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NEUROTRANSMITTERS & RECEPTORS
IN ANS
PRESENTED BY:
HEENA PARVEEN,
M.PHARMACOLOGY,
ASST.PROFESSOR.
At the effector organs, sympathetic ganglionic neurons release
noradrenaline (norepinephrine), along with other cotransmitters such
as ATP, to act on adrenergic receptors, with the exception of the sweat
glands and the adrenal medulla.
Acetylcholine is the preganglionic neurotransmitter for both divisions of
the ANS, as well as the postganglionic neurotransmitter of
parasympathetic neurons.
Nerves that release acetylcholine are said to be cholinergic. In the
parasympathetic system, ganglionic neurons use acetylcholine as a
neurotransmitter to stimulate muscarinic receptors.
At the adrenal medulla, there is no postsynaptic neuron. Instead the
presynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine to act on nicotinic receptors.
Stimulation of the adrenal medulla releases adrenaline (epinephrine) into
the bloodstream, which acts on adrenoceptors, thereby indirectly
mediating or mimicking sympathetic activity.
Receptors:
The parasympathetic nervous system uses chiefly acetylcholine (ACh) as
its neurotransmitter, although peptides (such as cholecystokinin) can
be used.
The Ach acts on two types of receptors,
The Muscarinic and Nicotinic cholinergic receptors.
Most transmissions occur in two stages:
When stimulated, the preganglionic neuron releases Ach at the ganglion,
which acts on nicotinic receptors of postganglionic neurons.
The postganglionic neuron then releases ACh to stimulate the muscarinic
receptors of the target organ.
Types of muscarinic receptors
The five main types of muscarinic receptors:
 The M1 muscarinic receptors are located in the neural system.
 The M2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart, and act to bring
the heart back to normal after the actions of the sympathetic nervous
system: slowing down the heart rate, reducing contractile forces of
the atrial cardiac muscle, and reducing conduction velocity of
the sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node. They have a minimal
effect on the contractile forces of the ventricular muscle due to sparse
innervation of the ventricles from the parasympathetic nervous
system.
 The M3 muscarinic receptors are located at many places in the body,
such as the endothelial cells of blood vessels, as well as the lungs
causing bronchoconstriction.
The net effect of innervated M3 receptors on blood vessels
is vasodilation, as acetylcholine causes endothelial cells to
produce nitric oxide, which diffuses to smooth muscle and results in
vasodilation.
They are also in the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, which
help in increasing intestinal motility and dilating sphincters.
The M3 receptors are also located in many glands that help to stimulate
secretion in salivary glands and other glands of the body.
They are also located on the detrusor muscle and urothelium of the
bladder, causing contraction.
 The M4 muscarinic receptors: Postganglionic cholinergic nerves,
possible CNS effects
 The M5 muscarinic receptors: Possible effects on the CNS
Types of nicotinic receptors
In vertebrates, nicotinic receptors are broadly classified into two
subtypes based on their primary sites of expression:
Muscle-type nicotinic receptors (N1) primarily for somatic motor
neurons;
And
Neuronal-type nicotinic receptors (N2) primarily for autonomic
nerurons.
Th9k uh!

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NEUROTRANSMITTERS & RECEPTORS IN THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • 1. NEUROTRANSMITTERS & RECEPTORS IN ANS PRESENTED BY: HEENA PARVEEN, M.PHARMACOLOGY, ASST.PROFESSOR.
  • 2. At the effector organs, sympathetic ganglionic neurons release noradrenaline (norepinephrine), along with other cotransmitters such as ATP, to act on adrenergic receptors, with the exception of the sweat glands and the adrenal medulla. Acetylcholine is the preganglionic neurotransmitter for both divisions of the ANS, as well as the postganglionic neurotransmitter of parasympathetic neurons. Nerves that release acetylcholine are said to be cholinergic. In the parasympathetic system, ganglionic neurons use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter to stimulate muscarinic receptors.
  • 3. At the adrenal medulla, there is no postsynaptic neuron. Instead the presynaptic neuron releases acetylcholine to act on nicotinic receptors. Stimulation of the adrenal medulla releases adrenaline (epinephrine) into the bloodstream, which acts on adrenoceptors, thereby indirectly mediating or mimicking sympathetic activity. Receptors: The parasympathetic nervous system uses chiefly acetylcholine (ACh) as its neurotransmitter, although peptides (such as cholecystokinin) can be used. The Ach acts on two types of receptors, The Muscarinic and Nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Most transmissions occur in two stages: When stimulated, the preganglionic neuron releases Ach at the ganglion, which acts on nicotinic receptors of postganglionic neurons. The postganglionic neuron then releases ACh to stimulate the muscarinic receptors of the target organ.
  • 4. Types of muscarinic receptors The five main types of muscarinic receptors:  The M1 muscarinic receptors are located in the neural system.  The M2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart, and act to bring the heart back to normal after the actions of the sympathetic nervous system: slowing down the heart rate, reducing contractile forces of the atrial cardiac muscle, and reducing conduction velocity of the sinoatrial node and atrioventricular node. They have a minimal effect on the contractile forces of the ventricular muscle due to sparse innervation of the ventricles from the parasympathetic nervous system.
  • 5.  The M3 muscarinic receptors are located at many places in the body, such as the endothelial cells of blood vessels, as well as the lungs causing bronchoconstriction. The net effect of innervated M3 receptors on blood vessels is vasodilation, as acetylcholine causes endothelial cells to produce nitric oxide, which diffuses to smooth muscle and results in vasodilation. They are also in the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, which help in increasing intestinal motility and dilating sphincters. The M3 receptors are also located in many glands that help to stimulate secretion in salivary glands and other glands of the body. They are also located on the detrusor muscle and urothelium of the bladder, causing contraction.  The M4 muscarinic receptors: Postganglionic cholinergic nerves, possible CNS effects  The M5 muscarinic receptors: Possible effects on the CNS
  • 6. Types of nicotinic receptors In vertebrates, nicotinic receptors are broadly classified into two subtypes based on their primary sites of expression: Muscle-type nicotinic receptors (N1) primarily for somatic motor neurons; And Neuronal-type nicotinic receptors (N2) primarily for autonomic nerurons.
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