 
Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi. 2/e 
1998 
3 Environmental Engineering, H.S. Peavy, 
D.R. Rowe and G. Tchobanoglous, 
McGraw Hill, New York 
1986 
Suggested Books
Why environmental studies? 
 Intergovernmental Penal on Climate Change (IPCC), 1988 
– 31st August 2013: 25 years 
– UNEP and WMO of United Nations Organization 
 Substantial changes are happening to our environment 
Air, water and soil being affected 
 2007 Nobel Peace Prize: IPCC 
R.K. Pachauri and Al Gore 
 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 
 Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi 
 State Pollution Control Boards 
 Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi
Five elements 
1. Water, जल 
2. Air, वायु 
3. Earth, पृथ्वी 
4. Space, आकाश 
5. Fire, अग्नि
Water 
1. All the living systems need water and contain 
water 
2. Life on earth is due to water, 70% water cover 
3. God of water, इन्द्र (Indra) 
4. Ganga water, (Shelf life: long); BOD/COD 
5. Water pollution 
Coca cola, Pepsi-CSE, New Delhi : Lindane, DDT etc. 
Effluents from industries and agrichemicals (Punjab hub of cancer 
patients) 
Ganga and Yamuna rivers 
Ground water, lakes, sea water is contaminated, treatment strategies of 
treatment already dealt with in first half of syllabus
Air 
1. Air needed by all the living systems 
2. Without air no survival 
3. God of air, वायु (Vayu), Prāna 
4. Pranayam : oxygen transfer rate 
5. 78.08% Nitrogen and 20.95% Oxygen + other gases 
6. Combustion: CO2, NOx, SOx, SPM, RSPM, Hg, 
arsenic, HCs, VOCs etc. 
Paper industry: Dioxins 100 times lethal than cyanide 
Carbon dioxide: 400 ppm (May 2, 2013) 
280 ppm (1750) 
Greenhouse gases: CO2, N2O, H2O, O3, CH4, CFCs
Earth 
1. We eat which is grown on earth 
2. Photosynthesis process: biomass 
3. Goddess of earth, पृथ्वी, Prithvi 
4. Soil is getting contaminated 
Pollution air/water 
Mango trees near Roorkee: no fruits 
Micronutrients in herbs: much lower 
Sustainability ? Recent Uttarakhand 
tragedy-प्रलय (Havoc)
Space 
1. Solar energy 
2. Photosynthesis process 
3. Solar energy into biomass and other forms of 
energy: hydro, coal, petroleum, wind etc. 
4. God of space, आकाश, Aakash 
5. O3 depletion: CFCs and space shuttles, 
rockets etc. , UV radiations: human skin, 
cataract, plant kingdom damages, buildings ?
Fire 
1. Combustion 
2. Carbon and Hydrogen 
3. CI and SI engines, cooking, thermal power 
plants: steam and gas turbines, steam engine 
4. Goddess of fire, अग्नि , Agni 
5. Because of fire air pollution 
6. Every thing is getting into CO2 and H2O 
which are converted back by photosynthesis 
process to complex biomass species and the 
process goes on …..goes on…..
Environment 
1.Atmosphere: layer of air that surrounds 
our planet 
2.Hydrosphere: liquid envelop that 
surrounds our planet 
3.Lithosphere: solid earth, including earth’s 
crust and part of the upper mantle 
4.Biosphere: living organisms that inhabit the 
above spheres
• Atmosphere…air to breathe 
• Hydrosphere …water to drink 
• Lithosphere …food to eat 
• Biosphere …food to eat 
Minutes 
without air 
Days w/o 
water 
Months w/o food 
Environment 
Resources: fossil fuels, 
ores, uranium, thorium
Environment
Atmosphere 
Age of earth : 4.6 Billion year 
Oxygen : 0% 2 Billion years ago 
Total mass of atmosphere: 5*1015 Tonne 
:1/1,200,000 of earth 
Constant components (fix over time and location) 
Nitrogen 78.08% 
Oxygen 20.95% 
Argon 0.93% 
Neon, Helium, Krypton 0.0001%
Atmosphere 
Variable components (variable with time and 
location) 
Carbon dioxide 0.04% 
Water vapor 0-4% 
Methane traces 
Sulfur dioxide traces 
Ozone traces 
Nitrogen oxides traces 
Others: dust, volcanic ash, snow and rain
Layers of the Earth's atmosphere
Atmospheric temperature: vertical structure
Vertical structure of atmospheric pressure
Atmosphere zones 
The zones are not sharply delineated 
and their elevation varies with both 
time of year and latitude
Troposphere 
1.Thickness from sea level: 18 km; Everest 
8848 m 
2.Pressure at top is 10% of atmosphere 76 
mm of Hg 
3.Air movement is vertical as well horizontal 
4.Weather/clouds formation/rains 
5.Air cools progressively with height 
6.Temperature: -6.5 oC/km 
next
Tropopause 
1.Thin layer between troposphere and 
stratosphere: 4 km 
2.Air is completely dry 
3.The elevation where the temperature 
no longer decreases with altitude 
next
Stratosphere 
1.This extends up to 50 km and comprises 
of ozone 
2.Ozone is 2-8 ppm 
3.In the middle and upper stratosphere, 
air temperature increases progressively 
with height 
4.Heated by ozone 
next
Stratopause 
The elevation where the temperature no 
longer increases with altitude
Mesosphere 
1.Mesosphere is from 50 to 90 km 
2.Temperature again decreases here 
3.Intermediate zone between stratosphere 
and thermosphere 
4.Air cools progressively with elevation
Mesopause 
The elevation above the mesosphere where 
the temperature no longer cools with altitude
Ionosphere 
1.Next is thermosphere or ionosphere 
extending to 350 km 
2. Oxygen is in ionic form heat is absorbed 
3. Temperate rises again
Outer limit of atmosphere 
1. Difficult to define 
2. At 32,000 km, the Earth’s gravitation pull equals 
centrifugal force of the Earth’s rotation
Ozone measurement 
Developed by G.M.B. Dobson, 1920s; Professor at Oxford University 
All the ozone over a certain 
area is compressed to oC 
and 1 atm and forms a 3 mm 
thick slab corresponding to 
300 DU 
1 DU = 0.01 mm thickness of ozone at oC and 1 atm (STP) 
US sky : 300 DU 
Minimum at Antarctica : 200 DU 
Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer 
Total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) 
Ozone holes: when concentration of ozone reduces more than 50% 
Antarctica: 25 million km2 in 2001
Antarctic ozone 
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
Hydrosphere 
1. 70.8% earth’s surface is covered by water 
2. 60-70% of living world 
3. Physiological reactions in aqueous phase 
4. Total quantum of water : 1.4 B km3 
5. Salty sea water : 97.6% 
6. Fresh water : 2.4% 
7. Renewable in nature next 
8. Important food source 
9. Easily polluted 
10. Must be treated (already dealt in I part) 
11. Major industrial and agriculture input
Rain harvesting
Distribution of fresh water 
Location % of total 
Snow, ice, glaciers 86.9 
Accessible ground water 12.0 
Lakes, reservoirs, ponds 0.37 
Saline lakes 0.31 
Soil moisture 0.19 
Moisture in living organisms 0.19 
Atmosphere 0.039 
Wetlands 0.011 
Rivers, streams, canals 0.0051
Freshwater as a resource in India 
Renewable through evaporation from 
the seas and precipitation (solar powered) 
Demands for freshwater include: 
Agriculture & livestock (79.6%) 
Power generation (13.6%) 
Domestic(3.5%) 
Industry (3.3%) 
Demands increase with increasing population 
Unequal distribution of freshwater 
Interlinking of rivers: solution of water problem
Lithosphere
Lithosphere 
1.Land area: 26% 
2.Supports all the living systems and provides 
a wealth of raw materials which has made 
the civilization to develop
Lithosphere: India 
2.4% of world’s land 
15% of world’s population 
Per capita land availability, ha 
Russia 8.43 
USA 7.39 
Australia 6.60 
China 0.98 
India 0.48
Lithosphere: India 
Land use categories, Mha 
Cultivable land 142 (46%) 
Forest land 67 (22%) 
Nonagricultural land 20 (6.5%) 
Barren and pasture land 55 (17.8%) 
Fallow land 25 (8.0%) 
Mineral exploration 
Rich in coal, crude, bauxite, copper, gold, 
nickel, uranium, thorium etc.
Lithosphere: India 
Food resource 
Self sufficient in agriculture produce 
I in world in sugar production 
I in milk production, 97 million tonnes 
Live stock, 25% of world 
Forest resource 
21.68 % forest cover 
reduction in global warming
What is Ecology? 
 Study of interactions between organisms 
and their environment. 
Ernst Haeckel – coined term 
Ecology in 1866 
Greek word οἶκος, "house"; λογία, 
study of
Levels of Organization 
 Ecologists study 
organisms ranging from 
the various levels of 
organization: 
– Species/individuals 
– Population 
– Community 
– Ecosystem 
– Biome 
– Biosphere
Species 
 Group of similar organisms that can breed and 
produce fertile offspring
Population 
 group of organisms, all of the same species, which 
interbreed and live in the same area.
Community 
 an assemblage of different populations that live 
together
Ecosystem 
 Collection of organisms that live in a place with the 
nonliving environment
Biome 
 Group of ecosystems with the same climate and 
dominant communities 
Tropical rain forest 
Tropical dry forest 
Temperate grassland 
Desert 
Tropical savanna Temperate woodland 
and shrubland 
Temperate forest 
Northwestern 
coniferous forest 
Boreal forest 
(Taiga) 
Tundra 
Mountains and 
ice caps
Organization Hierarchy
Characteristics of ecosystems 
• All ecosystems have a constant source of 
energy ( sun) 
• Cycles to reuse raw materials 
Water, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus cycles 
An ecosystem comprises of the biotic or living 
( viz. plants and animals) 
and the abiotic or non-living components 
( viz. air, water, minerals, soil)
Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs 
 Autotrophs – make 
their own food so 
they are called 
PRODUCERS 
 Heterotrophs – get 
their food from 
another source so 
they are called 
CONSUMERS
Main forms of energy for autotrophs 
 Sunlight 
– The main source of energy for 
life on earth 
– Photosynthesis: leaf a chemical 
reactor 
 Chemical 
– Inorganic compounds 
– Chemosynthesis : opium, 
ginseng, garlic (selenium)
Types of Consumers 
Herbivores- only eat plants Carnivores - only eat meat Omnivores 
Eat plants and meat 
Detritivores and 
Decomposers 
Feed on plant and animal 
remains 
wildebeest
Decomposers /detritivores 
Vultures vanished from India, Pakistan (DDT - cow/buffalos) 
Polythene/plastics: no decomposition; banning of PB by States, 
Uttarakhand, Choking of sewer lines; agriculture sector: moisture, 
nitrogen fixation, Spills of crude in oceans.
Energy flow through an ecosystem 
 Energy flows through 
an ecosystem in ONE 
direction, 
– Sun 
– Autotrophs 
– Heterotrophs 
Synthetic fertilizers: N, P, K
Energy flow in ecosystems
Energy flow in ecosystems 
Photosynthesis 
6CO2 + 6H2O + energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2 
Respiration 
Stored energy is released in the reverse reaction 
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy 
Released energy is available to drive other reactions, 
e.g. cell metabolism and growth 
I. C. engines/combustion processes same reaction 
Difference: temperature
Feeding relationships 
 Food Chain – steps of 
organisms transferring 
energy by eating & being 
eaten 
 Food Web – network 
of all the food chains in 
an ecosystem
Food web
Ecological pyramids 
 Trophic Level – each step in a food chain or food web 
Energy Pyramid 
Biomass Pyramid 
Number Pyramid
Trophic levels
Trophic levels
Why are nutrients important ? 
 Every living organism 
needs nutrients to build 
tissues and carry out 
essential life functions. 
95% of our body is made of… 
1) OXYGEN 
2) CARBON 
3) HYDROGEN 
4) NITROGEN
Availability of nutrients 
 If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit 
organisms growth. It is called a limiting 
nutrient and is in accordance of Leibig’s Law 
 When a limiting nutrient is dumped into a lake 
or pond, an algal bloom occurs and this can 
disrupt the ecosystem
Matter movement through an ecosystem 
 Unlike the one way flow of 
energy, matter is recycled 
within & between ecosystems 
 Nutrients are passed between 
organisms & the environment 
through biogeochemical cycles 
 Biogeochemical Cycles 
– Bio –life 
– Geo – Earth 
– Chemi – chemical 
1. WATER CYCLE 
2. NUTRIENT CYCLES 
a) CARBON CYCLE 
b) NITROGEN CYCLE 
c) PHOSPHORUS 
CYCLE
WATER CYCLE
CARBON CYCLE 
4 PROCESSES MOVE 
CARBON THROUGH 
ITS CYCLE: 
1) Biological 
2) Geochemical 
3) Mixed biochemical 
4) Human Activity 
CO2 
CO2
CO2 
CO2 
Carbonate rocks
GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE 
(All values are in Billion Metric Tons Carbon)
NITROGEN CYCLE 
Nitrogen-containing nutrients in 
the biosphere include: 
1) Ammonia (NH3) 
2) Nitrate (NO3-) 
3) Nitrite (NO2-) 
ORGANISMS NEED 
NITROGEN TO MAKE 
AMINO ACIDS FOR 
BUILDING PROTEINS!!! 
N2 
in Atmosphere 
NH3 
N03- & 
N02-
N2 
in Atmosphere 
NH3 
N03- & 
N02- 
Haber process: 1918 
Nobel Prize
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE 
PHOSPHORUS FORMS PART OF IMPORTANT LIFE-SUSTAINING 
MOLECULES (ex. DNA & RNA) 
Cold drinks; pH: 3 
phosphoric acid 
Phosphatic 
fertilizers
Natural succession 
 Well Balanced Ecosystem changes over time 
 Lake Shallow Lake (deposition of Silt) 
Marsh Meadow Hardwood Forest 
 Takes place long period of time and not 
visible in human lifespan 
 Can be affected by human activities such as 
pollution
ACCUMULATION OF POLLUTANTS IN 
ENVIRONMENT 
1.Conservative Pollutants: 
Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 
polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 
cynide, selenium etc. 
heavy metals (mercury, copper, cadmium, 
chromium, lead, nickel, zinc, tin etc. ) 
2. Nonconservative pollutants: 
biodegradable organics, human waste, 
animal waste
ACCUMULATION OF POLLUTANTS 
Bioaccumulation/Bioconcentration 
increase in concentration of a pollutant 
from the environment to the first 
organism in a food chain: a pesticide in a crop 
Biomagnification 
increase in concentration of a 
pollutant from one link in a 
food chain to another: a pesticide in a crop 
Conditions: 
 long life 
 soluble in fats: animal life/human life 
 biologically active 
chicken 
human
Biomagnification 
Case study: Long Island Estuary, New York, USA 
Levels of DDT, 1967 study, EPA 
water to zooplankton 800x 
zooplankton to fish #1 
31x 
fish #1 to fish #2 
1.7x 
fish #2 to gull 
4.8x 
Overall 
202,368x
Biomagnification 
The level at which a given substance is 
bioaccumulated depends on : 
 The rate of uptake 
 The mode of uptake (through the gills of a fish, ingested 
along with food, contact with epidermis (skin) etc. …) 
 How quickly the substance is eliminated from the organism, 
transformation of the substance by metabolic processes, the 
lipid (fat) content of the organism, the hydrophobicity of the 
substance, environmental factors etc.
Conservative pollutants: 
Biomagnification 
 Biomagnification is the 
bioaccumulation of a substance up 
the food chain by transfer of 
residues of the substance in 
smaller organisms that are food 
for larger organisms in the chain. 
 Sequence of processes that results 
in higher concentrations in 
organisms at higher levels in the 
food chain (at higher trophic 
levels). 
 These processes result in an 
organism having higher 
concentrations of a substance than 
is present in the organism’s food.
Biomagnification 
 When partitioning concentrates a chemical in one 
phase that is the food for a higher phase, the chemical 
can further concentrate as we move up the food chain
Bioconcentration / Bioaccumulation 
Bioconcentration of a substance is correlated to the octanol-water 
partitioning coefficient (or Haunsch partitioning 
Coefficient) KOW of the substance. 
The octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW) is defined as 
the ratio of a chemical's concentration in the octanol phase 
to its concentration in the aqueous phase of a two-phase 
octanol/water system. 
KOW = Concentration in octanol phase / Concentration in 
aqueous phase. 
Values of KOW can be considered to have some meaning in 
themselves, since they represent the tendency of the 
chemical to partition itself between an organic phase (e.g., a 
fish) and an aqueous phase.
Bioconcentration / Bioaccumulation 
Chemicals with low KOW values (e.g., less than 10) may 
be considered relatively hydrophilic; they tend to have 
high water solubilities, small soil/sediment adsorption 
coefficients, and small bioconcentration factors for 
aquatic life. 
Conversely, chemicals with high KOW values (e.g., greater 
than 104) are very hydrophobic.
Bioconcentration / Bioaccumulation 
 Bioconcentration factor (BCF) is the concentration of a 
particular chemical in a tissue per concentration of 
chemical in water (reported as l/kg). This physical 
property characterizes the accumulation of pollutants 
through chemical partitioning from the aqueous phase 
into an organic phase, such as fish. 
 BCF = [Concentration of X in Organism, mg/kg ] / 
[Concentration of X in Environment, mg/l] 
 High potential BCF>1000; Moderate Potential 
1000>BCF>250; Low potential 250>BCF. 
BCF is also related to the Haunsch Partition Coefficient 
by 
log BCF = 0.79 x log KOW - 0.4
Example 
 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has a water to 
plankton partition coefficient of 200,000; a 
plankton to smelt (fish) magnification factor of 
7.5; and a smelt to lake trout magification factor 
of 3.5. If the concentration of HCB in the water 
is 1.0 ppt, will either fish exceed the fish 
consumption standards: 
5 ppm for general consumption 
1 ppm for pregnant and nursing women
Solution 
mg 
kg 
0.2 
ng 
kg 
plankton 
 
 
 
  
 
2 x 10 5 2 x 10 
5 
ng 
1 
L 
L 
kg 
plankton 
water 
p/w 
 
   
 
  
 
 
  
 
 
 
C 
 
 
  
 
 
C 
C 
K 
  
mg 
kg 
1.5 
mg 
 
 
7.5 7.5 0.2 smelt plankton    
kg 
 
  
 
C  C  
  
mg 
kg 
5.25 
mg 
 
 
3.5 3.5 1.5 trout smelt    
kg 
 
  
 
C  C 
Interpretation 
 The lake trout exceed the general 
consumption standard and both species 
exceed the standard for pregnant and 
nursing women 
 Both could easily argued on the basis of 
uncertainty
PCB 
 PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls): Insulating materials 
in transformers: impair thyroid functions and 
neurotoxins. 
 General Electric Released during 1947-1977 in Hudson 
River, 300 km of Hudson River polluted 
 Concentrated in bottom sediments—Consumed by 
riverbed microorganisms-eaten by fish 2 ppm conc. 
 Contaminated sediments are removed, extensive 
dredging & proper disposed off
Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethne (DDT) 
Half life 15 years 
Year Amount Remaining 
0 100 kg 
15 50 kg 
30 25 kg 
45 12.5 kg 
60 6.25 kg 
75 3.13 kg 
90 1.56 kg 
105 0.78 kg 
120 0.39 kg
DDT Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethne 
 Used for malaria control and to protect crops from insects 
 Biomagnification, not very toxic to human but adverse 
impact of egg hatching by birds. 
 Banned in 1972 and many bird population have recovered. 
 In India thousands of tons of DDT was used to control 
malarial mosquitoes between 1995 and 1996. 
 Large numbers of vultures dying and have high levels of 
DDT in their carcasses. 
 Vultures are at the same level of the food chain as humans 
and serve as sentinels warning of greater pesticide hazards 
through indirect effects unless there is a change in the 
Indian government's pesticide policy.
 Birds provide a valuable service to growers and to 
the public through controlling insects. 
 In 1950 Chinese officials grew concerned that 
flocks of birds were allegedly devouring large 
amounts of grain. 
 Citizens killed over 800,000 sparrow birds. As a 
consequence there were major outbreaks of insect 
pests. 
 Realizing their mistake the leaders changed course 
and removed small birds from the list of scourges. 
 It is difficult to know precisely how the killing of 
birds by pesticides relates to pest insect 
populations. However, the estimated bird losses 
due to pesticides 67 million per year, far exceeds 
the 800,000 bird deaths in China that resulted in 
greater insect numbers.
OBJECTIVE: HOW CAN WE PREVENT THE DISTURBANCE OF 
Environment 
If gases concentration Increase 
by our activities , What happens 
to our Ecosystem ??? 
If we add large biodegradable 
pollutants & Nutrients, What 
happens to our Ecosystem ??? 
If we add heavy metals, What 
happens to our Ecosystem ??? 
If we add large amount of 
garbage, What happens to 
our Ecosystem ??? 
If we cut lot of trees, What 
happens to our Ecosystem ??? 
If we add DDT or other 
pesticides, What happens to 
food chain/food web of our 
Ecosystem ??? 
ECOSYSTEM 
OR HOW WE CAN RESTORE OUR ECOSYSTEM

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Introduction and ecology

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Part II Part I already covered by Civil Engg. Faculty
  • 2.  CE-102 Civil Engineering Department  Lectures: 3/week ; 21 total ; 3 credits  Evaluation : 50 marks MTE : 40 marks CW : 10 Tutorial, Assignments, Regularity in class Soft copy of lectures
  • 3. S. No. Name of Books/Author(s)/Publisher Year of Publ. 1 Introduction to Environmental Engineering, M.L. Davis and D.A. Cornwell, McGraw Hill, New York 3/e 1998 2 Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science, G.M. Masters, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi. 2/e 1998 3 Environmental Engineering, H.S. Peavy, D.R. Rowe and G. Tchobanoglous, McGraw Hill, New York 1986 Suggested Books
  • 4. Why environmental studies?  Intergovernmental Penal on Climate Change (IPCC), 1988 – 31st August 2013: 25 years – UNEP and WMO of United Nations Organization  Substantial changes are happening to our environment Air, water and soil being affected  2007 Nobel Peace Prize: IPCC R.K. Pachauri and Al Gore  US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)  Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi  State Pollution Control Boards  Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi
  • 5. Five elements 1. Water, जल 2. Air, वायु 3. Earth, पृथ्वी 4. Space, आकाश 5. Fire, अग्नि
  • 6. Water 1. All the living systems need water and contain water 2. Life on earth is due to water, 70% water cover 3. God of water, इन्द्र (Indra) 4. Ganga water, (Shelf life: long); BOD/COD 5. Water pollution Coca cola, Pepsi-CSE, New Delhi : Lindane, DDT etc. Effluents from industries and agrichemicals (Punjab hub of cancer patients) Ganga and Yamuna rivers Ground water, lakes, sea water is contaminated, treatment strategies of treatment already dealt with in first half of syllabus
  • 7. Air 1. Air needed by all the living systems 2. Without air no survival 3. God of air, वायु (Vayu), Prāna 4. Pranayam : oxygen transfer rate 5. 78.08% Nitrogen and 20.95% Oxygen + other gases 6. Combustion: CO2, NOx, SOx, SPM, RSPM, Hg, arsenic, HCs, VOCs etc. Paper industry: Dioxins 100 times lethal than cyanide Carbon dioxide: 400 ppm (May 2, 2013) 280 ppm (1750) Greenhouse gases: CO2, N2O, H2O, O3, CH4, CFCs
  • 8. Earth 1. We eat which is grown on earth 2. Photosynthesis process: biomass 3. Goddess of earth, पृथ्वी, Prithvi 4. Soil is getting contaminated Pollution air/water Mango trees near Roorkee: no fruits Micronutrients in herbs: much lower Sustainability ? Recent Uttarakhand tragedy-प्रलय (Havoc)
  • 9. Space 1. Solar energy 2. Photosynthesis process 3. Solar energy into biomass and other forms of energy: hydro, coal, petroleum, wind etc. 4. God of space, आकाश, Aakash 5. O3 depletion: CFCs and space shuttles, rockets etc. , UV radiations: human skin, cataract, plant kingdom damages, buildings ?
  • 10. Fire 1. Combustion 2. Carbon and Hydrogen 3. CI and SI engines, cooking, thermal power plants: steam and gas turbines, steam engine 4. Goddess of fire, अग्नि , Agni 5. Because of fire air pollution 6. Every thing is getting into CO2 and H2O which are converted back by photosynthesis process to complex biomass species and the process goes on …..goes on…..
  • 11. Environment 1.Atmosphere: layer of air that surrounds our planet 2.Hydrosphere: liquid envelop that surrounds our planet 3.Lithosphere: solid earth, including earth’s crust and part of the upper mantle 4.Biosphere: living organisms that inhabit the above spheres
  • 12. • Atmosphere…air to breathe • Hydrosphere …water to drink • Lithosphere …food to eat • Biosphere …food to eat Minutes without air Days w/o water Months w/o food Environment Resources: fossil fuels, ores, uranium, thorium
  • 14. Atmosphere Age of earth : 4.6 Billion year Oxygen : 0% 2 Billion years ago Total mass of atmosphere: 5*1015 Tonne :1/1,200,000 of earth Constant components (fix over time and location) Nitrogen 78.08% Oxygen 20.95% Argon 0.93% Neon, Helium, Krypton 0.0001%
  • 15. Atmosphere Variable components (variable with time and location) Carbon dioxide 0.04% Water vapor 0-4% Methane traces Sulfur dioxide traces Ozone traces Nitrogen oxides traces Others: dust, volcanic ash, snow and rain
  • 16. Layers of the Earth's atmosphere
  • 18. Vertical structure of atmospheric pressure
  • 19. Atmosphere zones The zones are not sharply delineated and their elevation varies with both time of year and latitude
  • 20. Troposphere 1.Thickness from sea level: 18 km; Everest 8848 m 2.Pressure at top is 10% of atmosphere 76 mm of Hg 3.Air movement is vertical as well horizontal 4.Weather/clouds formation/rains 5.Air cools progressively with height 6.Temperature: -6.5 oC/km next
  • 21. Tropopause 1.Thin layer between troposphere and stratosphere: 4 km 2.Air is completely dry 3.The elevation where the temperature no longer decreases with altitude next
  • 22. Stratosphere 1.This extends up to 50 km and comprises of ozone 2.Ozone is 2-8 ppm 3.In the middle and upper stratosphere, air temperature increases progressively with height 4.Heated by ozone next
  • 23. Stratopause The elevation where the temperature no longer increases with altitude
  • 24. Mesosphere 1.Mesosphere is from 50 to 90 km 2.Temperature again decreases here 3.Intermediate zone between stratosphere and thermosphere 4.Air cools progressively with elevation
  • 25. Mesopause The elevation above the mesosphere where the temperature no longer cools with altitude
  • 26. Ionosphere 1.Next is thermosphere or ionosphere extending to 350 km 2. Oxygen is in ionic form heat is absorbed 3. Temperate rises again
  • 27. Outer limit of atmosphere 1. Difficult to define 2. At 32,000 km, the Earth’s gravitation pull equals centrifugal force of the Earth’s rotation
  • 28. Ozone measurement Developed by G.M.B. Dobson, 1920s; Professor at Oxford University All the ozone over a certain area is compressed to oC and 1 atm and forms a 3 mm thick slab corresponding to 300 DU 1 DU = 0.01 mm thickness of ozone at oC and 1 atm (STP) US sky : 300 DU Minimum at Antarctica : 200 DU Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer Total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) Ozone holes: when concentration of ozone reduces more than 50% Antarctica: 25 million km2 in 2001
  • 29. Antarctic ozone Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
  • 30. Hydrosphere 1. 70.8% earth’s surface is covered by water 2. 60-70% of living world 3. Physiological reactions in aqueous phase 4. Total quantum of water : 1.4 B km3 5. Salty sea water : 97.6% 6. Fresh water : 2.4% 7. Renewable in nature next 8. Important food source 9. Easily polluted 10. Must be treated (already dealt in I part) 11. Major industrial and agriculture input
  • 32. Distribution of fresh water Location % of total Snow, ice, glaciers 86.9 Accessible ground water 12.0 Lakes, reservoirs, ponds 0.37 Saline lakes 0.31 Soil moisture 0.19 Moisture in living organisms 0.19 Atmosphere 0.039 Wetlands 0.011 Rivers, streams, canals 0.0051
  • 33. Freshwater as a resource in India Renewable through evaporation from the seas and precipitation (solar powered) Demands for freshwater include: Agriculture & livestock (79.6%) Power generation (13.6%) Domestic(3.5%) Industry (3.3%) Demands increase with increasing population Unequal distribution of freshwater Interlinking of rivers: solution of water problem
  • 35. Lithosphere 1.Land area: 26% 2.Supports all the living systems and provides a wealth of raw materials which has made the civilization to develop
  • 36. Lithosphere: India 2.4% of world’s land 15% of world’s population Per capita land availability, ha Russia 8.43 USA 7.39 Australia 6.60 China 0.98 India 0.48
  • 37. Lithosphere: India Land use categories, Mha Cultivable land 142 (46%) Forest land 67 (22%) Nonagricultural land 20 (6.5%) Barren and pasture land 55 (17.8%) Fallow land 25 (8.0%) Mineral exploration Rich in coal, crude, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, uranium, thorium etc.
  • 38. Lithosphere: India Food resource Self sufficient in agriculture produce I in world in sugar production I in milk production, 97 million tonnes Live stock, 25% of world Forest resource 21.68 % forest cover reduction in global warming
  • 39. What is Ecology?  Study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Ernst Haeckel – coined term Ecology in 1866 Greek word οἶκος, "house"; λογία, study of
  • 40. Levels of Organization  Ecologists study organisms ranging from the various levels of organization: – Species/individuals – Population – Community – Ecosystem – Biome – Biosphere
  • 41. Species  Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
  • 42. Population  group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area.
  • 43. Community  an assemblage of different populations that live together
  • 44. Ecosystem  Collection of organisms that live in a place with the nonliving environment
  • 45. Biome  Group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant communities Tropical rain forest Tropical dry forest Temperate grassland Desert Tropical savanna Temperate woodland and shrubland Temperate forest Northwestern coniferous forest Boreal forest (Taiga) Tundra Mountains and ice caps
  • 47. Characteristics of ecosystems • All ecosystems have a constant source of energy ( sun) • Cycles to reuse raw materials Water, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus cycles An ecosystem comprises of the biotic or living ( viz. plants and animals) and the abiotic or non-living components ( viz. air, water, minerals, soil)
  • 48. Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs  Autotrophs – make their own food so they are called PRODUCERS  Heterotrophs – get their food from another source so they are called CONSUMERS
  • 49. Main forms of energy for autotrophs  Sunlight – The main source of energy for life on earth – Photosynthesis: leaf a chemical reactor  Chemical – Inorganic compounds – Chemosynthesis : opium, ginseng, garlic (selenium)
  • 50. Types of Consumers Herbivores- only eat plants Carnivores - only eat meat Omnivores Eat plants and meat Detritivores and Decomposers Feed on plant and animal remains wildebeest
  • 51. Decomposers /detritivores Vultures vanished from India, Pakistan (DDT - cow/buffalos) Polythene/plastics: no decomposition; banning of PB by States, Uttarakhand, Choking of sewer lines; agriculture sector: moisture, nitrogen fixation, Spills of crude in oceans.
  • 52. Energy flow through an ecosystem  Energy flows through an ecosystem in ONE direction, – Sun – Autotrophs – Heterotrophs Synthetic fertilizers: N, P, K
  • 53. Energy flow in ecosystems
  • 54.
  • 55. Energy flow in ecosystems Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Respiration Stored energy is released in the reverse reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Released energy is available to drive other reactions, e.g. cell metabolism and growth I. C. engines/combustion processes same reaction Difference: temperature
  • 56. Feeding relationships  Food Chain – steps of organisms transferring energy by eating & being eaten  Food Web – network of all the food chains in an ecosystem
  • 58. Ecological pyramids  Trophic Level – each step in a food chain or food web Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Number Pyramid
  • 59.
  • 62. Why are nutrients important ?  Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. 95% of our body is made of… 1) OXYGEN 2) CARBON 3) HYDROGEN 4) NITROGEN
  • 63. Availability of nutrients  If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit organisms growth. It is called a limiting nutrient and is in accordance of Leibig’s Law  When a limiting nutrient is dumped into a lake or pond, an algal bloom occurs and this can disrupt the ecosystem
  • 64. Matter movement through an ecosystem  Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within & between ecosystems  Nutrients are passed between organisms & the environment through biogeochemical cycles  Biogeochemical Cycles – Bio –life – Geo – Earth – Chemi – chemical 1. WATER CYCLE 2. NUTRIENT CYCLES a) CARBON CYCLE b) NITROGEN CYCLE c) PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
  • 66. CARBON CYCLE 4 PROCESSES MOVE CARBON THROUGH ITS CYCLE: 1) Biological 2) Geochemical 3) Mixed biochemical 4) Human Activity CO2 CO2
  • 68. GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE (All values are in Billion Metric Tons Carbon)
  • 69. NITROGEN CYCLE Nitrogen-containing nutrients in the biosphere include: 1) Ammonia (NH3) 2) Nitrate (NO3-) 3) Nitrite (NO2-) ORGANISMS NEED NITROGEN TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS FOR BUILDING PROTEINS!!! N2 in Atmosphere NH3 N03- & N02-
  • 70. N2 in Atmosphere NH3 N03- & N02- Haber process: 1918 Nobel Prize
  • 71. PHOSPHORUS CYCLE PHOSPHORUS FORMS PART OF IMPORTANT LIFE-SUSTAINING MOLECULES (ex. DNA & RNA) Cold drinks; pH: 3 phosphoric acid Phosphatic fertilizers
  • 72. Natural succession  Well Balanced Ecosystem changes over time  Lake Shallow Lake (deposition of Silt) Marsh Meadow Hardwood Forest  Takes place long period of time and not visible in human lifespan  Can be affected by human activities such as pollution
  • 73. ACCUMULATION OF POLLUTANTS IN ENVIRONMENT 1.Conservative Pollutants: Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cynide, selenium etc. heavy metals (mercury, copper, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, zinc, tin etc. ) 2. Nonconservative pollutants: biodegradable organics, human waste, animal waste
  • 74. ACCUMULATION OF POLLUTANTS Bioaccumulation/Bioconcentration increase in concentration of a pollutant from the environment to the first organism in a food chain: a pesticide in a crop Biomagnification increase in concentration of a pollutant from one link in a food chain to another: a pesticide in a crop Conditions:  long life  soluble in fats: animal life/human life  biologically active chicken human
  • 75. Biomagnification Case study: Long Island Estuary, New York, USA Levels of DDT, 1967 study, EPA water to zooplankton 800x zooplankton to fish #1 31x fish #1 to fish #2 1.7x fish #2 to gull 4.8x Overall 202,368x
  • 76. Biomagnification The level at which a given substance is bioaccumulated depends on :  The rate of uptake  The mode of uptake (through the gills of a fish, ingested along with food, contact with epidermis (skin) etc. …)  How quickly the substance is eliminated from the organism, transformation of the substance by metabolic processes, the lipid (fat) content of the organism, the hydrophobicity of the substance, environmental factors etc.
  • 77. Conservative pollutants: Biomagnification  Biomagnification is the bioaccumulation of a substance up the food chain by transfer of residues of the substance in smaller organisms that are food for larger organisms in the chain.  Sequence of processes that results in higher concentrations in organisms at higher levels in the food chain (at higher trophic levels).  These processes result in an organism having higher concentrations of a substance than is present in the organism’s food.
  • 78. Biomagnification  When partitioning concentrates a chemical in one phase that is the food for a higher phase, the chemical can further concentrate as we move up the food chain
  • 79. Bioconcentration / Bioaccumulation Bioconcentration of a substance is correlated to the octanol-water partitioning coefficient (or Haunsch partitioning Coefficient) KOW of the substance. The octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW) is defined as the ratio of a chemical's concentration in the octanol phase to its concentration in the aqueous phase of a two-phase octanol/water system. KOW = Concentration in octanol phase / Concentration in aqueous phase. Values of KOW can be considered to have some meaning in themselves, since they represent the tendency of the chemical to partition itself between an organic phase (e.g., a fish) and an aqueous phase.
  • 80. Bioconcentration / Bioaccumulation Chemicals with low KOW values (e.g., less than 10) may be considered relatively hydrophilic; they tend to have high water solubilities, small soil/sediment adsorption coefficients, and small bioconcentration factors for aquatic life. Conversely, chemicals with high KOW values (e.g., greater than 104) are very hydrophobic.
  • 81. Bioconcentration / Bioaccumulation  Bioconcentration factor (BCF) is the concentration of a particular chemical in a tissue per concentration of chemical in water (reported as l/kg). This physical property characterizes the accumulation of pollutants through chemical partitioning from the aqueous phase into an organic phase, such as fish.  BCF = [Concentration of X in Organism, mg/kg ] / [Concentration of X in Environment, mg/l]  High potential BCF>1000; Moderate Potential 1000>BCF>250; Low potential 250>BCF. BCF is also related to the Haunsch Partition Coefficient by log BCF = 0.79 x log KOW - 0.4
  • 82. Example  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has a water to plankton partition coefficient of 200,000; a plankton to smelt (fish) magnification factor of 7.5; and a smelt to lake trout magification factor of 3.5. If the concentration of HCB in the water is 1.0 ppt, will either fish exceed the fish consumption standards: 5 ppm for general consumption 1 ppm for pregnant and nursing women
  • 83. Solution mg kg 0.2 ng kg plankton       2 x 10 5 2 x 10 5 ng 1 L L kg plankton water p/w               C       C C K   mg kg 1.5 mg   7.5 7.5 0.2 smelt plankton    kg     C  C    mg kg 5.25 mg   3.5 3.5 1.5 trout smelt    kg     C  C 
  • 84. Interpretation  The lake trout exceed the general consumption standard and both species exceed the standard for pregnant and nursing women  Both could easily argued on the basis of uncertainty
  • 85. PCB  PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls): Insulating materials in transformers: impair thyroid functions and neurotoxins.  General Electric Released during 1947-1977 in Hudson River, 300 km of Hudson River polluted  Concentrated in bottom sediments—Consumed by riverbed microorganisms-eaten by fish 2 ppm conc.  Contaminated sediments are removed, extensive dredging & proper disposed off
  • 86. Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethne (DDT) Half life 15 years Year Amount Remaining 0 100 kg 15 50 kg 30 25 kg 45 12.5 kg 60 6.25 kg 75 3.13 kg 90 1.56 kg 105 0.78 kg 120 0.39 kg
  • 87. DDT Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethne  Used for malaria control and to protect crops from insects  Biomagnification, not very toxic to human but adverse impact of egg hatching by birds.  Banned in 1972 and many bird population have recovered.  In India thousands of tons of DDT was used to control malarial mosquitoes between 1995 and 1996.  Large numbers of vultures dying and have high levels of DDT in their carcasses.  Vultures are at the same level of the food chain as humans and serve as sentinels warning of greater pesticide hazards through indirect effects unless there is a change in the Indian government's pesticide policy.
  • 88.  Birds provide a valuable service to growers and to the public through controlling insects.  In 1950 Chinese officials grew concerned that flocks of birds were allegedly devouring large amounts of grain.  Citizens killed over 800,000 sparrow birds. As a consequence there were major outbreaks of insect pests.  Realizing their mistake the leaders changed course and removed small birds from the list of scourges.  It is difficult to know precisely how the killing of birds by pesticides relates to pest insect populations. However, the estimated bird losses due to pesticides 67 million per year, far exceeds the 800,000 bird deaths in China that resulted in greater insect numbers.
  • 89. OBJECTIVE: HOW CAN WE PREVENT THE DISTURBANCE OF Environment If gases concentration Increase by our activities , What happens to our Ecosystem ??? If we add large biodegradable pollutants & Nutrients, What happens to our Ecosystem ??? If we add heavy metals, What happens to our Ecosystem ??? If we add large amount of garbage, What happens to our Ecosystem ??? If we cut lot of trees, What happens to our Ecosystem ??? If we add DDT or other pesticides, What happens to food chain/food web of our Ecosystem ??? ECOSYSTEM OR HOW WE CAN RESTORE OUR ECOSYSTEM