MENC AND THECONTEMPORARY Highlights from:MUSIC CMP in Perspective Presentation byPROJECT Stacy Larson
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The second half of the 20th century brought many changes to education, including music * Federal government became much more involved in public education Not-for-profit organizations became involved in arts education Music education struggled as a profession to connect with a more modern and changing society * MENC (Music Educators National Conference—now known as the National Association for Music Education) had been trying to interest members in using more 20th-century music * (Mark and Gary 407, 412)
FORD FOUNDATION 1957—Ford Foundation examined the place of the arts in the US Norman Dello Joio suggested that young composers be placed in public schools 1959—Young Composers Project Grant from the Ford Foundation, administered by MENC Placed 31 composers in public school systems in 3 years One of the first examples of successful cooperation between composers and educators Program was a huge success, but pointed out that teachers were poorly prepared to teach contemporary music
CONTEMPORARY MUSIC PROJECT 1962—New proposal from MENC suggested continuation/expansion of the Young Composers Project 1963—Success of Young Composers Project elevated its status from a pilot project to one of Ford Foundation’s ten major programs $1.38 million grant (over 5-year period) Contemporary Music Project for Creativity in Music Education (came to be called CMP) 1968—Ford Foundation extended its support of CMP Additional $1.34 million for another 5 years MENC also contributed $50,000 each year
PURPOSES OF CMP1. To increase the emphasis on the creative aspect of music in the public schools.2. To create a solid foundation or environment in the music education profession for the acceptance, through understanding, of the contemporary music idiom.3. To reduce the compartmentalization which now exists between the professors of music composition and music education for the benefit of composers and music educators alike.4. To cultivate taste and discrimination on the part of music educators and students regarding the quality of contemporary music in schools.5. To discover, when possible, creative talent among the students in schools.
3 MAJOR PROGRAMS OF CMP Program I: Professionals-in-Residence to Communities Continuation/Expansion of the Young Composers Project Professional musicians were placed in residence in scattered communities throughout the US 59 composers and/or professional musicians were involved over the 10- year period of the program Professionals were to “serve the cultural interests of these communities and innovations among the various artistic, civic, and educational institutions in the communities” Workshops and seminars were added to educate teachers about contemporary music through analyzing, performing & creating music
3 MAJOR PROGRAMS OF CMP Program II: Teaching of Comprehensive Musicianship Grants given to develop a variety of approaches that could be used in teaching comprehensive musicianship Course sequences, syllabi, institutional approaches All grade levels: elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate 1965—Seminar on Comprehensive Musicianship held at Northwestern University Developed and implemented ways to improve education of music teachers
3 MAJOR PROGRAMS OF CMP Program III: Complementary Activities Variety of ways of communicating the work of CMP Consultative services to schools and universities Workshops and courses for school music teachers and college faculty Presentations at state, regional, and national music education conventions Publications and articles Instructional film on the common elements of music National conferences on College Music Curricula, which explored the rationale of comprehensive musicianship as a basis for the total college music curriculum
COMPREHENSIVE MUSICIANSHIP(CM) “A concept about the teaching and learning of music based on the ideas that music is more than composition or theory or performance or pedagogy” Provided a focus for an entire music curriculum so that students could synthesize material and see relationships between all activities Process-centered approach included performing, organizing, and describing ** Done through experiences in analysis, composition, improvisation, performance Furthered CMP’s goal of reducing the “compartmentalization” in the music profession ** ** (Hoffer 79)
CM IN THE CLASSROOM Integration: Skills and information are acquired in the context of the analysis, composition, or performance of music Breadth and depth: Subjects that are deemed most important might be explored across a variety of time periods and cultures Involvement: Students are active and can apply ideas and information through projects of composition, performance, or research Independence: Students take increased responsibility for their own learning
BROADENING THE SCOPE Comprehensive musicianship went beyond the current traditional music curriculum to show how various aspects of music relate to each other. * Examples of comprehensive musicianship in the curriculum: A studio instructor goes beyond the performance of a musical work and points out theoretical and historical aspects A choral director discusses the relationship between music and art across all time periods from medieval to modern An instrumental conductor involves students deeply in listening, composing, improvising, and performing An elementary general music teacher allows students to encounter music spanning from past to present, from a combination of ethnic, Eastern , and Western classical traditions * (Mark and Gary 408)
PROGRAM REFLECTION When the program ended in 1973, the goal of CMP “to provide a synthesis, a focus, for disparate activities in music, in order to give them a cohesion and relevance in our society, to its cultural and educational institutions and organizations” had been fulfilled At the time, MENC hoped that CMP had left a legacy for those regularly responsible for the quality and scope of the musical life of this and future generations
IMPACTS ON MUSIC EDUCATION CMP provided challenges, developed methodology and materials, and gave music education a new direction * Music teachers became more conscious of the need to teach and use contemporary music ** Elementary school music series books now contain examples of various types of contemporary music Publishers have brought out more contemporary materials for use by school groups Music education grew into a profession that was more receptive to the changes and innovations of society * (Mark and Gary 409) ** (Hoffer 79)
BIBLIOGRAPHY“CMP in Perspective.” Music Educators Journal. 59.9 (1973): 34-47. Print.Mark, Michael L. and Charles L. Gary. A History of American Music Education. 3rd ed. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.Hoffer, Charles R. Introduction to Music Education. 3rd ed. Long Grove: Waveland, 2009. Print.