ans lecture1

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  • Just a few reminders before we get started This is the second year that I have taught this course and second year I have used the projector. If you are having problems reading the slides, please talk to me after class, we can try and change the formatting, lighting etc. I have placed information on different ways to contact me with questions. I However, if you have major problems, please call or email me to set up an appointment. Just like you have other classes, I also have other responsibilities, so be respectful.
  • ans lecture1

    1. 1. Why Study the Autonomic Nervous System? Therapeutics ANS Pharmacology Disease State Management Medicinal Chemistry Pathophysiology
    2. 2. Organization of The Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Parasympathetic
    3. 3. How do we define neuron types in the ANS? Parasympathetic Sympathetic Acetylcholine Muscarine Nicotine Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
    4. 5. Action Potential Na + Ca 2+ ACH Acetylcholinesterase Na + Parasympathetic Ganglionic Synapse Preganglionic neuron Postganglionic neuron Nicotinic Receptor   
    5. 6. Action Potential Ca 2+ ACH Acetylcholinesterase Parasympathetic Organ Synapse K + G Effector Organ Postganglionic neuron Muscarinic Receptor Na +
    6. 7. Summary of parasympathetic neurons and synapses <ul><li>Preganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Long </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse with postganglionic neurons at or near organ </li></ul><ul><li>Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Postganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Short </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse on the target organ </li></ul><ul><li>Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate muscarinic receptors on the target organ </li></ul>
    7. 9. Action Potential Na + Ca 2+ ACH Acetylcholinesterase Na + Sympathetic Ganglionic Synapse Preganglionic neuron Postganglionic neuron Nicotinic Receptor   
    8. 10. Action Potential Ca 2+ NE Sympathetic Organ Synapse G Effector Organ Postganglionic neuron Adrenergic Receptor Na +
    9. 11. Summary of sympathetic neurons and synapses <ul><li>Preganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Short </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse with postganglionic neurons near spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Postganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Long </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse on the target organ </li></ul><ul><li>Release norepinephrine to activate adrenergic receptors on target organs </li></ul>
    10. 12. <ul><li>Sweat glands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postganglionic neurons involved with stress-related excretion release norepinephrine (“sweaty palms”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postganglionic neurons involved with thermoregulation release acetylcholine </li></ul></ul>Exceptions in the sympathetic nervous system:
    11. 13. <ul><li>Kidneys: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Postganglionic neurons to the smooth muscle of the renal vascular bed release dopamine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenal gland: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preganglionic neurons do not synapse in the paraverterbral sympathetic ganglion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preganglionic neurons synapse directly on the adrenal gland, release acetylcholine, and activate nicotinic receptors on the adrenal gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal glands release epinephrine into systemic circulation </li></ul></ul>Exceptions in the sympathetic nervous system: Most postganglionic sympathetic neurons release what neurotransmitter?
    12. 14. How do drugs influence the ANS? <ul><li>Mimic or block the effects of the two primary neurotransmitters, Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine/Epinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs that mimic neurotransmitters are referred to as “ receptor agonists ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These drugs activate receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drugs that block neurotransmitters are referred to as “ receptor antagonists ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These drugs block the endogenous neurotransmitters from activating receptors </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. Classification of drugs affecting the ANS <ul><li>Parasympathetic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Mimic acetylcholine = cholinergic = muscarinic agonists = parasympathomimetic </li></ul><ul><li>Block acetylcholine = anticholinergic = muscarinic antagonist = parasympatholytic </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Mimic norepinephrine = adrenergic = adrenergic agonist = sympathomimetic </li></ul><ul><li>Block norepinephrine = antiadrenergic = adrenergic antagonist = sympatholytic </li></ul>

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